NANOSTRUCTURED PHOTONIC METAMATERIALS

Lead Research Organisation: University of Southampton
Department Name: Optoelectronics Research Centre

Abstract

Over the last twenty years photonics, the science of light, has played a key role in creating the world as we know it. Today it is impossible to imagine modern society without internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre networks, CD's and DVD's underpinned by the development of lasers, modern image display technologies, and laser-assisted manufacturing.We believe that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new dependence on a radically different type of photonic materials called metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificial electromagnetic media with unusual and useful functionalities achieved by structuring on a sub-wavelength scale. Nanotechnology-enabled materials are now universally seen as the direction where the global economy will grow strongly in the 21st century. The proposed Programme is at the core of this global movement and focuses on an area of particular interest to the UK - nanophotonics and metamaterials. Our vision for this Programme is to develop a new generation of revolutionary switchable and active nanostructured photonic media thus providing groundbreaking solutions for telecoms, energy, light generation, imaging, lithography, data storage, sensing, and security and defence applications. The Programme will mobilize and focus all of the resources and interdisciplinary expertise available at the University of Southampton and with our collaboration partners in the UK and around the world, to create a world-leading centre of research on Nanostructured Photonic Metamaterials. The elements of adventure and key research challenges in this project can be summarized as follows: we aim to develop photonic media allowing for ultra-high-density integration, the lowest possible energy levels and the highest speeds of optical switching. This will be achieved by advancing the physics of the control, guiding and amplification of light in nanostructures and by developing new nanofabrication techniques and methods of hybridization and integration into the waveguide and fiber environment of different novel metamaterial structures.The main methodological paradigm for the Programme is to achieve new functionalities by developing hybrid photonic metamaterials. The Programme will consist of strongly interlinked projects on fabricating hybrid metamaterials, metamaterials as a platform for photonic devices and fundamental physical experiments, controllable, switchable and active hybrid metamaterials, and developing new ideas emerging from theoretical analysis. Essential to the project will be the new world-leading 105M cleanroom and laboratory Mountbatten complex at the University of Southampton. This proposal is submitted on behalf of an internationally leading team with a formidable research track record that within the last 10 years has led and participated in research projects with funding exceeding 34 millions, published 463 journal research papers and given more than 200 invited talks at major international meetings. The research will be developed in collaboration with key international research groups and industrial laboratories and in this way form a Global Laboratory for the project.This high-risk/high-reward Programme will be run by a strong Director-led management team which will benefit from advice from an independent Project Mentor and Advisory Board. Strategic decisions will be made using the search-and-focus approach involving regular critical reviews of the research programme under an active resources and risk management scheme allowing for the redistribution of resources and usage of reserves where they are most needed and to quickly foster new research directions.

Publications

10 25 50

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WANG Q (2014) WATER-IMMERSION DEEP-SUBWAVELENGTH SURFACE PLASMON VIRTUAL PROBES in Journal of Molecular and Engineering Materials

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Valente J (2016) Nano- and Micro-Auxetic Plasmonic Materials. in Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)

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Valente J (2015) A magneto-electro-optical effect in a plasmonic nanowire material. in Nature communications

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Tsiatmas A (2010) Superconducting plasmonics and extraordinary transmission in Applied Physics Letters

 
Title Metamaterials: Optical Properties on Demand 
Description Promotional/educational video on current themes in photonic metamaterials research at the University of Southampton, produced for the American Physical Society March Meeting 2015 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Recognition of research excellence and leadership; International visibility for UK research 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQAycgAJOFc
 
Title Metamaterials: The next Photonic Revolution 
Description Promotional/educational video on photonic metamaterials and research work in the field at the University of Southampton 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2010 
Impact International visibility for UK research excellence; Contribution to public understanding of the research field 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=taSfueSfmag
 
