Lead Research Organisation: University of Warwick
Department Name: Sch of Engineering


In order to gain access to the many services and benefits of society, individuals are increasingly required to provide personal information via the Internet to companies, government bodies and other institutions. It is likely that this will continue, as the government agenda (see [1]), envisages the Internet being central to the delivery of benefits to the UK citizen in the future, a vision that is shared across Europe and beyond (see [2]). However, there is also a growing unease about this phenomenon. The incidence of identity fraud and other crimes continues to climb as the use and transfer of digital personal information increases. The recent loss of two HMRC disks containing the child benefit details of 25 million people has highlighted public concerns about the use, storage and transfer of personal data between government institutions. It has also illustrated the lack of regulatory powers that exist, as the Information Commissioner, Richard Thomas, has called for increased powers and sanctions, in order to 'send a very strong signal that it is completely unacceptable to be cavalier with people's personal information' (see [3]). In December 2007 the Prime Minister established an independent inquiry with the explicit purpose of making 'recommendations on how data sharing policy should be developed in a way that ensures proper transparency, scrutiny and accountability' (see [4]). These events illustrate two things: firstly, that individuals have very little control over how their personal information is used once it has been passed to a third party; and secondly that, regulators are currently ill-equipped to monitor and protect against breaches of privacy.The EnCoRe project seeks to develop innovative technological mechanisms to enable and simplify the process of giving and revoking consent for the storage and use of personal data. EnCoRe will provide a methodology by which systems can be designed and delivered to utilise personal data, but give direct and transparent control to individuals, thus enabling them, in appropriate circumstances, to have the ability to determine how their personal information is used and to take charge of securing their own privacy. If successful, EnCoRe would redress the imbalances that are perceived to exist, by placing an increased emphasis on individuals' ability to negotiate how personal information is used, which would complement any changes to the Information Commissioner's oversight and compliance powers, but would also be in alignment with the direction of emerging business practice.[1] Cabinet Office. (2005). Transformational government: Enabled by technology (No. Cm6683). Archived at http://www.cio.gov.uk/documents/pdf/transgov/transgov-strategy.pdf[2] See, for example, Dunleavy, P., Margetts, H., Bastow, S., & Tinkler, J. (2006). Digital era governance: IT corporations, the state and e-government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.[3] S Bridge, 'Give Me More Power, Information Watchdog to tell MPs' The Guardian, 4 December 2007[4] Thomas R. & Walport M., Data Sharing Review- A consultation paper on the use and sharing of personal information in the public and private sectors 12th December 2007, 1-12; 1. http://www.justice.gov.uk/reviews/datasharing-intro.htm


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Description Our EnCoRe research has helped us to develop a new privacy risk assessment methodology, in conjunction with our partners at QinetiQ. This will help organisations to ensure that they take into account any risks to peoples personal data, alongside risks to do with availability, confidentiality and integrity.

We have also discovered a new logic for describing consent and revocation requirements around the handling and use of peoples' personal data.
Exploitation Route Our privacy risk assessment methodology can be used by cyber-security practitioners, particularly those advising organisations who store huge amounts of said data.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software)

Financial Services

and Management Consultancy

Security and Diplomacy

Description It is our understanding that the privacy risk assessment method has been utilised inside the professional services at QinetiQ.
First Year Of Impact 2010
Sector Other
Impact Types Policy & public services

