Therapeutic Imaging

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Engineering Science

Abstract

In the majority of current medical practice, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic procedures are intrinsically separate, often involving entirely different teams of experts. Whilst this takes advantage of the highly developed skills of narrow specialisms, it can have significant drawbacks: it is resource intensive; lack of real-time monitoring increases the risk of ineffective treatment or collateral damage; long waiting times between diagnosis and treatment and/or treatment and follow up are psychologically and often physically detrimental to patients due to disease progression; and there is increased risk of patients not attending or not complying with treatment regimes. The aim of the proposed research programme is to build a world leading multi-disciplinary team to develop new methods and technologies that will truly integrate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and produce a step change in clinical practice. The research activity will be focused in three areas:-Developing new types of agent for targeted drug delivery which will enable clinicians to monitor the placement, transport and controlled release of drugs and other therapeutic material. -Understanding the mechanisms by which these agents interact with cells and tissue to enable the design of safer, more reliable delivery strategies-Designing technology that will not only enable tracking of therapeutic material but also active manipulation and stimulation.The outcomes of the research will directly benefit patients, clinicians and other healthcare workers by providing new, more efficient and effective procedures. This will in turn yield economic benefits, directly through new products and services for the biomedical and pharmaceutical industries, and by reducing demand on healthcare resources. To realise these outcomes, a key feature of the research strategy will be to maintain close working relationships with both clinical and industrial partners to maintain the focus of the work on the most relevant research challenges and to identify and access the most appropriate and efficient routes for translation.The research will also lead to new discoveries and the development of a range of experimental and theoretical tools which will be of direct benefit to the research community. Another important aspect of the programme will thus be training of the research team to communicate effectively across disciplinary boundaries as well as through wider public engagement activities. Through building on the proposed pilot studies and collaborations with academics, clinicians and industry a research project portfolio will be constructed which will sustain the activity of the group beyond 5 years in order to fully realise the integration of diagnostic imaging and therapy from concept to clinic.

Planned Impact

It is intended that the outcomes of the proposed work will have a real and positive impact upon academic research, industrial competitiveness and most importantly clinical practice, through the provision of new techniques and technologies. The long term strategy for building the group, collaborations and research portfolio has been structured accordingly. A key feature of this strategy is to maintain close working relationships with both clinical and industrial partners to maintain the focus of the work on the most relevant research challenges and to identify and access the most appropriate and efficient routes for translation. The expected benefits arising from the three core activities of the research group are as follows: - The development of new agents that will enable clinicians to monitor the placement, transport and controlled release of drugs and other therapeutic material will greatly improve targeting accuracy, as well as providing real-time, quantitative monitoring of drug concentration. This significantly reduces the risk of ineffective treatment or harmful side-effects, and also the need for repeat and/or follow-up procedures. - Understanding the mechanisms by which these agents interact with cells and tissue will enable the design of safer, more reliable delivery strategies, from the design of the drug vehicle to the means of administration and activation. It will also lead to the development of new sensing technology for researchers in biomedical engineering and with wider applications for remote sensing in other areas and industries (e.g. nuclear, marine and aerospace). - Providing technology that will not only enable tracking of therapeutic material but also its active guidance and activation will facilitate new clinical procedures with the potential to remove the separation between imaging and treatment altogether. These outcomes will directly benefit patients, clinicians and other healthcare workers by providing new, more efficient and effective procedures that will lead to better recovery rates and more focused contact time between patients and clinicians. This will in turn yield economic benefits, directly through new products and services for the biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. It will also reduce the call on healthcare resources, e.g. by removing the need for multiple separate imaging and treatment appointments, reducing the risk of disease progression between appointments and of patient non-compliance. The savings in staff and equipment time should significantly outweigh the potentially higher cost of the new agents and equipment. It is anticipated that the first prototype agents will be available for pre-clinical testing within 2 years of the start of the program through the proposed pilot project with Biocompatibles Ltd. The investigation of the mechanisms of interaction is of a more conventional academic nature but its findings will influence the design of drug delivery systems developed within the group and subsequently of those in other research groups in 3-5 years. Similarly, the first prototype systems for therapeutic imaging, incorporating guidance and activation will be developed over the course of the 5 year program with a view to commencing clinical trials shortly thereafter. The research programme has been designed to sustain the group's activity to continue to pioneer the design and development of integrated imaging and therapeutic systems beyond the 5 year programme. The highly interdisciplinary nature of the work will generate researchers with experience and skills from traditionally separate fields who are able to communicate their research not only through academic publications and presentations across disciplinary boundaries, but also to industrial and clinical partners. This experience will both improve their employment potential and provide a valuable resource for the academic and commercial research sectors.

