IMP&CTS - IN SITU MEASUREMENT METHOD FOR PREDICTION & CHARACTERISATION AND DIAGNOSTIC TESTING OF STRUCTURE-BORNE SOUND

Lead Research Organisation: University of Salford
Department Name: Unlisted

Abstract

At the heart of this proposal is a development in the theory of structure-borne sound. Mathematically it is a fairly simple step from existing theory, but the practical implications of the step are profound. Potentially it opens a whole new paradigm in measurement methods applied for structure-borne sound, and in particular for characterisation of structure-borne sound sources like pumps, fans, domestic equipment, auxiliary equipment in aircraft, lift motors, engines in ships and many other applications.'Characterisation' means acquiring data to describe the source, for example to a purchaser, consultant, planner or regulator. It is needed to help prevent, reduce and regulate unwanted structure-borne sound. The new method is an in situ method which has several major advantages over existing methods. Most significantly, it can be applied by taking measurements in a normal installation of the structure-borne sound source. Existing characterisation method cannot be applied in this way and so are unable to handle a wide range of important sources like, for example, roof mounted wind turbines. The measurement techniques required to implement the new theory are already well-developed so the approach is ripe for exploitation in real industrial contexts. Hence, the core of the proposed work lies in implementing the in situ method in three, carefully selected industrial case studies. In Case study 1 roof-mounted wind turbines will be characterised. This task will be a collaboration with Encraft Ltd. who have, over the last 12 months, carried out the most extensive trials of small wind turbines ever conducted and have quickly acquired a world-wide reputation as a result. They will provide access to two installations, expertise in turbine operation and meteorological instrumentation. We believe the in situ method to be the only method likely to be implementable for wind turbines. This task is urgent because up to 6% of the UK's potential electricity generating capacity together with a potential 250M 'small wind' industry are currently effectively 'on hold' purely because of concerns about structure-borne sound. In Case study 2 the in situ method will be implemented for diagnostic testing of road noise in a road vehicle. The in situ approach has two major potential advantages over conventional methods: a 30% reduction in test time and the fact that the data obtained can potentially be used as input to numerical models of vehicles. It is extremely difficult and costly to obtain this data by any other means. This task will be a collaboration with Ricardo Consulting Ltd. the world leading, UK-based automotive technology company. They will supply rolling road facilities, a vehicle and extensive test equipment. They will conduct a parallel investigation on the same vehicle using their conventional method for comparison with the in situ results.In Case Study 3 the in situ method will be extended further to the prediction of structure-borne sound from a fuel pump motor in an aircraft. The motor will be characterised by taking measurements on one installation and the data will be used to predict the structure-borne sound level in a different structure. It is proposed that this task will be conducted in collaboration with The Boeing Company and one of their UK suppliers of fuel pump motors (although their participation cannot be authorised until funding is confirmed). This case will both validate the in situ method's use for prediction purposes and provide an example of how the data can be transferred within the supply chain. In the final task, the results from the three case studies will be synthesised and published. We also aim to bring in industrially funded work during this period to enable the team to become self-supporting.

Publications

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Elliott A (2013) In-situ source path contribution analysis of structure borne road noise in Journal of Sound and Vibration

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Elliott A (2012) Moment excitation and the measurement of moment mobilities in Journal of Sound and Vibration

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Moorhouse A (2013) The "round trip" theory for reconstruction of Green's functions at passive locations. in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

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Moorhouse A (2011) Structure-borne sound and vibration from building-mounted wind turbines in Environmental Research Letters

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Moorhouse A (2009) In situ measurement of the blocked force of structure-borne sound sources in Journal of Sound and Vibration

 
Description 1. The blocked force method was validated as a method for characterising the structure-borne sound from building-mounted wind turbines

2. The blocked force method was successfully implemented into a novel 'in situ transfer path analysis' method which quantifies the transmission paths for e.g. road noise through the structure into a vehicle cabin - compared with conventional method it has the significant advantage that it does not require disassembly of the vehicle

3. A novel method (the 'round
Exploitation Route The blocked force method developed in the project has been used in a commercial context to solve problems faced by European and US industry. At least 3 automotive companies, one rail rolling stock manufacturer have adopted the method independently to solve industrial problems. Finding 1 led to an official guide, funded by three government departments, for prediction of structure-borne sound from building-mounted wind turbines for use by planners and legislators
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Energy,Environment,Transport,Other

