Oxyfuel Combustion - Academic Programme for the UK

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leeds
Department Name: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Abstract

If the carbon dioxide produced when coal is burnt to make electricity can be collected in a concentrated form then it can be compressed into a dense liquid and squeezed into the pores between rock grains a kilometre or more underground. By putting the carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in places where the porous rocks are sealed by layer of non-porous rocks we can be very confident that most of it will stay there for tens of thousands of years, so it won't increase the risk of dangerous climate change. But current coal power stations don't release the CO2 in a concentrated form; it is mixed with about five times its volume of nitrogen and oxygen, from the air used to burn the coal. One way to avoid this is to burn the coal in pure oxygen instead of air. We know this can theoretically be made to work, but if pure oxygen - or really a 'synthetic air' made up of oxygen and recycled combustion products instead of nitrogen - is used to burn coal then many things would be different from using air. This project will develop the scientific understanding that power plant builders and operators need to predict and cope with these differences.To help develop a better scientific understanding of oxyfuel combustion we will undertake experiments in a 150 kW laboratory burner. This is small (1% of the size!) compared to real power plant burners, but it will use the same oxygen/flue gas mixture. Computer models will be developed to analyse how the coal burns in the laboratory scale burner. These models can then be applied to full scale burners. Using the power available from modern computer systems it is now possible to track the behaviour of all of the swirling gases and particles in a flame ands see how they move and react over very small intervals of time. It's possible - but we are still learning how to do it properly. To help us do this we are taking high speed (1000 frames per second) video recordings of our laboratory oxyfuel flames to see how they really flow and flicker and using the bright and precise beams from laser to help track how particles move and to tell us what sort of gas mixtures are present.We are also reproducing just some of the things that happen in flame in special test equipment so that we have simpler things to measure. These measurements then go into the computer models. How coal particles first catch alight and then how they char and burn are particularly important. We are also interested how the ash in the coal will behave. It can cause problems coating the walls of air-fired power plants, but after a lot of experience we know how to avoid that. Some of those lessons are probably going to have to be re-learned for oxyfuel combustion and the experts who help to sort out air combustion are now starting to do that on our project. We are also looking at how oxyfuel combustion products might attack the steels used in boilers; new materials might be needed, especially in hot or dusty locations.Finally, we need to have trained scientists and engineers to help design and build these new types of power plants. Our project will help to train a number of these, and also build up the experience in the academic community that can be used to advise industry when they come to build and operate new oxyfuel plants. We will also have developed some of the new measurement techniques that can be used to help tune the first plants to give the best possible performance.But no project can do it all. So we are working closely with other groups in the UK and overseas - the IEA Greenhouse Gas Programme coordinates an excellent network that we belong too. And as we learn more we also expect to come up with more questions that need to be answered plus some good ideas for ways to do that.

Publications

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Belhadj E (2016) Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the hydrodynamics in a 350 kW bubbling fluidized bed combustor in International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering

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Boot-Handford M (2014) Carbon capture and storage update in Energy Environ. Sci.

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Clements A (2015) Evaluation of FSK models for radiative heat transfer under oxyfuel conditions in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer

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Edge P (2011) Combustion modelling opportunities and challenges for oxy-coal carbon capture technology in Chemical Engineering Research and Design

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Edge P (2011) LES modelling of air and oxy-fuel pulverised coal combustion-impact on flame properties in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute

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Gharebaghi M (2011) Study of effect of oxycoal combustion conditions on fly ash characteristics in Journal of the Energy Institute

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Gharebaghi M (2011) Large eddy simulation of oxy-coal combustion in an industrial combustion test facility in International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

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Mielczarek D.C. (2013) Experimental and theoretical investigation of pathways to deposit formation in thermally stressed aviation fuel in the presence of nitrogenous additives in 13th International Conference on Stability, Handling and Use of Liquid Fuels 2013