Publications

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Aron M (2019) Investigating the Role of Lipid Transfer in Microbubble-Mediated Drug Delivery. in Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids

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Azmin M (2013) Investigating the acoustic response of gold nanoparticle coated microbubbles in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

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Bakhshi P (2012) Application of Electrohydrodynamic Technology for Folic Acid Encapsulation in Food and Bioprocess Technology

 
Description -A potential method for temporarily increasing the oxygen levels in tissue that can improve treatment outcomes for cancer patients and potentially sufferers of other diseases too.
-That the chemical composition of microbubble agents can significantly affect their interaction with cells and hence their therapeutic potential.
-That magnetic targeting can be used to enhance drug delivery mediated by a combination of microbubbles and ultrasound.
-That the manufacturing techniques can have a profound affect upon the functional capability of drug delivery and imaging agents
-A new method for manufacturing microbubbles that combines the benefits of conventional emulsification with the precision of microfluidics.
-A method for designing and fabricating magnetic arrays for use in therapeutic applications.
-A new type of magnetic and acoustically responsive drug delivery agent.
Exploitation Route We have patented the inventions (new agents and manufacturing techniques) and are in the process of commercialising it and progressing to clinical trials.
We have disseminated the scientific findings via conferences, publications and public lectures/media broadcasts so that other researchers can build upon them.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL http://www.ibme.ox.ac.uk/research/non-invasive-therapy-drug-delivery/publications
 
Description A new spin out company SonoTarg has been formed to enable clinical translation of the research for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Healthcare
 
Description A New Nanoparticle Vehicle for Ultrasound Enhanced Delivery of
Amount £1,300,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/L025825/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 08/2017
 
Description Bubbles to bond broken bones
Amount £1,100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R013594/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description Cancer Research UK Interdisciplinary Grant
Amount £485,046 (GBP)
Funding ID C15140/A19817 
Organisation Cancer Research UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2019
 
Description Crack It
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 06/2015
 
Description EPSRC Impact Acceleration partnership scheme
Amount £67,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 02/2020
 
Description EPSRC Responsive Mode
Amount £1,100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R013624/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 07/2021
 
Description IET AF Harvey Prize
Amount £300,000 (GBP)
Organisation Institution of Engineering and Technology 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2018
 
Description Improving Tumour Oxygenation to Enhance the Combined Sonodynamic and Radiotherapy Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer
Amount £180,000 (GBP)
Organisation Pancreatic Cancer UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 06/2021
 
Description Micro and Nanobubbles for Oxygen Delivery
Amount £35,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Leeds 
Department Impact Accelerator Award
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 06/2015
 
Description Microbubble Enhanced Sonothrombolysis
Amount £61,000 (GBP)
Organisation BTG 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 03/2017
 
Description NIH - OXCAM scholarship
Amount $200,000 (USD)
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH) 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 09/2019 
End 08/2021
 
Description New approaches to microsphere formulation for single dose prime-boost vaccine delivery
Amount £52,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 10/2017
 
Description OXCD3 Oxford Centre for Drug Delivery Devices
Amount £10,000,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/L024012/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2019
 
Description Optimal microbubble contrast enhanced imaging for the surveillance of endoleaks
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Department Medical Research Foundation
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2015
 
Description Oral formulation of oxygen for reducing tumour hypoxia
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 21892 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 05/2018
 
Description Real time confocal tracking of ultrasound mediated drug deliver
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 06/2015
 
