High power mm and sub-mm wave amplifiers for high frequency ESR/DNP, high resolution radar and remote sensing

Lead Research Organisation: University of Strathclyde
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

In a gyrotron, electrons gyrating in a magnetic field are coupled to electromagnetic radiation in such a manner that the radiation is amplified by extracting the electron kinetic energy. We will investigate a novel concept which uses a helical corrugation on the inside surface of a 'cylindrical' waveguide to radically modify the wave dispersion giving eigenmodes with finite, constant group velocity in the region of near infinite phase velocity. This novel dispersion opens up for the first time the potential for a high power (5kW), broadband (10%), high gain >40dB, efficient (30%) gyrotron amplifier in the 90GHz to 100GHz frequency range and above. We have performed a preliminary experiment at X-band (8GHz to 10GHz) frequencies and will build on our lead to create an amplifier in the W-band (90GHz to 100GHz) frequency band based on the best understanding of this new concept and perform precision measurements of its gain, bandwidth, efficiency and stability against oscillations. New theory and computational models benchmarked against W-band experimental data will be used to demonstrate the potential for this novel amplifier to generate high frequency (360GHz to 400GHz and 460GHz to 500GHz), high power (~0.5kW), broadband (10%), pulsed and continuous coherent radiation crucially needed by the many known applications.

Publications

10 25 50

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Cairns R (2009) Beam-Plasma Interactions

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Constable D (2012) Numerical simulations of a co-harmonic gyrotron in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics

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Constable DA (2010) A novel cylindrical TE(2,1) mode converter. in The Review of scientific instruments

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Donaldson C (2010) A cusp electron gun for millimeter wave gyrodevices in Applied Physics Letters

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Donaldson C (2013) A W-Band Multi-Layer Microwave Window for Pulsed Operation of Gyro-Devices in IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters

 
Description A high-power, W-band, millimetre-wave, 90-100GHz, novel helical waveguide tunable gyro-BWO has been designed, constructed and has been successfully operated. The corresponding gyro-amplifier has been designed and is under construction and measurement with the prospect of successful operation during 2013. The foundations have also been laid for further extension of these sources to even higher operating frequencies. Follow-on research projects involving applications of these novel sources in biomedical research and weather radars is starting. The performance of the W-band gyro-amplifier has been successfully measured and the results have been subsequently published in the high quality journal Physical Review Letters. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.184801
Exploitation Route The results of this gyro-device research can be applied in improving NMR sensitivity for biomedical research and in future cloud radars.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Electronics,Energy,Environment,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Other

URL https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.184801
 
Description The interactions with industry based on the findings made during the period of research have continued to increase in the years after this award finished. Radiation sources and amplifiers, in the spectral region from microwave to terahertz, are extensively used in UK industry and public sectors such as security, defence, health and the environment. Companies, including e2v Technologies plc. (e2v) and TMD Technologies Ltd. (TMD), have developed and sold new radiation products based on post-1996 research undertaken at the University of Strathclyde. Their devices accessed new frequency ranges with considerable increases in power and bandwidth. The designs were transferred to industry, where devices have been constructed, jobs created, policy changed and considerable investments made. These sources have had extensive beneficial impact through applications in defence, surveillance, materials processing, health sciences and environmental monitoring. .
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Electronics,Energy,Environment,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Other
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Research Grant EOARD, AFOSR, USA
Amount $150,000 (USD)
Funding ID FA8655-13-1-2132 
Organisation European Office of Aerospace Research & Development (EOARD) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2012 
End 12/2017
 
Description Services Rendered Grant for BAE Systems
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation BAE Systems 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2014 
End 03/2014
 
Description Services rendered research/advice/consultancy
Amount £191,517 (GBP)
Organisation BAE Systems 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description Joint research with Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution University of Strathclyde researchers worked on this project with researchers from Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC)
Collaborator Contribution STFC researchers contributed their skill and expertise in constructing the novel helical waveguides.
Impact Research reports and future collaborations
Start Year 2009
 
Description Research collaboration with Institute of Applied Physics, RAS 
Organisation Russian Academy of Sciences
Department Institute of Applied Physics
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Host : Hosting academic visitor : Several visits of researchers from the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia to Strathclyde University for research collaborations.
Collaborator Contribution Extensive research expertise in gyro-devices
Impact Several publications in international refereed journals have joint-authorships arising out of this collaboration.
 
Description Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, Lecture to College in Plasma Physics 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker : Participation in conference : Invited presentation at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics College in Plasma Physics 10-28 August 2009, Trieste, Italy "Long wavelength free electron lasers: modelling and experiments"
.Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics College in Plasma Physics

Requests from international students to come to the University of Strathclyde to study and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
URL http://www.ictp.tv/eya/plasma09.php
 
Description Invited Seminar at Glasgow University, Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Visitor : Invited talk : Invited Seminar at Glasgow University
.

Several enquiries from students interested in entering plasma physics as a research career.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Research collaboration with Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russsia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop Facilitator and Invited Keynote Speaker: International Scientific Workshops held in Russia in 2008, 2011 and 2014
Host : Hosting academic visitor : Several visits of researchers from the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia to Strathclyde University for research collaborations.
.

Several collaborative research papers were published in international refereed journals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2008,2011,2014
 
Description UK/Europe-China International Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote/plenary speaker : Key-note speaker and plenary lectures at conferences : Invited keynote paper at UK/Europe-China International Workshop on millimetre-waves and terahertz technologies "Recent Progress in High Power Millimetre-wave Sources at Strathclyde University"; 19-21 October 2009 , RAL, UK (Invited Keynote paper also given in the 1st Workshop held in Chengdu, China in 2008)
UK/Europe-China International Workshop

Increased research collaborations with research groups in China and attraction of research students to the UK and to the University of Strathclyde.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015
URL http://202.115.15.3/en/index/edit/pid/33