 
Description New or improved research methods or skills developed; Pilot scale experimental work and results generated is unique at international level. A new more efficient oxy/solid fuel technology developed in this project could have played a major role if UK-CCS competition programme was not cancelled.
Important new research resources identified; Major setback on new source of funding due to UK cancelling the pioneering CCS competition in 2015
Particularly noteworthy new research networks/collaborations/partnerships was developed between ECRs from 5 different universities.
One of the major achievement of this project was capability, which Increased research capability by training delivered in specialist skills. Overall 16 ECR worked in this project.
Exploitation Route Academic route: A strong research team and consortium has been developed with very impressive list of publication at international journals. The newly developed collaboration will continue.
Non-academic route: As there is no commercial market in UK for the technology developed in this project, it is envisaged that international industrial Collaborators including UK multi-national companies will be targeted for to take forward the technology developed in this project. Initial discussion with multinational OEMs continuing.
Sectors Chemicals,Energy,Environment

URL http://www.ukccsrc.ac.uk
 
Description The OxyCAP-UK (Oxyfuel Combustion - Academic Programme for the UK) programme was a £2M collaboration involving researchers from seven UK universities, supported by E.On and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. The programme, which ran from November 2009 to July 2014, has successfully completed a broad range of activities related to development of oxyfuel power plants. The project output and use of findings include: (1) Experimental data was used to validate sub models developed for commercial CFD codes. (2) Development of novel radiation model to be integrated within commercial CFD codes. (3) Integrating part of the facilities developed during this project within the National pilot scale center.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Economic

 
Description CPD Oxy-Fuel Combustion
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description DECC CCS Strategy 2050
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact New CCS roadmap and strategy from Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) on Carbon capture and Storage.
 
Description Additives to Mitigate against Slagging and Fouling in Biomass Combustion--addition of Coal PFA
Amount £35,000 (GBP)
Funding ID URMS number: 147605 
Organisation Biomass and Fossil Fuel Research Alliance 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 03/2018
 
Description CE Generation
Amount £62,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 149966 
Organisation Clean Electricity Generation UK LTD 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 08/2017
 
Description European Commission Framework 7 Programme
Amount € 6,000,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 249745 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 05/2010 
End 04/2015
 
Description European Union Framework 7
Amount £640,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 268191 
Organisation European Commission 
Department Seventh Framework Programme (FP7)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 11/2011 
End 10/2015
 
Description Industry
Amount £57,750 (GBP)
Organisation Heat Recovery Solutions Ltd 
Start 10/2016 
End 05/2017
 
Description International Partnership for Carbon Neutral Combustion (IPCNC)
Amount $500,000 (USD)
Funding ID URMS number: 148301 
Organisation King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) 
Sector Academic/University
Country Saudi Arabia
Start 09/2016 
End 08/2017
 
Description Newton Fund Researcher Links Workshop Grant
Amount £39,600 (GBP)
Funding ID 215833160 
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 11/2016
 
Description PACT National Facility
Amount £2,476,327 (GBP)
Organisation Department of Energy and Climate Change 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2012 
End 06/2016
 
Description RFCS
Amount € 1,362,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 709954 
Organisation Research Fund for Coal and Steel 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 07/2016 
End 03/2018
 
Description Advanced Sulzer Packing for PACT Amine Captuer Plant 
Organisation Sulzer
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution To investigate performance of advanced packing during coal/gas/biomass fired
Collaborator Contribution Sulzer supplied and provided advice on advanced packing for the UKCCSRC amine capture plant
Impact Work ongoing
Start Year 2015
 
Description Clean Energy Partership Institute for Thermal Power Engineeing, Zhejiang University, China 
Organisation Zhejiang University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The partnership was initiated via EPSRC-China clean Energy project.
Collaborator Contribution Joint research and innovation, Visits to UK and China, Joint workshop in China and UK, Joint applications for funding
Impact 2-3 journal publication
Start Year 2010
 