Description Rosalind Franklin Institute
Amount £3,500,000 (GBP)
Organisation Research Complex at Harwell 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 02/2023
 
Description Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 - industrial fellowship
Amount £120,000 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2021
 
Description Therapy Ultrasound Network for Drug Delivery & Ablation
Amount £460,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N026942/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 05/2019
 
Description USCF
Amount £51,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 08/2019
 
Description Ultrasonic Delivery of Pt(IV) Prodrugs
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Funding ID CRUKDF 0317-NF 
Organisation Cancer Research UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Ultrasonic Delivery of Theranostic Anti-Cancer Agents
Amount £300,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 201406/Z/16/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2020
 
Description Ultrasonic electrospray of intact complexes from vesicles and exosomes
Amount £34,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 08/2018
 
Description Ultrasound Guided Magnetic Microbubble Targeted Thrombin Delivery for the Treatment of Pseudoaneurysms
Amount £245,755 (GBP)
Organisation Heart Research UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2021
 
Description Ultrasound/MRI systems Oxford-Harvard equipment collaboration
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2014 
End 07/2014
 
Description industrial fellowship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2016
 
Description research award
Amount £114,000 (GBP)
Organisation Multiple Sclerosis Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Title SonoLid 
Description Ultrasound (US), in combination with microbubbles, has been found to be a potential alternative to viral therapies for transfecting biological cells. The translation of this technique to the clinical environment, however, requires robust and systematic optimization of the acoustic parameters needed to achieve a desired therapeutic effect. Currently, a variety of different devices have been developed to transfect cells in vitro, resulting in a lack of standardized experimental conditions and difficulty in comparing results from different laboratories. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an easy-to-fabricate and cost-effective device for application in US-mediated delivery of therapeutic compounds. It comprises a commercially available cell culture dish coupled with a silicon-based ''lid'' developed in-house that enables the device to be immersed in a water bath for US exposure. The drawings and instructions for fabrication have been made freely available online. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We have received requests from several laboratories in Europe and the USA for sample devices which are now being used for experiments. 
URL http://www.sonofluidics.co.uk
 
Description BTG Biocompatibles 
Organisation BTG
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are characterising the the release profile of chemotherapeutic drugs from embolic beads using a new system developed in our laboratory
Collaborator Contribution BTG are providing materials and expertise for bead manufacture
Impact This has led to a proposal for a PhD project for 2016-17. Disciplines: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Optics, Acoustics, Biomedical Engineering
Start Year 2014
 
Description BTG Ekos 
Organisation BTG
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Providing a blood clot model and monitoring system to study the breakdown of clots when exposed to ultrasound using the Ekos system
Collaborator Contribution Funding the researcher conducting the work and provision of the Ekos system
Impact The first study has led to a second the results of which we hope to publish and will support future clinical trial applications
Start Year 2014
 
Description Cell Therapy 
Organisation Cell Therapy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Fabrication of a new drug delivery vehicle Researcher time in testing the new vehicle
Collaborator Contribution Provision of proprietary therapeutic molecules Direct funding for cell biologist and consumables
Impact Publications in preparation and discussions regarding future development of the delivery agent are underway
Start Year 2014
 
Description Lein 
Organisation Lein Applied Diagnostics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Developing a scanning confocal microscopy system for studying ultrasound mediated drug delivery through a PhD project.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise and advice in building confocal systems; co-supervision of a PhD student; funding application support
Impact The work to date has been commercially sensitive so there have not been any publications yet.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Marina 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Fabrication of microbubbles and participation in fluorescence imaging experiments (researcher time)
Collaborator Contribution Participation in fluorescence imaging experiments (researcher time)
Impact Hosny NA, Mohamedi G, Rademeyer P, Owen J, Wu Y, Tang MX, Eckersley RJ, Stride E, Kuimova MK, 2013, Mapping microbubble viscosity using fluorescence lifetime imaging of molecular rotors, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol:110, ISSN:0027-8424, Pages:9225-9230 (cover article) Mohamedi, G., Hosny, N., Rademeyer, P., Park, Y., Owen, J., Pham, T., Joyce Wong, J.,Kuimova, M., Stride, E. Investigating the effect of fabrication method on the stability and acoustic response of microbubble agents. Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, The Canadian Acoustical Association and International Congress on Acoustics, Montreal, 2-7 June 2013. Hosny, N., Mohamedi, G., Wu, Y., Tang, M., Eckersley, R., Kuimova, M., Stride, E. Mapping Microbubble Viscosity Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). 17th European Symposium on Ultrasound Contrast Imaging. Rotterdam Hilton Hotel. January 18-20 2012.
Start Year 2011
 