Description The Programme has delivered a high level of innovation and adventure, fostering the emergence of several new research directions and ground-breaking results. Among our achievements to date:

in 'Switchable and Tuneable Metamaterials':
- We have developed a new platform for metamaterial-enabled volatile and non-volatile all-optical and electro-optical switching by merging metamaterials with the phase-change chalcogenide glass technology used in optical data storage (rewriteable CDs and DVDs). Most notably, we provided the first demonstrations of a metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness and of an all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch;
- We have developed a new technology for modulating sub-THz radiation with electrical current in a superconducting metamaterial and demonstrated temperature control of Fano resonances and transmission in superconducting metamaterials;
- We have developed the new concept of 'flux exclusion' superconducting quantum metamaterials, which promises quantum-level switching;
- We have developed the radical concept of coherently controlling of light-with-light without nonlinearity and shown that two coherent light beams of arbitrarily low intensity can interact on a metamaterial of nanoscale thickness such that one beam modulates the intensity of the other. Applications of this phenomenon may lie in ultrafast optical pulse-recovery, coherence filtering and terahertz-bandwidth all-optical data processing devices operating even at the single quantum level;
- We have demonstrated magnetic control of metamaterial properties in a composite metamaterial hybridized with yttrium iron garnet and electro-optic control in a plasmonic metamaterial hybridised with a liquid-crystal cell.

in 'Nonlinear Metamaterials' we have developed a range of metamaterials with record-breaking nonlinearities for all-optical switching. Specifically:
- We have shown for the first time that the hybridization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with plasmonic metamaterials produces a photonic medium with an exceptionally strong ultrafast nonlinearity underpinned by plasmon-exiton coupling;
- We have developed the first plasmonic metamaterials hybridised with and made exclusively from graphene, demonstrating for the first time that graphene's broadband nonlinear optical response can be resonantly enhanced by more than an order of magnitude through metamaterial hybridization, while retaining an ultrafast nonlinear response time of ~1 ps;
- We have demonstrated new metal oxide hybrids for actively controlled metamaterials and plasmonics;
- We have shown that an ultrafast switching material can be engineered by harnessing the nanoscale confinement of light and the intrinsic nonlinearity of metal. Using a nanostructured gold film, we have demonstrated resonant switching performance at least an order of magnitude faster and stronger than in any other designed material reported to date, thus presenting a ground-breaking solution for all-optical data processing.

in 'Reconfigurable Metamaterials':
- We have developed range of THz and far-infrared MEMS reconfigurable metamaterials with tuneable and switchable polarization properties well-suited to applications in transformation optics, sensors, intelligent detectors, tuneable frequency-selective surfaces, and spectral filters. We are currently extending this work to include tuneable metamaterials with liquid-metal-filled resonators;
- We introduced the first reconfigurable photonic metamaterials for the optical part of the spectrum as a flexible platform for realizing metamaterial devices with reversible and widely tuneable characteristics;
- We have developed a new type of metamaterial actuated by electrostatic forces arising from the application of only a few volts to nanoscale constituent parts supported by a flexible silicon-nitride membrane of nanoscale thickness. It exhibits a colossal electro-optic response (five orders larger than lithium niobate) and allows for fast continuous tuning of optical properties;
- We have introduced the concept of all-dielectric reconfigurable photonic metamaterials, which present a giant nonlinear optical response driven by resonant optomechanical forces. Being inherently free of Joule losses, they exhibit optical bistability at low intensity levels and highly asymmetric transmission.

in 'Metamaterials for Light Generation and Light Harvesting':
- We have demonstrated multifold enhancement of luminescence in metamaterials, an essential step towards understanding loss compensation in plasmonic metamaterials hybridized with gain media and for developing metamaterial-enhanced gain media;
- We have demonstrated the first electron-beam-driven collective-mode metamaterial light source generating visible radiation via an emission mechanism distinctly different from cathodoluminescence, that bears some characteristic similarity with laser light;
- We have developed a new technique for optical generating intense ultrashort Tesla-scale magnetic pulses at the nanoscale using bimetallic nano-ring metamolecules illuminated by fs laser pulses - a technology that may find applications in THz radiation generation and data storage applications;
- We have demonstrated a radiation-harvesting superconducting sub-THz metamaterial bolometer that collects incident radiation with high spectral selectivity and channels it to a highly-localized bolometer hot-spot.

