EEFIT Earthquake Mission Grant: Funding for Improved Response and Dissemination

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Abstract

The recent earthquake in Haiti highlights the tremendous suffering that earthquakes can inflict on some of the world's most vulnerable communities. While the role of earthquake engineering is of paramount importance in mitigating these effects, before we can improve our building standards it is absolutely crucial to gather first hand information on current building deficiencies. This research will fund UK based academics to participate in earthquake field investigations conducted by the Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT). in addition to this it will also enhance the quality of the data collected and its accessability to other researchers bydeveloping standardised field data collection methods. The grant will lasts for five years and in this time we will conduct five field investigations. Each investigation will comprise of a team of approximately six to eight people, two of whom will be UK academics and up to two PhD students and four from industry. They will spend approximately 7 days in the field making observations and collecting data. On their return, this data will be analysed and the findings disseminated to researchers, professional engineers and the community at large. This funding will allow rapid deployment of field investigations and the possibility to carry out longitudinal studies to assess recovery from catastrophic events. The grant will also provide funding for meetings with International partner institutions that deploy earthquake field missions (namely EERI, and GNS) in order to agree and develop standardised field mission protocols and data collection forms and tools.

Planned Impact

Arguably the greatest disturbance to quality of life is the misery caused by natural disasters. In the case of earthquakes, the affected area is so large, the devastation caused so great and usually, although not always, the people affected so vulnerable, that even the smallest measures to reduce the impact will have an enormous effect on the quality of life of those affected. Progress in earthquake mitigation is mainly achieved by informing researchers of gaps in our current earthquake engineering knowledge, informing designers of the flaws in existing design practices, informing disaster management planners and policy makers of how to ensure safer systems, and teaching local communities how they can best prepare for the next event. All will benefit from the research; however in the longer term it is the world's most vulnerable communities that will see the greatest impact. The field observations will serve as guidance for the improvement of building codes in both the affected region and to seismic zones in general. They will be particularly important for informing the reconstruction process and will have a direct impact on the future resilience of the local community. In Britain, there is an excellent and active earthquake engineering community; however, it can be difficult for young researchers and engineers to gain practical experience in this important discipline. The academic members and PhD students will receive invaluable training and experience, by visiting the region, collecting data and make damage assessments, this will in turn be of great benefit to the earthquake engineering community in general.

Publications

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Goda K (2015) The 2015 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake: Insights from Earthquake Damage Survey in Frontiers in Built Environment

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Goda, K (2012) EFIT Field Observations and Lessons from the 11th March 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku Earthquake: Ground Motion and Shaking Damage in 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Lisbon, Portugal 24/09/2012 28/09/2012

 
Description the main findings to date relate to The Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 11th March 2011 and the MAGNITUDE Mw = 6.3 Christchurch, New Zealand Earthquake of 22nd February 2011. The key findings are as follows, the Nepal earthquake and Ecuador and Japan 2016 Kumamoto earthquake

Japan 2011
•the Japan's 11 March earthquake is the world's costliest earthquake on record - with losses exceeding £200 billion
•The magnitude 9 earthquake ruptured an area spanning 500km in length and 200km in width
•Uncertainties surrounding Japan's energy supply and the populations health are on going - stemming from the Fukushima Daiichi nclear power plant disaster
•It has been concluded that Japan's preparedness was largely successful - with the evacuation process reducing fatalities by approximately 80 - 90 percent
•Many of the damaged / collapsed buildings in Sendai were reinforced concrete structures, constructed prior to 1981 when a major revision to the Japanese seismic design code was implemented
•Damage on an unimaginable scale was caused to the coastal defence structures along the north-east coast of Japan - 8,500m of breakwaters collapsed
•Geotechnical failures generally did not impair the integrity of buildings in non-coastal areas. However, slope failures did result in significant displacement of low-rise residential houses sited in mountainous terrains.