Description International CCS Test Centre Network 
Organisation E ON
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution UK CCS Research Centre's PACT Facilities joins CCS Test Centre Network chaired by TCM to expand international knowledge sharing capabilities and accelerate commercialisation of crucial CCS technologies. The addition of the PACT Facilities to the Network - which currently spans Norway, Canada, the United States and Italy - will extend its reach and bring UK research in carbon capture onto the international stage. The purpose of PACT is to support and catalyse industrial and academic R&D, by providing open-access testing facilities. This helps accelerate the development and commercialisation of technologies for carbon capture and clean power generation. The PACT facilities bring together a comprehensive range of integrated pilot-scale and accompanying specialist research and analytical facilities, supported by leading academic expertise.
Collaborator Contribution The International Test Centre Network was initiated by TCM in 2012 to enable carbon capture test facilities around the world to progress the technologies that will be a key component of our clean energy future. The network aims to share knowledge that can accelerate technology commercialisation, including, for example, next-generation technologies that can sharply reduce the costs of electricity generation (and industrial products) using CO2 capture. Since its launch, some of the world's leading CCS test centres have been sharing knowledge of construction and operation of large test facilities in order to establish a level playing field for technology vendors to reduce costs, as well as the technical, environmental and financial risks currently associated with CCS.
Impact Joint meetings every 6 months. Cost reduction for CCS technology
Start Year 2015
 
Description International CCS Test Centre Network 
Organisation SaskPower
Country Canada 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution UK CCS Research Centre's PACT Facilities joins CCS Test Centre Network chaired by TCM to expand international knowledge sharing capabilities and accelerate commercialisation of crucial CCS technologies. The addition of the PACT Facilities to the Network - which currently spans Norway, Canada, the United States and Italy - will extend its reach and bring UK research in carbon capture onto the international stage. The purpose of PACT is to support and catalyse industrial and academic R&D, by providing open-access testing facilities. This helps accelerate the development and commercialisation of technologies for carbon capture and clean power generation. The PACT facilities bring together a comprehensive range of integrated pilot-scale and accompanying specialist research and analytical facilities, supported by leading academic expertise.
Collaborator Contribution The International Test Centre Network was initiated by TCM in 2012 to enable carbon capture test facilities around the world to progress the technologies that will be a key component of our clean energy future. The network aims to share knowledge that can accelerate technology commercialisation, including, for example, next-generation technologies that can sharply reduce the costs of electricity generation (and industrial products) using CO2 capture. Since its launch, some of the world's leading CCS test centres have been sharing knowledge of construction and operation of large test facilities in order to establish a level playing field for technology vendors to reduce costs, as well as the technical, environmental and financial risks currently associated with CCS.
Impact Joint meetings every 6 months. Cost reduction for CCS technology
Start Year 2015
 
Description International CCS Test Centre Network 
Organisation Technology Centre Mongstad
Department CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad
Country Norway 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution UK CCS Research Centre's PACT Facilities joins CCS Test Centre Network chaired by TCM to expand international knowledge sharing capabilities and accelerate commercialisation of crucial CCS technologies. The addition of the PACT Facilities to the Network - which currently spans Norway, Canada, the United States and Italy - will extend its reach and bring UK research in carbon capture onto the international stage. The purpose of PACT is to support and catalyse industrial and academic R&D, by providing open-access testing facilities. This helps accelerate the development and commercialisation of technologies for carbon capture and clean power generation. The PACT facilities bring together a comprehensive range of integrated pilot-scale and accompanying specialist research and analytical facilities, supported by leading academic expertise.
Collaborator Contribution The International Test Centre Network was initiated by TCM in 2012 to enable carbon capture test facilities around the world to progress the technologies that will be a key component of our clean energy future. The network aims to share knowledge that can accelerate technology commercialisation, including, for example, next-generation technologies that can sharply reduce the costs of electricity generation (and industrial products) using CO2 capture. Since its launch, some of the world's leading CCS test centres have been sharing knowledge of construction and operation of large test facilities in order to establish a level playing field for technology vendors to reduce costs, as well as the technical, environmental and financial risks currently associated with CCS.
Impact Joint meetings every 6 months. Cost reduction for CCS technology
Start Year 2015
 
Description International Flame Research Foundation (IFRF)-PACT National Facilities 
Organisation International Flame Research Foundation
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Collaboration agreement between IFRF-UK and PACT national facilities: we will provide technical support to IFRF experimental projects. The partnership will include, our combustion/emission control expertise, intellectual input or the training of staff from industry. It also includes access to data, equipment or facilities.
Collaborator Contribution The members of International Flame Research Foundation will use the PACT national facilities to test their energy systems, fuels and new and novel low carbon devices.
Impact New collaboration
Start Year 2017
 