in 'Light Localization and Spectral Collapse in Metamaterials':
- We have reported the first direct experimental demonstration and theoretical analysis of spectral line collapse with increasing metamolecule number in 'coherent metamaterials' at microwave, terahertz and optical frequencies - a phenomenon fundamental to the realization of 'lasing spaser' devices;
- We have demonstrated that the sub-wavelength localization of light in the near-field of a metamaterial may be efficiently controlled by the polarization and wavelength of incident radiation, and shown for the first time both theoretically and experimentally that a plasmonic metamaterial can act as a far- to near-field transformer that focuses a free-space light beam into a sub-wavelength energy hot spot at a prescribed location. That this spot can be moved at will from one metamolecule to another in a 'digital fashion that may be applied to imaging and optical data processing;
- We have found that disorder in planar metamaterials can lead to the formation of 'magnetic hot-spots';
- We have demonstrated that a planar plasmonic metamaterial with spatially variable metamolecule parameters can harness 'superoscillation' effects to focus light into sub-wavelength hot-spots located beyond the near-field of the metamaterial.

in the 'New Physics of Metamaterials':
- We have continued pioneering work on Fano resonances in metamaterials and on 3D and 2D chiral metamaterials;
- We have developed a unique metamaterial polarization spectral filter able to provide an isolated transmission line at any prescribed wavelength;
- We have demonstrated an electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode based on a microwave chiral nonlinear metamaterial;
- We have re-discovered the elusive effect of nonlinear optical activity with the demonstration of a plasmonic metamaterial exhibiting nonlinear optical activity 30 million times stronger than any natural medium;
- We have provided the first unambiguous observation of a toroidal dipolar response in the classical electrodynamics of metamaterials, thus bringing attention to interactions involving toroidal multipoles in naturally occurring systems;
- We have identified various applications of toroidal excitations and extended observation of toroidal resonances to different parts of the spectrum;
- We have shown that superconductors can support low-loss surface plasmon waves with extreme confinement, which may serve as information carriers in compact THz data processing circuits;
- We have provided a pioneering study of UV and visible range plasmonics in a topological insulator and identified a new mechanisms of negative permittivity in semiconductors where visible-range plasmonics can be directly integrated with electronics;
- We have demonstrated metal oxide infrared metamaterials with tuneable properties for infrared spectroscopy;
- We theoretically showed that atoms trapped by quantum fluctuations in optical lattices can act as a novel quantum metamaterial.

Since January 2010 we have published over 200 papers in key research journals including Science, Nature Photonics, Nature Materials, Nature Communications, Physical Review Letters, Advanced Materials, Nnao Letters, Applied Physics Letters and Optics Express. These works now collectively earn around 2000 citations per year (Web of Science data) making Southampton one of the most widely recognized and influential centres for metamaterials research in the world. We have made more than 430 conference presentations including 127 invited, 27 keynote and 20 plenary talks at major international conferences.
Exploitation Route Achieving functionality through structuring, i.e. engineering desired properties to specification via sophisticated growth and nanofabrication techniques that allow materials to be assembled from the atomic scale up - the essence of metamaterials paradigm, is currently drawing attention from many research communities. It is becoming an enabling heuristic concept for a myriad of academic disciplines, from materials science to computer science, from biomedical sensing to modelling astrophysical phenomena. Indeed, metamaterials itself is a synthetic science exploiting advanced knowledge in many fields, from nanotechnology and solid state physics to chemistry and electrodynamics.

