Robust QoS Control of DSRC Vehicle Networks for Collaborative Road Safety Applications

Lead Research Organisation: Swansea University
Department Name: School of Engineering

Abstract

Road traffic safety has been a subject of worldwide concern. The annual national lost due to road accidents is tremendously high. During the last decade extensive efforts have been made on road safety systems to actively prevent accidents or passively minimize the consequences of accidents. With the advances in wireless communications and mobile ad hoc networking, the so-called collaborative safety applications (CSA) enabled by vehicular communications is widely regarded as a key to future road safety [19]. Equipped with inter-vehicle communication (IVC) and GPS, vehicles can assist drivers to recognize events that can not be detected by the drivers or local sensors alone. For example, a vehicle broken in highway can use IVC to inform the following vehicles the emergency event and avoid possible collisions. Apart from safety applications, a wide range of non-safety applications can also be deployed over vehicle networks, e.g. efficient route planning to reduce fuel consumption and carbon emission. Dedicated short range communications (DSRC) is a leading technique for IVC. It is regarded as the only technology able to provide a robust medium and affordable enough to build large scale CSA. Small scale field tests have demonstrated the communication capabilities of DSRC for CSA. However, CSA will not be effective unless a large proportion of vehicles are equipped with IVC. For the success of large scale CSA a critical issue is how to provide efficient and robust QoS support over DSRC vehicle networks. The reason is that safety messages generated by CSA have very strict QoS requirements in terms of throughput, reliability and delay. Excessive delay and message losses can nullify proper CSA operations and even produce negative unanticipated consequences. However providing effective and robust QoS support for CSA is very challenging. Existing research work on CSA has been primarily focused on the feasibility study of DSRC from the lower layers (physical and MAC layers) by field test or simulation approaches, while efficient QoS control of DSRC networks for CSA QoS support has not been studied. There is a big gap between the capabilities provided by DSRC at the lower layers and QoS support required by large scale CSA. This project aims to develop solutions for robust and bandwidth-efficient DSRC QoS control schemes to provide QoS support for large scale CSA, which is of utmost importance to practical CSA deployment. We will focus our work on two closely related tasks: (a) development of state of the art offline analytical and optimization tools for QoS support of large scale CSA and service planning purposes. Here offline means global network knowledge available for QoS control decisions. The tools will be developed based on Markov chain, queuing theory and water-filling method; and (b) development of novel online robust and bandwidth efficient congestion control schemes to provide QoS support, where transmit power and message rate are jointly controlled with cross-layer interaction, feedback and vehicle cooperation. Only localized knowledge is available for online QoS control. The insights into QoS support obtained in task (a) will be feed into the online control scheme design in task (b). The proposed research is novel and built upon the expertise of the investigator and his research group in the field of network performance modeling, network protocols design and optimization. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed work is the first of its kind on the robust congestion control and QoS support of DSRC networks. The implications of this research are expected to contribute directly to DSRC network QoS support in both theory and applications sides, which will eventually contribute to realize safe, environment friendly and comfortable driving.

Planned Impact

Outcomes of this project have the potential to deliver scientific and technological advances that will strengthen the UK's competitiveness in intelligent transport, telecommunications and many other related areas, thereby contribute to the economy and wellbeing of the UK. Public road users may only enjoy the promising benefits of DSRC vehicle networks enabled collaborative safety applications when the fundamental technological problems are fully explored. Public transport services, automobile manufacturers and telecomm industry need to address the potential and risks of DSRC vehicle networks and collaborative safety applications. Potential beneficiaries of this project are described as follows. Public Road Users Road traffic accidents are one of the world's largest public health and injury prevention problems. With the increase in the number of road users, the road traffic safety problem is expected to be more challenging. Equipped with inter-vehicle communication (IVC) and GPS, vehicles can assist drivers to recognize events that can not be detected by the drivers or local sensors alone. The proposed research on robust QoS support is a necessary and critical component of DSRC vehicle networks. The research outcomes can help bring DSRC network based collaborative safety applications closer to practice. Successful deployment of collaborative safety applications will offer road users safe driving in a cost-effective way, by minimizing the number of road accidents and their consequences. Various road safety applications can be tested and implemented in both near (3-5 years) and medium (5-10 years) time scales, e.g., emergency warning system for vehicles and cooperative forward collision warning. Public road users can also benefit from the DSRC based vehicle networks on the traffic congestion control. As safety and non-safety applications will co-exist in the spectrum allocated to DSRC, robust and efficient QoS control for road safety applications will leave plenty of spectrum resources for non-safety applications, which is a key for success of non-safety applications such as traffic congestion control. Efficient traffic congestion control will increase the efficiency of transportation infrastructure and reduce travel time. Telecom Industry Current cellular networks often provide poor coverage, low data rate and expensive per-minute pricing for mobile data services. A possible solution to provide entertainment and Internet access is deploying heterogeneous mobile networks, which include long-range commercial cellular networks and DSRC vehicle networks to achieve both cost-effectiveness and high service availability. In moving to DSRC vehicle networks based heterogeneous mobile networks, telecom operators will find themselves at an advantage in terms of network cost, breadth of services, and end-user experience. Academic Beneficiaries Academic beneficiaries include the researchers carrying out related research, as well as other researchers in the field. They will benefit from the theoretical and methodological advances to be achieved. Research outcomes will be disseminated for the wireless network research community, as well as researchers in other disciplines, to better understand and keep track of cutting-edge research in this emerging area. The proposed project also endeavours to enhance the knowledge and skill base of the UK through training and development of researchers. Outcomes of the project may contribute to automobile industry and standardisation activities, aid government agencies and other bodies to know better about the possible impact of DSRC vehicle network deployments, so that appropriate regulatory policies can be investigated. The contribution to the research community, telecom industry, automobile manufacturers and standardisation bodies will lead to a subsequent impact on the economic success and the improvement of quality of life for the general public.

