Hybrid Quantum-Classical Communication Networks

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leeds
Department Name: Electronic and Electrical Engineering

Abstract

Information security is a necessity of today's complex society. Let it be our personal information, a bank transaction, or some confidential military correspondence, they all rely on cryptographic techniques that guarantee secure communication between the transmitter and the intended receiver. This assurance, however, does not necessarily last forever. Technological advancements have already made many older cryptosystems obsolete, and it is anticipated that future discoveries will make the current secure communication methods unreliable as well. In particular, the development of new computational paradigms based on the laws of quantum mechanics is a threat to the security of the widely used public-key cryptosystems. Fortunately, what quantum mechanics may take by one hand, it gives back with the other. Secure communication, facilitated by the use of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, is the most imminent application of the developing field of quantum information. QKD provides unbreakable, future-proof, security safe from the vulnerabilities of most cryptosystems currently in operation. To this point, QKD has been implemented over dedicated channels and between two parties. Before current communication vulnerabilities are exploited, it is essential to facilitate the use of QKD technology for any two public users at any distance, via a network. This unsolved problem lies at the intersection of quantum physics and optical communications engineering, as all known QKD protocols rely on light transmission.

This proposal focuses on the problems that arise when multiple users wish to utilise the same infrastructure, namely, optical fibre, for both classical and quantum communication applications. This is in essence similar to a classical multiple-access problem, such as mobile communication, where multiple users communicate via a shared communication channel. In hybrid quantum-classical networks, this feature must be extended to include QKD applications, where we are dealing with optical signals as weak as a single photon.

In this project, I aim at undertaking a theoretical study of a range of network configurations and different multiple-access techniques for hybrid quantum-classical networks. This project will shed light on the necessary steps that underpin future implementations. I will also look at compatibility issues regarding the integration of present optical communication networks, which solely support classical applications, and future hybrid networks, which will offer both data transmission services as well as QKD-driven secure communications. That will enable long-distance classical-quantum communication at a national scale.

Planned Impact

There are many groups in public and private sectors who, within relevant timescales, will benefit from this research. Here, I provide a summary of such impacts.

Private sector

The private firms, who will benefit from this research, can be categorised into two groups:

- Group 1: R&D companies in quantum technologies and the service-provider group, who will deliver these technologies to potential users;
- Group 2: The potential customers of such technology.

Group 1
Within the first group, those who are active in developing quantum cryptography systems, such as ID Quantique, QinetiQ, Telcorida Technologies, Toshiba, Mitsubishi, and MagiQ Technologies, will be initially most interested in this research as the proposed project improves and expands the types of services they offer to their customers. Currently, the only commercially available product is that of a point-to-point quantum communication link over a dedicated channel. This proposal improves and enhances this product in several ways:

- It removes the requirement of using dedicated channels;
- It enables both quantum and classical communication applications to be run over the same infrastructure;
- It provides such a secure service not just between two partners, but any two users in a wider network; and
- It reduces the total cost per user.

The second subgroup within Group 1 are large communication service providers, such as British Telecom (BT) or Virgin Media, who have access to the infrastructure, such as the underground optical fibre or the optical routers along the way. Their interest in this project can be over a longer term, when the technology reaches the point of becoming accessible to the public. They need, however, to follow the progress in the field and prepare themselves for that time.

Group 2
At the early stages of commercialisation, the main customer of quantum cryptography is the financial sector. Such firms annually spend millions of pounds for information security, and they will be willing to upgrade their security level to the one being offered by quantum technology. The quantum networks proposed here are of practical importance to such institutes. For instance, they will enable ultra secure communication between all branches of a bank within a metropolitan area at a price and quality not available today.

Public Sector

The security offered by quantum cryptography is of extreme importance to all sections in the public sector. Government agencies, such as military or defence departments, who deal with confidential information, as well as any agency who handles private/personal information of citizens will benefit from the results of this research.

With the extensive research being pursued worldwide to build the first functional quantum computer, it will be possible to crack some of the most important cryptosystems in daily use, including bank transactions, military information, and confidential government correspondence. From a policy-making standpoint, it is essential to invest in technologies that will guarantee security of information in the quantum era. Multiple-access QKD networks, as proposed here, take us one step closer to achieving that goal, thereby enhancing UK competitiveness globally. From an economic standpoint, those countries to first offer quantum technology will enjoy a competition-free market and establish themselves as the sole providers of the new technology. It is essential for the UK to be among this elite group: it will lead to security benefits and financial advantages for its citizens.