The full potential of this enabling technology has not yet been exploited by industry. Our work aims to help bridge the 'valley of death' between research and development by aligning blue-sky fundamental research on advanced materials to real-world needs, and providing a fertile environment for the training of professional young researchers with synthetic multidisciplinary skills. With this in mind, the Programme was developed in close collaboration with the UK and international research community, including partners such as the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, DSTL, FujiFilm Corporation, QinetiQ and the Asahi Kasei Corporation, which maintain strong interest in technological applications of photonic metamaterials.

The Programme has given us a strong voice internationally to influence EU Horizon2020 and ERC policies via the Nanophotonics Europe Association and METAMORPHOSE Virtual Institute on Metamaterials. Our roles in consultancy groups and within the IOP, EPS, IEEE, IET, RAEng, Royal Society, OSA, SPIE, and on the committees of major conferences are the most direct mechanisms for promoting advanced scientific knowledge in general and the field of metamaterials specifically.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Security and Diplomacy

URL http://www.metamaterials.org.uk/
 
Description Bilateral Studentship Funding
Amount £190,947 (GBP)
Funding ID Reconfigurable Optical Frequency Metamaterials 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2010 
End 09/2014
 
Description Conference Travel Grant
Amount £1,870 (GBP)
Funding ID MacDonald 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2010 
 
Description Conference Travel Grant
Amount £1,640 (GBP)
Funding ID Hewak 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2010 
 
Description Conference Travel Grant
Amount £1,552 (GBP)
Funding ID Plum 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2011 
 
Description EPSRC Doctoral Prize Fellowship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Savinov 
Organisation University of Southampton 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2013
 
Description EPSRC Doctoral Prize Fellowship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Ou 
Organisation University of Southampton 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2015
 
Description EPSRC Doctoral Prize Fellowship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Adamo 
Organisation University of Southampton 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2011 
End 09/2012
 
Description Enterprise Fund
Amount £159,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Nanoscope: Translation to biomedical applications and markets 
Organisation University of Southampton 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2013 
End 12/2014
 
Description Global Research Outreach
Amount $99,901 (USD)
Funding ID Chalcogenide Phase Change Materials in Active Plasmonic and Metamaterial Technologies 
Organisation Samsung 
Department Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
Sector Private
Country Korea, Republic of
Start 10/2010 
End 09/2011
 
Description Global Research Outreach
Amount $126,100 (USD)
Funding ID Pixellated Chalcogenide Meta-Devices 
Organisation Samsung 
Department Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
Sector Private
Country Korea, Republic of
Start 11/2012 
End 10/2013
 
Description Global Research Outreach
Amount $131,721 (USD)
Funding ID Active All-Dielectric Metamaterials 
Organisation Samsung 
Department Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
Sector Private
Country Korea, Republic of
Start 05/2014 
End 04/2015
 
Description International Exchange
Amount £11,810 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2010 
End 08/2010
 
Description Joint Research Project
Amount £43,549 (GBP)
Funding ID Nano Reconfigurable Photonics Metamaterials 
Organisation US Navy 
Department US Office of Naval Research Global
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 01/2011 
End 08/2014
 
Description National PhD Programme
Amount £131,855 (GBP)
Funding ID Transforming Electromagnetic Wavefronts 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2016
 
Description National PhD Programme
Amount £127,037 (GBP)
Funding ID Magnonic Metamaterials 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2016
 
Description Research Programme to Support MAST
Amount £119,064 (GBP)
Funding ID Self-Adaptive Photonic Metamaterials 
Organisation Qinetiq 
Department QinetiQ (Farnborough)
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2012 
End 10/2015
 
Description Strategic Equipment Fund
Amount £700,000 (GBP)
Funding ID FIB Nanofabrication System 
Organisation University of Southampton 
Department Optoelectronics Research Centre
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2009 
End 06/2010
 
Description Strategic Equipment Fund
Amount £320,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Nanonics Multi-Probe 
Organisation University of Southampton 
Department Optoelectronics Research Centre
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2010 
 