Publications

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He J (2016) Analytical Evaluation and Optimization of LTE Uplink Communications with Sector Antennas in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications

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Jianhua He (2011) Theoretic Analysis of IEEE 802.11 Rate Adaptation Algorithm SampleRate in IEEE Communications Letters

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Ma C (2012) Uncoordinated coexisting IEEE 802.15.4 networks for machine to machine communications in Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications

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Tang Z (2015) Achievable performance gain of IEEE 802.11 multi-rate link adaptation algorithm with cross-layer design in International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems

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Xu C (2012) Unified Model for Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks in Unsaturated Conditions in KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems

Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
EP/I010157/1 31/03/2011 11/01/2012 £101,057
EP/I010157/2 Transfer EP/I010157/1 12/01/2012 11/10/2012 £53,446
 
Description - Through the research founded on this grant, we developed an analytic framework to capture impact of channel quality, channel access priority schemes, and rate adaptation on throughput, delay and reliability performances of IEEE 802.11p MAC protocol. At MAC layer the IEEE 802.11p based random channel access is used in dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) for road safety applications. The analytical model provides an important and effective tool for network QoS prediction, network planning and control.
- Based on the analytical model, we formulated the optimal transmit power and message rate control problem, designed and evaluated a centralized low-complexity algorithms for the control problem with heterogeneous system configurations.
- We developed a Matlab based software package that implements the mathematical tool and centralized algorithms, using them to investigate the joint impact of transmit power, message rate, 802.11p MAC and vehicle density on robust QoS support, and identified the dominant components that influence robust QoS support for CSA.
- We proposed and evaluated cooperative and non-cooperative adaptive rate/power control schemes for road safety applications, to the best of our knowledge, which is the first of its kind for traffic congestion control in DSRC based vehicle ad hoc networks.
- We investigated the impact of cooperative QoS control and cross-layer design on QoS performances and identified the best way of implementing robust and bandwidth-efficient QoS control.
- We developed a discrete-event driven simulator by Matlab that implements the IEEE 802.11p and the distributed QoS control schemes for DSRC vehicle networks, conducted system level performance study of the QoS support for CSA, tested and demonstrated the viability of the developed robust QoS control schemes in practical network scenarios.
- We also proposed and evaluated across-layer protocol for non-safety Internet access services and peer communications for vehicular networks, in which clustering, resource allocation, routing and application QoS are taken into account.
Exploitation Route We believe our findings can be used and taken forward by others from several ways:
1) Our analytical model can be used by others to assess the network QoS for DSRC based road safety applications under various road traffic conditions, perform feasibility analysis and network planning;
2) Our offline and online network control schemes can be used by others to effectively control the network congestion and DSRC QoS for road safety applications, by the control of safety message transmission rate, MAC parameters, transmission power etc. We believe network control scheme can play a critical role for DSRC vehicle networks with increasing autonomous cars on the roads.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Electronics,Environment,Transport

 
Description An innovative power/communication converters network for low cost intelligent DC micro-grids
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 05/2017
 
Description DETERMINE (Marie Curie International research staff exchange scheme (IRSES) )
Amount € 350,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 318906 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2013 
End 05/2017
 