Description NPL 
Organisation National Physical Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Part funding of a studentship Theoretical modelling of cavitation dynamics Fabrication of microbubbles for experiments at NPL Participation in public engagement activities
Collaborator Contribution Part funding of a studentship
Impact -Participation in Royal Society Summer Exhibition 2012 -Participation in Big Bang Fair 2013 -Conference papers C. Harfield et al. Theoretical and Experimental Observations of Lipid shedding. European Ultrasound Contrast Symposium, Rotterdam, the Netherlands 22-24 January 2014. Fury, C., Gélat, P., Harfield, C., Jones, P., Stride, E., Memoli, G. Experimental verification of the finite element modelling of acoustic microchannels IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 21-25th July, Prague, 2013. Harfield, C., Memoli, G., Jones, P., Ovenden, N., Stride, E. Investigating the Sensitivity of Investigating the sensitivity of microbubble acoustic response for biosensing applications. Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, The Canadian Acoustical Association an d International Congress on Acoustics, Montreal, 2-7 June 2013. Harfield, C., Fury, C., Memoli, G., Jones, P., Stride, E. Investigating the Sensitivity of Microbubbles for Biosensing Applications. 18th European Symposium on Ultrasound Contrast Imaging. Rotterdam Hilton Hotel. January 18-21 2013. Fury, C., Memoli, G., Gélat, P., Harfield, C., Jones, P., Stride, E. A technique for non-visual confirmation of acoustic fields in a microfluidic chip for the purposes of acoustic trapping and microbubble characterisation. Anglo French Physical Acoustics Conference 2013 Villa La Clythie, Frejus, France. 16-18 January 2013. Memoli, G., Harfield, C. J., Fury, C. R., Jones, P.H., Stride, E. Optical manipulation of microbubbles in presence of acoustical fields. IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, Dresden, Germany, October 7-10, 2012. Harfield, C., Ovenden, N., Memoli, G., Jones, P., Stride, E. Theoretical characterisation of coated microbubbles under acoustic and optical trapping. Anglo French Physical Acoustics Conference 2012 (AFPAC2012) Brighton Thistle Hotel. 18-20 January 2012
Start Year 2010
 
Description Sandro 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Fabrication of microbubbles for experiments Participation in experiments at Synchrotron facility
Collaborator Contribution Testing of microbubbles using X-ray phase contrast imaging
Impact T. Millard, M. Endrizzi, L. Rigon, F. Arfelli, R. Menk, J. Owen, E. Stride and A. Olivo Quantification of microbubble concentration through x-ray phase contrast imaging. Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 114105.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Stanford 
Organisation Stanford University
Department Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of expertise in manufacturing of targeted microbubbles and ultrasound imaging thereof
Collaborator Contribution access to facilities for testing microbubble mediated drug delivery in an animal model; hosting of researchers
Impact Multidisciplinary: Biomedical Engineering, Cancer Biology, Clinical Oncology Joint NIH grant application submitted
Start Year 2017
 