Christchurch 2011
•A significant number of unreinforced masonry structures behaved poorly and suffered major damage or even collapse.
•Of the modern structures that suffered significant structural damage, most of this could be attributed to irregularities in the structural system.
•Damage to RC shear walls was observed on a number of occasions. It is believed than some of this damage could again be attributed to irregularities in the structural system.
•Whereas many precast concrete details performed adequately, there was a number of notable failures. The seismic adequacy of precast connections should therefore be reassessed.
•The non-structural damage resulting from the earthquake was often significant, even in modern structures, and some of the plastic hinging in the structural systems may have rendered them beyond economically viable repair.
•Liquefaction was widespread and this caused a great deal of disruption after the event. Damage to buried services due to this liquefaction was also widespread. Foundations also suffered due to liquefaction and this was the cause of much of the structural damage seen in Christchurch.
•Many bridges over water suffered acute rotation of abutments due to lateral spreading and while no bridge collapsed and, at the time of survey, all those visited were back in service, the speed reductions that had to be placed on them were very disruptive.
L'Aquila - return missions
This return mission has highlighted specific engineering lessons on the disaster management and reconstruction process that differ from those that can be obtained in the immediate aftermath of the event. For example
• The widespread shoring of historic structures in the centre of L'Aquila was observed to be applied indiscriminately to almost all structures, whether lightly damaged or in a state ready for demolition. More accurate assessment of reserve capacity based on field observations may allow application of shoring to be more efficient following future earthquakes.
• The use of Fibre Reinforced Polymer was commonly observed in the retrofit of existing reinforced concrete structures and masonry infill panels, but also in the case of historical masonry. Clearer design guidance and wider understanding of the performance and limitations of this technique may improve the effectiveness of future retrofitting.
• With the reconstruction process dealing mainly with private buildings financed by public resources, the Government faced the need to write a new legislative framework for the reconstruction in Abruzzo.
Inevitably, the process of setting up such a legislative framework took time, with new laws and regulations released progressively over the first two years after the earthquake. This led to confusion amongst professionals and technicians and resulted in a chaotic progress of the design process in the early stages.
• The financial policy put in place after the L'Aquila earthquake will have direct consequences on the vulnerability of the building stock to future earthquakes as only those buildings that were severely damaged are likely to be strengthened, hence those lightly damaged or undamaged by this earthquake will remain vulnerable to the next earthquake.

Nepal 2015
Building damage was not as great as expected. This was likely due to a combination of some buildings having relatively good seismic detailing and the ground shaking being concentrated in the long period range of 4-6 seconds.
Remote mountain communities were disproportionately badly affected, due to very poor building stock and landslides. Landslides were continuing to be a problem and restricting aid to communities by continually sweeping away the supply roads
Japan 2016 Kumamoto earthquake
Earthquake damage in the Kumamoto downtown was relatively minor, despite the intense ground shaking experienced. As locations become closer to the fault rupture zone, the occurrence of the structural damage become more frequent. Influential factors of the earthquake damage occurrence include the construction material, construction age, geological/geographical condition. In the near-fault region, the effects of ground deformation were also significant. The issues of maintaining the essential functionality of infrastructure are critical for communities that may be isolated after the major earthquake.

Ecuador 2016
Most of the earthquake damage to housing was to one- and two-storey, predominantly reinforced concrete or mixed reinforced concrete, structures built during the last two decades in urban areas. In addition, taller concrete structures in commercial centres, also showed significant damages Much of the damage to structures, as well as that observed in landslides, was located in areas with quaternary, soft deposits that may have suffered high levels of saturation due to the heavy rains and floods that were experienced just before the main event.
Exploitation Route The unique nature of this research grants means that areas for further research are numerous Publications from this research have many observations will can be used to direct future research
Sectors Construction,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description Building damage statistics collected during the EEFIT mission to Christchurch to provide empirical evidence to support the definition of building fragility functions to investigate the potential impact of induced earthquakes in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Tools developed for Tohoku earthquake have now been used as specification for Global Earthquake Model Inventory Data Capture tools Data observations and statistics have been used in various insurance industry risk models Nepal landslide observations are currently being used by BGS photos are being used by Cambridge Architectural research EEPIMap application
Sector Construction,Financial Services, and Management Consultancy
Impact Types Economic

 
Description EPSRC Responsive mode
Amount £1,370,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P025641/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2022
 
Description Data Collection Tool Development 
Organisation Earthquake Engineering Research Institute
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Organized or helped to organize and attended workshops to improve earthquake damage data collection tools and protocols
Collaborator Contribution Organized or helped to organize and attended workshops to improve earthquake damage data collection tools and protocols
Impact Workshop - Oakland- organized by EEFIT and EERI and hosted by EERI Workshop - Anchorage - organized by EERI Meeting- Sydney- organized by University of Auckland and EEFIT
Start Year 2012
 