Last but not least, and common to private and public sectors, this project will result in training highly skilled workforce, including research staff and project students, who will increase the public awareness and contribute to the UK economy.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Video Abstract 
Description Our work published at New J. Phys. 16 043005 (2014) comes with a video abstract created in my group.The video clip is accessible from http://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630/16/4/043005/article 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
 
Description Quantum cryptography enables secure communications in the quantum era, where some of the ubiquitously used cryptographic protocols today in use will be threatened by the power of quantum computers. It is essential then to invest in disruptive quantum technologies to ensure the security of our future communication means. Toward this end, the project on "Hybrid Quantum-Classical Communication Networks" was proposed and conducted. The key findings of this grant include



- New protocols for cryptographic key exchange without requiring to trust immediate service provider nodes: This is an important result considering the breach of privacy that has recently been revealed in instances like phone-hacking scandal. This is also an interesting result in technical terms, given that our proposed measurement-device-independent schemes close some loopholes in practical implementations of quantum cryptography systems.



- New topologies for end-to-end quantum networks compatible with the fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) layout of data communication networks: For cost-efficient deployment of quantum applications in the future, it is vital to share the infrastructure with the existing and/or the future generations of optical communication networks. We have considered several quantum key exchange schemes compatible with the passive optical network structure of FTTH networks and have compared them in terms of performance and cost. It turns out that the measurement-device-independent schemes we have studied are suitable candidates for such hybrid networks as well. They also offer compatibility with future generations of hybrid quantum-classical networks.



- Feasibility of quantum cryptography across the UK: We have looked at the possibility and the performance of a quantum cryptographic link over a nominal distance of 1000 km, long enough to cover most of the UK, without trusting any intermediate nodes, and have compared several solutions under realistic conditions. We have found the optimal system parameters and minimally required device specifications for such systems. It turns out that today's technology is not quite there yet, or it will be extremely expensive, to implement such links today. Nevertheless we found that with even today's imperfect technologies it is possible to devise quantum links over nearly 500 km.



- Quantum cryptography with imperfect devices: Thus far, all implementations of quantum key exchange schemes rely on photonic technologies for the generation, transmission and detection of photons. It is known, however, that in order to reach longer distances, one would need to use (solid-state) quantum devices, which are under the development. Although to enable quantum communications over "arbitrarily" long distances we may need to wait longer for the relevant technologies to mature, we can still do interesting things with existing devices. We have proposed such a protocol in which even today's imperfect quantum devices can significantly improve the reach and performances of measurement-device-independent key-exchange schemes. Once implemented, that will be the first exploitation of such devices with tangible and realistic advantages over systems that rely only on photonic devices.



- Relativistic effects on satellite quantum communications: One possible approach to long-distance quantum communications is to use satellite links similar to the way that long-distance telephone calls may be made. In the quantum domain, however, one needs to be careful with the relativistic effects in such a scenario. We have carefully looked at several examples in which such effects can be significant, and have found regimes of operations that we can possibly avoid any deteriorating effects on our systems.



All together the findings of this project make us closer to meet our grand objective of making quantum secure communications available to every home user.
Exploitation Route Our proposed schemes for measurement-device-independent key exchange, and its memory-assisted versions are of interest to industry as they provide routes to secure long-reach quantum links. Our study of quantum-classical networks will also help IT industry with the future deployment of such systems, and the relevant standards that need to be developed. Public users will eventually be the beneficiaries of such systems in the long run. Some of the findings of this grant will be put in test in field implementations of quantum systems. Several collaborative grants have already been submitted to obtain the required funding for such demonstrations. Some of our other findings will help experimentalists in the field with a better design of their experimental setups in order to improve their performance. And, finally, some of our findings will help academic partners with a better understanding of the underlying physics of quantum communication systems.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Security and Diplomacy