Description University of Twente 
Organisation University of Twente
Department Developmental BioEngineering (Twente)
Country Netherlands 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution my team has provided materials and expertise for the fabrication of drug loaded microbubbles and nanoparticles for initiating cavitation as well as microfluidic systems
Collaborator Contribution The University of Twente has provided us with access to their unique high speed imaging facility to study various phenomena related to ultrasound mediated cavitation. They have hosted several of our researchers over a series of visits.
Impact V. Pereno, M. Aron, O.Vince, C. Mannaris, A. Seth, M. de Saint Victor, G. Lajoinie, M. Versluis, C. Coussios, D. Carugo, E. Stride. Layered acoustofluidic resonators for the study of the physical and biological effects of acoustic cavitation. Biomicrofluidics 12: 034109 (2018) G. Lajoinie, J. Lee, P. Kruizinga, J. Owen, G. van Soest, N. de Jong, E. Stride and M. Versluis. Laser driven resonance of microbubbles: experimental study. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 141: 4832-4846 (2017) G. Lajoinie, E. Linnartz, P. Kruizinga, G. van Soest, E. Stride and M. Versluis. Laser driven dynamics of optically absorbing microbubbles: a theoretical and numerical study. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 141 (4), 2727-2745 (2017) J. Kwan, G. Lajoinie, N. de Jong, E. Stride, M. Versluis, C. Coussios. Ultra High Speed Dynamics of Micron- Sized Inertial Cavitation from Nanoparticles. Physical Review Applied 6:044004 (2016). J. Kwan, G. LaJoinie, E., M. Versluis, and Constantin Coussios. Bubble dynamics of inertial cavitation from nanoparticles. The 14th International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound, Utrecht, The Netherlands 15th-18th April 2015 all interdisciplinary: Engineering, Physics, Oncology, Imaging
Start Year 2015
 
Title Fluid delivery device 
Description A system for oxygenating individual containers for the purpose of creating oxygen nano bubbles at the point of delivery 
IP Reference GB1613800.0 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed Yes
Impact none
 
Title METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR GENERATING BUBBLES 
Description microfluidic system for fabricating microbubbles for medical applications 
IP Reference GB1601053.0 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact The work has been presented at the European Symposium on Ultrasound Contrast Imaging
 
Title Nanoencapsulated Oxygen 
Description Nanoencapsulated Oxygen 
IP Reference GB1512728.5 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2015
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact Confidential at the present time
 
Title Sonodynamic Therapy 
Description This patent protects the joint research between Oxford and Ulster on the development of a drug loaded oxygen microbubble for delivery a targeted form of chemotherapy. 
IP Reference GB1520649.3 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed No
Impact none
 
Title Spectral imaging toolbox 
Description Matlab toolbox the segmentation and processing of large spectral imaging datasets with a reliable method for membrane segmentation and no ability in programming required 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact downloaded 7 times and cited in one paper since publication in late 2017 
URL https://uk.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/62617-spectral-imaging-toolbox.
 
Company Name AtoCap 
Description AtoCap was formed out of the research activity of the UCL Encapsulation Group run by company directors Prof. Mohan Edirisinghe and Dr. Eleanor Stride. Its core technology is based on a novel implementation of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) processing for the preparation of a wide range of encapsulated structures via a clean, efficient, one step route. 
Year Established 2011 
Impact Through close collaborations with clinicians at the Whittington Hospital, AtoCap has identified a first potential blockbuster application in the treatment of chronic urinary tract infections (UTI) - a debilitating condition that affects tens of millions of patients each year. Chronic UTIs are particularly prevalent amongst the elderly population, being identified as a major cause of incontinence, mental confusion and balance problems leading to falls and potentially fatal septicaemea and bladder cancer. Antibiotics are hampered by the difficulty of achieving sufficient localized urinary bactericidal concentrations, while high-dose systemic treatments are toxic and ill-tolerated. Thus, there is a great need for improved delivery systems to achieve the high concentrations of antibiotics needed to counter chronic infection in a localised manner. This will eliminate the significant drawbacks associated with the current oral and intravenous administration methods, specifically poor compliance with regular dosing regimens, poor uptake and side effects such as nausea, compromised immunity as well a build up of resistance over long treatment periods. There is currently no alternative to oral/intravenous administration of antibiotics and thus the potential market is substantial. Over the past year research has continued to optimize the generation of multilayered micro and nanocapsules for the encapsulation and controlled release of antibiotics. These results have provided key supporting data for the primary patent application and been published in leading academic journals. The research has been featured as the cover article in both the Journal of the Royal Society Interface and Macromolecular Rapid Communications.
Website http://atocap.com
 