 
Description The findings have been taken up within the aerospace, automotive, energy and transport sectors and an International Standard is currently at Committee Draft stage. Automotive - the method has been taken by at least the following companies: 1 German, 1 Swedish OEM; tier 1 suppliers in Japan, Germany; 1 automotive consultancy company in the UK. It is used for characterisation of vibrating components (as intended in the proposal). Aerospace - round robin testing conducted by major airline company and 3 of their suppliers with a view to forming an industry standard Transport - research investigation conducted by 1 Canadian company, the method is adopted by a major French rolling stock manufacturer. Energy - the method used formed the basis of national guidelines for the structure-borne noise from building-mounted wind turbines in the UK. These are only the ones we know about and there are likely to be others, especially since potential users often do not discuss their methods. Standardisation - a committee of 10 experts from France, Germany, the Netherlands, USA, Sweden and Spain has been assembled as Working Group WG57 within Technical Committee TC43/SC1 of ISO. The group has started work on a standard, ISO20270. The first meeting was held in Milan in September 2015, the second in Leuven in September 2016
First Year Of Impact 2010
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Standard practice in mechanical industries
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The method developed in the grant has been: (a) formed the basis for a Draft International Standard (expected to become a full ISO in 2019) (b) been the subject of an international webinar for training engineers by Siemens
URL http://www.plm.automation.siemens.com/global/en/webinar/transfer-path-analysis-tpa/44276
 
Description DEFRA
Amount £134,889 (GBP)
Funding ID NANR244 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2009 
End 09/2010
 
Description Design by Science
Amount £495,573 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P005489/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 05/2019
 
Description Knowledge Transfer Partnership
Amount £208,281 (GBP)
Funding ID  
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 04/2020
 
Description Towards Zero Prototyping
Amount £197,839 (GBP)
Funding ID 38391-241226 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 03/2016
 
Description B&K 
Organisation Bruel and Kjaer
Country Denmark 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise in automotive NVH
Collaborator Contribution In kind contributions to acoustic simulation hardware and software
Impact None so far
Start Year 2015
 
Description Bentley 
Organisation Bentley Motors
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise in vibro-acoustics and specifically in characterisation of structure-borne sound sources.
Collaborator Contribution Funding for one PhD and several taught MSc students.
Impact One PhD thesis. Several MSc student project reports. Several small contract research projects. One unfunded and one funded EPSRC bid
Start Year 2011
 
Description Blocked force method partners 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We carried out measurements and analysis on case studies provided by partners
Collaborator Contribution Partners provided case studies for trial of the blocked force method
Impact Joint publications are listed in the publications section
Start Year 2009
 
Description Blocked force method partners 
Organisation Encraft
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We carried out measurements and analysis on case studies provided by partners
Collaborator Contribution Partners provided case studies for trial of the blocked force method
Impact Joint publications are listed in the publications section
Start Year 2009
 
Description Blocked force method partners 
Organisation Ricardo UK Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We carried out measurements and analysis on case studies provided by partners
Collaborator Contribution Partners provided case studies for trial of the blocked force method
Impact Joint publications are listed in the publications section
Start Year 2009
 
Description Dyson 
Organisation Dyson
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The blocked force method formed an essential element in the construction of a Virtual Acoustic Prototype for a Dyson product.
Collaborator Contribution Dyson committed test facilities, test products and skilled engineering specialists to implement the method within the compnay.
Impact Banwell, G., Hopper, H., Moorhouse, A., Elliott, A., & Meggitt, J. METHODS FOR AURALISING SOUNDS WITH TONAL COM-PONENTS. ICSV Florence, Italy, 2015
Start Year 2014
 
Description Farratt Isolevel 
Organisation Farrat Isolevel
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise in the use of blocked forces for prediction of building vibration for 3 year KTP (KTP010582)
Collaborator Contribution Expertise, funding and site access for KTP
Impact 1 international and 1 national conference papers
Start Year 2016
 
Description University of Cambridge 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Cambridge Institute for Medical Research (CIMR)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in vibro-acoustic measurement
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in vibro-acoustic modelling
Impact Non so far
Start Year 2010