Description Strategic Equipment Fund
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Time-resolved SEM 
Organisation University of Southampton 
Department Optoelectronics Research Centre
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2009 
End 08/2010
 
Description Strategic Equipment Fund
Amount £363,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Dip Pen Nanolithography System 
Organisation University of Southampton 
Department Optoelectronics Research Centre
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2010 
End 08/2010
 
Description Strategic Equipment Fund
Amount £31,900 (GBP)
Funding ID XeF2 FIB Etch Assist 
Organisation University of Southampton 
Department Optoelectronics Research Centre
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2012 
 
Description Visiting Professorship
Amount £29,780 (GBP)
Funding ID F. J. García de Abajo 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2010 
End 09/2011
 
Description Wolfson Research Merit Award
Amount £65,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Nikolay Zheludev 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2009 
End 03/2014
 
Description A* 
Organisation Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)
Department Institute Of Materials Research And Engineering
Country Singapore 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of research facilities and multidisciplinary research environment
Collaborator Contribution Provision of researcher time and expertise - visitor from A*STAR working in Southampton on projects of mutual interest
Impact Direct exposure of research personnel from a major international applied research centre to the cutting edge of photonic metamaterials research; Several journal articles and conference papers
Start Year 2012
 
Description AFOSR MURI 
Organisation Airforce Office of Scientific Research
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution International partnership with the AFRL MURI "Active Metasurfaces for Advanced Wavefront Engineering and Waveguiding". Complementary research expertise and facilities
Collaborator Contribution Complementary research expertise and facilities
Impact Exchange of ideas and expertise; Linked funding proposal under review.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Asahi Kasei 
Organisation Asahi Kasei Corporation
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of research facilities and multidisciplinary research environment
Collaborator Contribution Provision of researcher time - visitor from Asahi Kaisei working in Southampton on a project of mutual interest
Impact Direct exposure of industrial research personnel from a major multinational to the cutting edge of photonic metamaterials research; Direct access for programme research leaders to information on industrial needs/capabilities in photonic materials development; Several conference papers.
Start Year 2014
 
Description CDPT 
Organisation Nanyang Technological University
Country Singapore 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Complementary research expertise and facilities
Collaborator Contribution Complementary research expertise and facilities
Impact Key contributions to the establishment of The Photonics Institute at Nanyang Technological University - a bilateral photonics research center formed with the University of Southampton; Several joint PhD studentships beginning 2014; Numerous journal articles and conference papers
Start Year 2012
 
Description CUDOS 
Organisation Australian Research Council
Department Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS)
Country Australia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution International partnership with the CUDOS consortium. Complementary research expertise and facilities
Collaborator Contribution Complementary research expertise and facilities
Impact Exchange of ideas and expertise
Start Year 2011
 
Description Fujifilm 
Organisation Fujifilm
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of research facilities and multidisciplinary research environment
Collaborator Contribution Provision of researcher time - visitors from Fujifilm working in Southampton on projects of mutual interest
Impact Direct exposure of industrial research personnel from a major multinational to the cutting edge of photonic metamaterials research; Direct access for programme research leaders to information on industrial needs/capabilities in photonic materials development; Several conference papers.
Start Year 2011
 
Description García de Abajo 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Country European Union (EU) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Experimental research expertise
Collaborator Contribution Theoretical and computational modelling expertise
Impact Numerous journal articles and conference papers
Start Year 2007
 
Description Harbin 
Organisation Harbin Engineering University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of research facilities and multidisciplinary research environment
Collaborator Contribution Provision of researcher time and expertise - visitor from Harbin Engineering University working in Southampton on projects of mutual interest
Impact Several journal articles and conference papers
Start Year 2010
 