Description EnCoRe identity management policy engagement
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact In the context of the EnCoRe project we, alongside other members of the project, directly tool part in various stakeholder engagements being held as part of the Identity Assurance Taskforce at the Cabinet Office. This gave us the opportunity to promote our thinking about the need for more effective consent and revocation lifecycle management around personal data usage.
Description Privacy risk assessments -> commercial practice
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Our research in partnership with QinetiQ resulted in a new privacy orientated risk assessment approach that QinetiQ have utilised in the context of their risk assessment practice.
Description EnCoRe - HP 
Organisation HP Laboratories
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We collaborated closely with HP on various aspects of the project's research. Specifically, we designed a consent and revocation logic which helped formalise requirements for various of the HP technology solutions. We also collaborated closely on a privacy compliance monitoring architecture, designed to integrate with the HP EnCoRe architecture, and on the design of privacy-testing frameworks. This research also underpinned the HP research on sticky-policy.
Collaborator Contribution The key objectives of HP Labs in the EnCoRe project were to: • Actively contribute and make major progress in the space of consent and revocation that can be later on exploited by HP and HP Labs; • Obtain new know-how and expertise in the space of privacy management, dynamic consent in a variety of contexts, with a multi-disciplinary approach, to be leveraged in new R&D and business initiatives HP Labs have been key contributors in EnCoRe in setting directions for the project and leading the technical work in terms of architecture, practical solutions and demonstrators. Specifically they fully designed the EnCoRe Technical Architecture, as well as the HPL EnCoRe Service Framework, a fully working, reference implementation of the Architecture. Finally, the capabilities developed in EnCoRe and by HP Labs (architecture and EnCore Service Framework) directly influenced the future research directions of HP (new R&D projects) and well as exploitation opportunities with HP businesses, in particular HP Enterprise Security Solutions (managed services, consulting, IAM practice) and the HP Privacy Office (consulting, know-how, knowledge transfer).
Impact - collaborative research papers - concept development - technology demonstrators
Start Year 2008
Description EnCoRe - HWComms 
Organisation HW Communications Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We worked very closely with HW Comms on their Dynamic Consent Enterprise Framework. Specifically, they used our research into privacy testing strategies when developing their prototypes. They also utilised our research into the dynamics of consent, and in particular our formalisation of requirements using a consent and revocation logic, to help identify requirements for their Framework. Our research (in collaboration with QinetiQ) into privacy risk assessments also influenced their Framework, specifically by highlighting possible risks that the Framework must be able to help mitigate.
Collaborator Contribution The HW Comms Dynamic Consent Enterprise Framework which was fully developed within the project and integrated 2 prototypes in the context of the first 2 case studies (Enterprise Data and Oxford Biobank) and has been matured and further validated by a re-configuration trial for the cabinet office case study. All 3 of these encapsulations provide the required capabilities for dynamic consent in and across Enterprises. These prototypes have grounded the EnCoRe concepts and technical details in specific areas and have been instrumental both in gathering additional requirements and illustrating EnCoRe to potential adopters.
Impact - The TEASE project collaboration with HW Comms directly resulted from the relationship developed in the context of the EnCoRE project. - research papers - technology demonstrator trials
Start Year 2008
Description EnCoRe - Helex/Ethox at University of Oxford 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Centre for Health, Law and Emerging Technologies
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We worked with Helex on the consent and revocation requirements for our logic and the trials of the project - specifically they helped us to take account of the legal environment and ethical views of the day.
Collaborator Contribution Helex brought the legal and ethical context which we needed to be mindful of, and also supplied the BioBank expertise and case study, and stimulated the NHS engagement more widely.
Impact - case studies and trials held within the project
Start Year 2008
Description EnCoRe - LSE 
Organisation London School of Economics and Political Science (University of London)
Department LSE Cities
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We worked closely with Edgar Whitely at LSE on the policy engagement aspects of the EnCoRe project, and in particular around engagements with the Cabinet Office on their Identity Management programme (at the time). We also collaborated closely with Edgar on the user / focus groups where our doctoral student engaged in order to develop his ideas for the consent and revocation dynamics logic, used by the project for documenting requirements for the EnCoRe system.
Collaborator Contribution Edgar at LSE led all of the focus groups and the 'coding' effort to extract insights into requirements from the stakeholders.
Impact - insights in requirements for the consent and revocation logic - engagement with UK Cabinet Office on Identity - engagement around various trials of the project
Start Year 2008
Description EnCoRe - QinetiQ 
Organisation Qinetiq
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We worked closely with the team at QinetiQ on the development of a privacy risk assessment methodology for use within the EnCoRe project as part of the wider governance processes put around the adoption of EnCoRe systems.
Collaborator Contribution QinetiQ led the work on the privacy risk assessment using their professional experience in deploying good practice risk assessments techniques as enshrined in the ISO27000(x) series of standards.
Impact - a privacy risk assessment methodology which QinetiQ have been considering for use in their consultancy offerings
Start Year 2008
Description Dissemination into Office for Cyber Security and Information Assurance, UK Cabinet Office 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The run-time compliance research undertaken in the EnCoRe project was related to the Director of the CSIA at Cabinet Office in order to encourage consideration of how the UK might develop away from a tick-box approach to auditing compliance - with particular reference to the new cyber-essentials guidance being developed by UK government.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
Description Dissemination of dynamic consent concepts to broad science base - with focus on medicine related personal data 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Publication in the British Medical Journal Rapid Letter Response in order to build the profile and awareness of the EnCoRe research in general, and specifically on the issue of needing better and richer ways of putting consent and revocation controls around personal data in the medical space.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011