Description Data Collection Tool Development 
Organisation GNS Science
Country New Zealand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Organized or helped to organize and attended workshops to improve earthquake damage data collection tools and protocols
Collaborator Contribution Organized or helped to organize and attended workshops to improve earthquake damage data collection tools and protocols
Impact Workshop - Oakland- organized by EEFIT and EERI and hosted by EERI Workshop - Anchorage - organized by EERI Meeting- Sydney- organized by University of Auckland and EEFIT
Start Year 2012
 
Title earthquake data collection tool 
Description Android app for collecting building information and damage information associated with earthquakes 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact This was trialed in Japan in 2011 and formed the basis for a tool that has been developed by GEM (IDCT). The IDCT has been used for collecting building information for the Global Earthquake Model and a version modified by collaborator GNS Science was used for flooding in Vietnam 
 
Description Data Collection tools workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Workshop attended by GNS Science EERI EEFIT USGS ImageCat and others to discuss current data collection methods and opportunities for developing tools to collect
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description EEFIT The Mw7.8 Muisne Earthquake, Ecuador of 16 April 2016 - Preliminary Observations from the EEFIT Reconnaissance Mission 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A seminar on the EEFIT mission to Ecuador was hosted by the Institution of Structural Engineers at The Institution of Engineering & Technology, September 19, 2016 It was attended by a diverse range of approximately 100 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://london.eventful.com/events/eefit-mw78-muisne-earthquake-ecuador-16-apr-/E0-001-095983453-1
 
Description EEFIT return mission to the L'Aquila earthquake of 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A JOINT EEFIT/SECED/ISTRUCTE EVENING MEETING to disseminat mission findings of the EEFIT return mission to the L'Aquila earthquake of 2009, hosted at

Institution of Structural Engineers

Monday, 25 March 2013 from 17:30 to 20:00 (GMT)

London, United Kingdom.

This seminar presented the results of the EEFIT return mission to the areas affected by the L'Aquila Earthquake. The seminar presented information on recovery and reconstruction from technical, planning and social perspectives, results of testing of field data capture tools feeding into GEM and the development of a new International Macro-Seismic Intensity scale, for their viability in post-earthquake damage surveys and assessments of the value of return missions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Learning from Earthquakes - Building resilient communities, one disaster at a time Newcastle University, Civil Engineering, Visit Day Example Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This presentation was an example lecture for the School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences at Newcastle University open day and used research from this award to highligh come of the research informed teaching that is conducted at Newcastle University. 90% of the audience rated it as good or excellent.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Lessons learnt from the Mw 6.3 Christchurch Earthquake of 22nd February 2011, Presentation at the Institution of Structural Engineers, 10th May 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A semminar aimed at academics, engineers and the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Lessons learnt from the Mw 9, T_hoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 11th March 2011 Presentation at the Institution of Structural Engineers, 14th July 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A seminar describing the event and lessons learnt.

A seminar presenting the findings of the mission to Japan. The event was attended by a delegation from the Japanese Embassey
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Post Earthquake Data Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Meeting to discuss progress on damage collection
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Post Earthquake Data Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Workshop to discuss standardization of data collection protocols
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.eeri.org/projects/learning-from-earthquakes-lfe/eq-data-collection/
 
Description The 14th and 16th April 2016 Kumamoto (Japan) Earthquakes EEFIT Recoinnassance Mission observations 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A public seminar was presented at the Institution of Structural Engineers, 47 - 58 Bastwick St, London EC1V 3PS to approximately 100 people on 7 July 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.seced.org.uk/index.php/events/non-seced-events/the-14th-and-16th-april-2016-kumamoto-japa...
 
Description The 14th and 16th April 2016 Kumamoto (Japan) Earthquakes EEFIT reconnaissance mission observations and findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation made at the The Institution of Structural Engineers, 7 July 2016 attended by approximately 100 people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.seced.org.uk/index.php/events/non-seced-events/the-14th-and-16th-april-2016-kumamoto-japa...
 
Description The Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake of 25th April 2015; public seminar Hosted by the Institution of Structural Engineers; 26th Oct 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of the findings and lessons from the earthquake reconnaissannce mission to Nepal, at the Institution of Structural Engineers and attended by engineers and academics and general public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.istructe.org/events/hq/2015/the-mw-7-8-gorkha-%28nepal%29-earthquake-of-25th-april