Description Key communication technologies for space information networks
Amount ¥1,600,000 (CNY)
Organisation National Natural Science Foundation of China 
Sector Public
Country China
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2017
 
Title Fast user pairing and power allocation methods for 5G non-orthogonal multiple access 
Description Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is a candidate technology for the 5th generation cellular networks to reduce the big gap between network capacity and fast growing traffic. It applies superposition coding in transmitters and successive interference cancellation (SIC) at the receivers to cancel intra-cell interference. The same frequency resource can be allocated simultaneously to multiple intra-cell users, holding large potentials on improving network performance. A major technical challenge of NOMA is on user pairing and power allocation (UPPA). Most of existing UPPA algorithms are based on exhaustive search with extensive computation. We proposed a fast algorithm but still has high computation complexity. Then we propose a new algorithm, which has the lowest computation complexity achievable for NOMA UPPA. The main idea is to pair the first users having the highest proportional fairness (PF) priority coefficient with potential second users having the highest channel conditions. And a fixed power allocation strategy is adopted. Simulation results show the proposed algorithm is significantly faster than existing algorithms while NOMA throughput gain is not sacrificed. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The research tool is critical for practical design and implementation of the NOMA, in order to realize its full potentials for 5G cellular networks. In addition, it can be applied to support massive vehicle to vehicle communicaitons by cellular networks, in order to improve road safety performance and reduce transport congestion. 
URL http://digital-library.theiet.org/content/journals/10.1049/el.2016.4190
 
Description Horizon2020 RISE Programme on Unified Cooperative Safety System and Applications with Connected Vehicles 
Organisation Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Country Hong Kong 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am coordinator of a Horizon2020 RISE programme, which is currently proposed to be submitted by 5 April for potential funding from EU. I created the consortium, prepared the main parts of the proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners contribute to different aspects of the proposal. We worked as a team to prepare the proposal and designed interesting reseach activities.
Impact The outcome of this collaboration is to a research proposal to be submitted for potential funding. If it is successful, more research publications and road safety systems will be produced.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Horizon2020 RISE Programme on Unified Cooperative Safety System and Applications with Connected Vehicles 
Organisation InterDigital
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I am coordinator of a Horizon2020 RISE programme, which is currently proposed to be submitted by 5 April for potential funding from EU. I created the consortium, prepared the main parts of the proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners contribute to different aspects of the proposal. We worked as a team to prepare the proposal and designed interesting reseach activities.
Impact The outcome of this collaboration is to a research proposal to be submitted for potential funding. If it is successful, more research publications and road safety systems will be produced.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Horizon2020 RISE Programme on Unified Cooperative Safety System and Applications with Connected Vehicles 
Organisation University of Göttingen
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am coordinator of a Horizon2020 RISE programme, which is currently proposed to be submitted by 5 April for potential funding from EU. I created the consortium, prepared the main parts of the proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners contribute to different aspects of the proposal. We worked as a team to prepare the proposal and designed interesting reseach activities.
Impact The outcome of this collaboration is to a research proposal to be submitted for potential funding. If it is successful, more research publications and road safety systems will be produced.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Horizon2020 RISE Programme on Unified Cooperative Safety System and Applications with Connected Vehicles 
Organisation University of Hong Kong
Country Hong Kong 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am coordinator of a Horizon2020 RISE programme, which is currently proposed to be submitted by 5 April for potential funding from EU. I created the consortium, prepared the main parts of the proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners contribute to different aspects of the proposal. We worked as a team to prepare the proposal and designed interesting reseach activities.
Impact The outcome of this collaboration is to a research proposal to be submitted for potential funding. If it is successful, more research publications and road safety systems will be produced.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Horizon2020 RISE Programme on Unified Cooperative Safety System and Applications with Connected Vehicles 
Organisation University of Oslo
Country Norway 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am coordinator of a Horizon2020 RISE programme, which is currently proposed to be submitted by 5 April for potential funding from EU. I created the consortium, prepared the main parts of the proposal.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners contribute to different aspects of the proposal. We worked as a team to prepare the proposal and designed interesting reseach activities.
Impact The outcome of this collaboration is to a research proposal to be submitted for potential funding. If it is successful, more research publications and road safety systems will be produced.
Start Year 2016
 
Title System level simulator for DSRC based collaborative safety applications 
Description We developed system level simulators based on Matlab, which included 802.11p DSRC based PHY and MAC layer functionalities, and road safety applications based on the connected cars and GPS mobility information. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact The software is used to support follow-up research on collaborative road safety applications and design of new communication and networking protocols.