Description PSE Process Simulation 
Organisation Process Systems Enterprise Limited (PSE)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Research team is working with PSE software to develop virtual reality dynamic simulation of the power plants. In addition we provide data from pilot scale facility to validate the new models.
Collaborator Contribution Providing technical support, seminars and software.
Impact A number of journal publications joint submission of research proposals joint seminars, workshops and CPD courses
Start Year 2015
 
Description Quantitech FTIR Analyser Supports Carbon Capture Research 
Organisation Quantitech
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution FTIR gas analysis performs a vital role in our work with all carbon capture methods; enabling us to monitor CO2 levels in addition to almost any other gas from the Gasmet library of over 5,000 compounds. We are using the analysers in different and harsh environments with feedback to the manufacture.
Collaborator Contribution Quantitech has commissioned an advanced Gasmet FTIR multiparameter gasanalyser at the UK Carbon Capture & Storage Research Centre (UKCCSRC) facility near Sheffield. This Pilot-scale Advanced Capture Technology (PACT) facility was created to catalyse and support both industrial and academic research.
Impact FTIR analyser has clearly demonstrated the suitability of multiparameter FTIR for monitoring CCS plants.
Start Year 2015
 
Description US-UK Collaboration on Energy Materials 
Organisation Argonne National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sharing of research data, development of predictive models, access to research facilities, hosting workshops and contributions to joint reports and publications.
Collaborator Contribution Access to USDOE funded research activities, sharing of testing data, access to in-house models and hosting workshops.
Impact Joint publications, focused workshops (e.g. IEAGHG Workshop on Corrosion in Oxy-combustion Systems, London, June 2014)
 
Description US-UK Collaboration on Energy Materials 
Organisation National Energy Technology Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sharing of research data, development of predictive models, access to research facilities, hosting workshops and contributions to joint reports and publications.
Collaborator Contribution Access to USDOE funded research activities, sharing of testing data, access to in-house models and hosting workshops.
Impact Joint publications, focused workshops (e.g. IEAGHG Workshop on Corrosion in Oxy-combustion Systems, London, June 2014)
 
Description US-UK Collaboration on Energy Materials 
Organisation Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sharing of research data, development of predictive models, access to research facilities, hosting workshops and contributions to joint reports and publications.
Collaborator Contribution Access to USDOE funded research activities, sharing of testing data, access to in-house models and hosting workshops.
Impact Joint publications, focused workshops (e.g. IEAGHG Workshop on Corrosion in Oxy-combustion Systems, London, June 2014)
 
Title FSCK Radiation SubModel for CFD codes V1 
Description New radiation sub model to predict the combustion of Oxy-coal more accurately. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2013 
Impact The performance of Commercial CFD codes to predict the combustion of oxy-fuels has been enhanced significantly. The radiation prediction in power plant boilers is crucial for accurate and realistic calculations of the overall performance and it is of great importance to utility industry and OEMs. 
 
Description Energy Materials Industrial Research Initiative 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact EMIRI was formed to promote and coordinate initiatives in energy materials research across Europe, to develop strategically important activities and identify key research priorities. As a result, the European Commission is working closely with EMIRI in the energy materials area for the Horizon 2020 Programme from 2017 onwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Member of review panel for German DFG activity SFB TRR 129 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of the review panel for the DFG SFB Transregio 'Entwicklung von Methoden und Modellen zur Beschreibung
der Reaktion fester Brennstoffe in einer Oxyfuel-Atmosphäre'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Training course/workshop to PhD students in CCS-CDT and UKCCSRC ECRs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 16 PhD students from CCS-CDT and ECR-UKCCSRC attended one week short courses to the PACT national facility. The students learned on how to operate pilot scale facilities and worked as a team to carryout projects. There is significant interest on this activity and therefore the workshop will be organised every year for the next 4 years.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Training for Bioenergy CDT PhD Students 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 15 Bioenergy CDT PhD students attended one week workshop in PACT to learn the pilot scale research and development activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.pact.ac.uk