Description Institute for Life Sciences 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration leading to funded project to develop the Nanoscope technology for biological imaging. Out team provides the physics and engineering expertise to make demonstrations possible.
Collaborator Contribution The partners provide the biological applications and samples to allow the full power of the super-oscillatory imaging technology to be demonstared in the Life Sciences
Impact This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration between the physical and life sciences. At this stage, the primary outputs are two funded projects to develop the super-oscillatory imaging technology into the Life Sciences.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Maryland 
Organisation University of Maryland
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of specialist research facilities
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples and researcher time - visitor from University of Maryland working in Southampton on a project of mutual interest
Impact Research data
Start Year 2014
 
Description Nankai 
Organisation Nankai University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of research facilities and multidisciplinary research environment
Collaborator Contribution Provision of researcher time - visitor from Nankai University working in Southampton on a project of mutual interest
Impact Several journal articles and conference papers
Start Year 2010
 
Description National Taiwan University 
Organisation National Taiwan University
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Complementary research expertise and facilities; Provision of researcher time - visitors from NTU working in Southampton on projects of mutual interest
Collaborator Contribution Complementary research expertise and facilities
Impact Numerous journal articles and conference papers
Start Year 2007
 
Description ONR MURI 
Organisation US Navy
Department US Office of Naval Research Global
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution International partnership with the ONR MURI "Large-Area 3D Optical Metamaterials with Tunability and Low Loss". Complementary research expertise and facilities
Collaborator Contribution Complementary research expertise and facilities
Impact Exchange of ideas and expertise; Successful joint funding proposal
Start Year 2010
 
Description Padova 
Organisation University of Padova
Department Department of Information Engineering
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of research facilities and multidisciplinary research environment
Collaborator Contribution Provision of researcher time - visitor from Padova working in Southampton on a project of mutual interest
Impact Nature Group journal article
Start Year 2014
 
Description Pinheiro 
Organisation Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Country Brazil 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of research facilities and multidisciplinary research environment
Collaborator Contribution Provision of researcher time and expertise - visitor from FURdJ working in Southampton on a project of mutual interest
Impact Successful bid for further collaboration funding [Royal Society Newton Fellowship]
Start Year 2014
 
Description Shanghai 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences
Department Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of research facilities and multidisciplinary research environment
Collaborator Contribution Provision of researcher time - visitor from SITP working in Southampton on a project of mutual interest
Impact Several conference papers; journal article pending
Start Year 2013
 
Description Swinburne 
Organisation Swinburne University of Technology
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of research facilities and multidisciplinary research environment
Collaborator Contribution Provision of researcher time and expertise - visitor from Swinburne University of Technology working in Southampton on a project of mutual interest
Impact Journal article and several conference papers
Start Year 2010
 
Description Tokyo 
Organisation University of Tokyo
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of research facilities and multidisciplinary research environment
Collaborator Contribution Provision of researcher time - visitor from the University of Tokyo working in Southampton on a project of mutual interest
Impact Several conference papers; journal article pending
Start Year 2014
 
Title Magnetic Field Generator 
Description A metallic ring is made of two metals, wherein one metal forms a major arcuate portion and the other a minor arcuate portion of the ring, thereby forming a thermocouple-type structure as a result of the two inter-metallic junctions. The metallic ring supports a surface plasmon whose energy is matched to the energy, i.e. wavelength, of an incident light beam so that the oscillating electromagnetic field of the light resonates with the plasmon. The resonating plasmon causes a temperature difference to arise between the two inter-metallic junctions in the ring. The different Seebeck coefficients of the two metals results in the temperature difference causing a net current to flow around the ring, which in turn generates a magnetic field. Such a thermoelectric metamaterial ring transforms high frequency optical energy into long duration magnetic radiation pulses in the terahertz range. Applications of these devices include high density magnetic recording, magnetic field spectroscopy, and efficient terahertz radiation sources. 
IP Reference US 13/733,338 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed No
Impact The metamaterial magnetic field generator concept underpins ongoing doctoral research work, international collaboration with colleagues at ICFO, Spain, and discussions with potential industrial research sponsors/partners. It has led to a number of high-profile journal and conference papers.
 