Company Name Avrox Ltd. 
Description Avrox Ltd. was founded in 2015 and is the licensor for the oxygen nanoencapsulation technology developed by Prof. Stride. The company's first product will be a drink for improving athletic endurance which will shortly enter human trials. It is being tested in parallel for its potential to reduce hypoxia in order to enhance the efficacy of cancer therapy. 
Year Established 2015 
Impact none as yet
Website http://www.avrox.co.uk
 
Company Name SONOTARG LIMITED 
Description The company's aim is to commercial the technology developed jointly by Ulster and Oxford Universities for the treatment of pancreatic cancer using microbubble mediated drug delivery. 
Year Established 2018 
Impact The company has only just been formed
 
Description All Party Parliamentary Engineering Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The debate and speeches generated much discussion and enthusiasm from members of parliament and other attendees from industry for supporting and promoting engineering.

Requests for further information and participation in events by members of the audience, including members of parliament.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description BBC2 documentary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Programme generated many emails requesting further information and further public engagement.

Invitation to participate in campaign to encourage GCSE and A-level students to follow engineering as a career.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p019glwd
 
Description BBC4 documentary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC4 documentary generated much interest from the media, public and companies leading to several new collaborations with industry.

School teachers and parents have contacted me to say the programme enthused their pupils/children about Engineering.
We are in the process of product development in collaboration with a company exploiting the technology reported.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01rtdy6
 
Description Duck Rabbit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact It has been shown widely in schools with teachers reporting increased interest in engineering particularly amongst girls

There have been over 10,000 views to date.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JPIqS-A5CQM
 
Description EngTalk (formerly Kelvin Lecture) Institute of Engineering & Technology (IET) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prestigious bi-ennial Lecture at the Institute of Engineering and Technology, attended by 300 audience members, broadcast and available online subsequently. Talk received excellent audience feedback and has led to multiple invitations for talks including at the Houses of Parliament, Founders Forum, Wired Live, STFC, The Royal Society
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://events.theiet.org/kelvin/
 
Description Grand Challenges Summit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Increased interest in my own research and biomedical engineering more generally

Collaboration with a major pharmaceutical company.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Infinite Monkey Cage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Generated numerous emails and requests for additional information from Radio 4 listeners.

Increased public awareness of the role of biomedical engineering in transforming healthcare provision.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01k9qbx
 
Description New Scientist Live 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact New Scientist Live is a Science Festival that in 2016 was held at the ExCel centre in London over 4 days. From the website:"New Scientist Live is a festival of ideas and discovery, taking place at ExCeL London. Rooted in the biggest, best and most provocative science, New Scientist Live will touch on all areas of human life. The show will feature four immersive zones covering Humans, Technology, Engineering, Earth and Cosmos. For four days this Autumn, New Scientist Live will be like no other place on Earth."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://live.newscientist.com
 
Description Red Woman of the Year Award 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Eleanor Stride received the Red Magazine Woman of the Year innovation award. This included a feature in the November issue of Red Magazine and several press articles (e.g. Daily Mail, Guardian, The Engineer) and has led to numerous invitations to talk at schools and public events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3123944/The-tiny-bubbles-filled-drugs-transform-cance...
 
Description Talk at Founders Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk was supposed to raise awareness about the role of engineering approaches in healthcare, specifically cancer treatment. It has generated significant media interest and contacts from industrial and medical practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.havaslynx.com/founders-forum-health-tech-2018/
 
Description The Conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Online discussion forum
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/ultrasound-activated-bubbles-could-help-make-cancer-drugs-more-effective...
 
Description physics in action 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Lecture to several hundred 16-18 year old school pupils interested in studying STEM subjects at University. The talk generated numerous questions both at the event and subsequently by email. Received excellent feedback from the organisers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description voices from Oxford film 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact TV series designed to promote Oxford based research to the general public; generated significant press/public interest leading to requests for further information and further interviews
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.voicesfromoxford.org/video/biomedical-bubbles/495