Title Method and device for controlling the color of metals 
Description A method and a device are disclosed for changing the color of a metal surface in a given part of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is achieved by creating a surface relief as an array of raised or indented repeated elements without breaking the continuity of the metal surface. The characteristic size of the elements is smaller than the shortest wavelength in that part of spectrum. In particular, the method uses excitation of surface plasmons on the metal surface. The relief may be optionally covered by a layer of dielectric or semiconductor for further fixed or externally controlled change of the metal surface color. The device may be used to detect the intensity or color or phase of incident light. It may be used to detect another substance in proximity of the surface by changing the color or phase or intensity of reflected light. 
IP Reference US 20120015118 A1 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
Impact The concept underpinned further research work and international collaboration, and generated considerable industrial interest in photonic metamaterials concepts and potential applications
 
Title Non-linear Materials and Related Devices 
Description A non-linear optical device comprising a non-linear element made of a plasmonic material with a periodic structure having a period smaller than the wavelength of a non-linear process intrinsic to the plasmonic material. The plasmonic material is implemented as a gold film which is structured with a periodic array of asymmetric split ring slits. The metamaterial framework of the plasmonic material itself is used as the source of a strong and fast non-linearity. The cubic non-linear response is resonantly enhanced through the effect of the metamaterial structuring by more than two orders of magnitude and its sign and magnitude can be controlled by varying the metamaterial pattern. 
IP Reference GB1108139.5 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2011
Licensed No
Impact The concept has underpinned further research work and international collaboration, leading to high-profile journal and conference papers.
 
Title Optical Devices, Systems and Methods 
Description First and second coherent light beams of the same wavelength are propagated in opposite directions to interact on a sub-wavelength thickness metallic metamaterial layer which is structured with a periodicity such that there is a resonance matched to the wavelength of the coherent beams. The first beam is then able to modulate the intensity of the second beam by modulating the phase and/or intensity of the first beam. The interference of the counter- propagating beams can eliminate or substantially reduce Joule loss of light energy in the metamaterial layer or, on the contrary, can lead to a near total absorption of light, depending on the mutual phase and/or intensity of the interacting beams. A modulation is thus provided without using a non-linear effect. 
IP Reference PCT/GB2013/050603 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed No
Impact The concept of 'coherent control in metamaterials' has seeded a number of research projects and become a core part of research activities, with experimental demonstrations extending the idea to the ultrafast time domain, quantum (single-photon) energy limit, and to coherent control not just of absorption but of optical polarization effects, refraction and selective (electric or magnetic) excitation spectroscopy, and the introduction of then the idea of all-optical data processing via coherent control in 4-port metamaterial devices (optically performing the functions of transistors and logic gates). The topic is one of the central pillars of a new EPSRC programme on "The Physics and Technology of Photonic Metadevices and Metasystems", which includes a number of industrial partners. It is also the basis of ongoing collaborations with colleagues at Heriot-Watt University, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore and the National Taiwan University and projects in Southampton involving visiting researchers from Fujifilm and from the National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan.
 
Title Spectral Filter 
Description This invention relates to use of metamaterials for creating spectral selectors of electromagnetic radiation. Planar metamaterial films patterned on the sub-wavelength scale can be used in polarization filters instead of natural and synthesized bulk crystals. Characteristics and the quality factor of metamaterial filters is controlled by the geometry of the pattern. Various types of metamaterials and filter configurations are proposed. 
IP Reference US 20110261441 A1 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
Impact N/A
 
Title Super-Oscillatory Lens Apparatus and Methods 
Description An imaging apparatus is disclosed which uses a super-oscillatory lens to obtain sub-diffraction limit resolution. The super-oscillatory lens is arranged to receive a light beam from a light source, the lens having a pre-defined pattern to spatially modulate the light beam in amplitude and/or phase so that it focuses the light beam to a focus at a first focal point having a full width half maximum of less than half the wavelength. Collection optical elements are arranged to focus the first focal point to a second focal point conjugate to the first focal point. An object for imaging is scanned over the first focal point and a detector is arranged to collect light from a collection region centered on the second focal point. 
IP Reference US9007451 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed No
Impact The super-oscillatory lens concept underpins ongoing research work, funded international collaborations, and discussions with potential industrial research sponsors/partners. It has led to a number of high-profile journal and conference papers.
 
Title Super-Oscillatory Lens Device 
Description A super-oscillatory lens having a pre-defined pattern to spatially modulate the light beam in amplitude and/or phase which has a blocking element formed integrally with the lens, or as a separate component adjacent to the lens, which is opaque to the light beam to cause diffraction of the light beam around the blocking element and formation of a shadow region. The lens and blocking element focus the light beam to form an elongate needle-shaped focus in the shadow region. In any application in which it is necessary to scan a small spot over a surface, compared with a conventional objective lens focus the elongate shape of the focus relaxes the requirement on a feedback loop to maintain a constant separation between a scan head and a surface being scanned. The elongate shape is also ideal shape for materials processing applications. 
IP Reference PCT/GB2013/050114 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed No
Impact The super-oscillatory lens concept underpins ongoing research work, funded international collaborations, and discussions with potential industrial research sponsors/partners. It has led to a number of high-profile journal and conference papers.
 
Title Tunable Metamaterials and Related Devices 
Description A tunable metamaterial comprising a membrane on which is arranged a two-dimensional array of elements to form a metamaterial, wherein the array is subdivided into blocks of multiple elements, each block being separated from adjacent blocks by a gap to allow each block to be moveable relative to its adjacent blocks. The lattice of the metamaterial and hence its properties are tuned by inducing adjacent blocks to move away from each other or towards each other either in-plane or out-of-plane in a controllable manner in response to an electrical, thermal or optical control signal. 
IP Reference US 13/167,890 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2011
Licensed No
Impact The reconfigurable metamaterial concept underpins a number of ingoing research projects (including projects supported by US and UK research funding agencies) and international collaborations, and has led to a number of high-profile journal and conference papers. The topic is one of the central pillars of a new EPSRC programme on "The Physics and Technology of Photonic Metadevices and Metasystems", which includes a number of industrial partners.
 
Description All-chalcogenide metasurface media attention 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release and editorial highlight by the journal Applied Physics Letters of the article "All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface" [Karvounis, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 051103 (2016)], drew numerous enquiries and coverage by popular science media: Altmetric score 135 (March 2016).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.altmetric.com/details/10217876
 
Description Big Bang Fair 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Participation in EPSRC exhibit on Advanced Materials (Dr. MacDonald and programme students) at the largest celebration of science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) for young people in the UK, attracting 70,000 visitors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www.thebigbangfair.co.uk/
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on photonic metamaterials and participation in panel discussion "Is the Age of Silicon Over" (Prof. Zheludev) and participation in EPSRC exhibit on Advanced Materials (Dr. MacDonald and programme students) at one of the UK's leading science festivals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.cheltenhamfestivals.com/science/
 
Description EPSRC Science and Sandwiches 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Lunchtime presentation and Q&A session on Photonic Metamaterials at EPSRC headquarters
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description International Year of Light 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to the conception and establishment of the UNESCO International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies (Prof. Zheludev). Participation in several key IYL events including international and UK opening and closing ceremonies (Paris, Mexico City, London).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.light2015.org/Home/About.html
 
Description King Edward VI School visits 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Groups of six-form students and their teachers visit the Optoelectronics Research Centre, hosted by Nanophotonics and Metamaterials group's Dr Plum, to hear about world-leading scientific research, tour facilites, and meet research students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017
 
Description Nature Webcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Webcast presentation and Q&A session on "The Future of Metamaterials and Metasurfaces", presented by the Nature Publishing Group and sponsored by Fujifilm
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.nature.com/webcasts/event/future-metamaterials/