URL http://www.personal.leeds.ac.uk/~eenmra/
 
Description The research conducted throughout this project resulted in numerous outcomes of interest to academia and industry. Overall 4 journal papers were published with 4 more in preparation or at submission stage. The results obtained were presented at all important conferences and meetings in the field, e.g., QCMC and QCRYPT, and the workshop organized by the PI attracted over 50 international participants from industry and academia. Collaborations were developed between the PI and several academic (including Universities of Waterloo, Tsinghua, Hong Kong, Innsbruck, Vigo, Dusseldorf, and Telecom Paristech) and industrial (including Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, Raytheon BBN Technologies, MagiQ Technologies, Single Quantum BV, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, and SeQureNet Sarl) groups resulting in joint publications and grant applications. The papers published during this project have already received over 30 citations, and are well received by the community (PI and PDRA were invited to nearly 10 conferences or seminar series). Via two of the newly developed consortia, the PI will be involved in field demonstration of quantum communication technologies, which will be a major step toward public availability of such systems. The PI also took every opportunity, such as in Open Days and internal interviews, to publicize the results of his research to the wider community. Our research proposes new techniques by which multiple users can exchange secret cryptographic keys using secure quantum protocols. Our schemes minimize the trust requirement on any service points and enable secure communications over long distances in fiber or in space (satellite links). This interdisciplinary research, at the intersection of physics and engineering would impact academia, industry, and in the long-run the public who will be the main beneficiaries of such disruptive technologies. Beneficiaries: academia; major industries in the field; and in the long run, the public Contribution Method: This project has contributed to the research base in the following ways: - Proposed new measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD) protocols: in collaboration with scientists in China and Hong Kong, we developed practical techniques for a new scheme of QKD, in which measurement devices need not be trusted. This is an important advantage as some of the commercial QKD systems have recently been hacked through manipulating their detector modules. Our proposed scheme was soon after realised in the lab by the experimental group led by Jian-Wei Pan [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013)]. - Proposed new architectures for quantum-classical networks: We have compared several approaches to QKD over passive optical networks (PONs), where users on two different PONs can exchange secret keys, and have found that MDI-QKD is a competitor for such setups offering long reach and compatibility with future generations of hybrid networks. This work was originally presented as an invited conference talk, and have since been presented in several other invited seminars. - Proposed new techniques for long-distance QKD: Using the MDI-QKD technique at the access nodes, we can design long-distance QKD links, which rely on quantum repeaters at the backbone. We have identified, by making a thorough analysis on existing repeater protocols, the most promising schemes in realistic setups [Phys. Rev. A 88, 012332 (2013)]. Based on these results we have quantified the rate at which secret keys can be generated over long distances considering most relevant sources of imperfection. - Proposed memory-assisted MDI-QKD techniques: In collaboration with Canadian and Chinese scientists, we show how imperfect memories of today's technology can be incorporated into QKD links to improve their rate vs distance behaviour. This work has also been presented as an invited conference paper recently and work is in progress to offer more prescriptive instructions for experimentalists to implement this system. - Studied relativistic effects in satellite QKD: With satellites orbiting around the earth at various altitudes, it is important to find out the regimes of operation where gravitational effects significantly impact our quantum communication systems. We carefully looked at this problem and found out how the so called red-shift effect will change the pulse shape of quantum signals sent around the globe.
First Year Of Impact 2010
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software)
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Policy Influence
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Quantum Communications for ALL
Amount € 4,000,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 675662 
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 12/2016 
End 11/2020
 
Description Bridge the gap Collaboration Grant 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I was part of an internal (university-wide) EPSRC-funded consortium of nearly 15 academics at the University of Leeds, which brought together all scientists in the three Schools of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Physics and Astronomy, and Mathematics and Statistics working on different aspects of quantum information science to develop projects of collaborative nature at different (MEng,Msc-Postdoctoral) levels. As Part of this grant, I coordinated and submitted an FP7 Initial Training Network proposal, based on the interdisciplinary activities in the three schools, which could fund 13 PhD students in Leeds. The bid was not successful, but we obtained a high score of 90.4/100.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with TU Dresden 
Organisation Technical University of Dresden
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have started collaborating with Dr Kambiz Jamshidi at TU Dresden based on our mutual interest in developing solid-state quantum sources. Dr Jamshidi also shares interest with other members of our school working on Silicon photonics. He gave a talk at Leeds on 17 Oct 2013, and I met with him in Berlin, at a conference, in March 2014 to follow up potential collaboration grounds. We agreed to provide technical support to each other for mutual projects of interest and exchange interns for short time visits.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with Tsinghua University 
Organisation Tsinghua University China
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am collaborating with Dr Xiongfeng Ma on an ongoing basis. Our collaboration thus far has resulted in three journal papers: - Christiana Panayi et al, New J. Phys. 16 043005 (2014) - X Ma and M Razavi, Phys. Rev. A 86, 062319 (2012) - X Ma, C-H F Fung, and M Razavi Phys. Rev. A 86, 052305 (2012)
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with University of Hong Kong 
Organisation University of Hong Kong
Country Hong Kong 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have worked with Dr Fred Fung at the University of Hong Kong, and our collaborative work has resulted in the following paper: Xiongfeng Ma, Chi-Hang Fred Fung, and Mohsen Razavi , Phys. Rev. A 86, 052305 (2012).
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with University of Waterloo 
Organisation University of Waterloo
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am collaborating with Prof Norbert Lutkenhaus at the University of Waterloo. Our work has resulted in the following paper and is ongoing: Christiana Panayi et al 2014 New J. Phys. 16 043005 This round of collaboration was initiated by a visit to Waterloo in Summer 2012. This trip was initially meant to be supported by this grant, but since the start date was after the trip, it was covered by internal resources.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with the School of Physics 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution With the PDRA on this grant, Dr Bruschi, myself, and people in the group of Dr Beige in Physics, we have started working on a collaborative project. The work was presented at the International Workshop on Quantum Communication Networks (see http://www.leeds.ac.uk/qcn2014/QCN2014_P10_Bruschi.pdf), and a journal version is being prepared.
Start Year 2013
 
Description H2020 ITN Proposal QCALL 
Organisation Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I coordinated a consortium of 6 beneficiary and 8 partner organisations for an Innovative Training Network (ITN) bid on "Quantum Communications for ALL". If successful, 15 PhD students will be funded, where three of which will be based in Leeds. We have partners from industry (Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, ID Quantique, NTT, BBN) and academia and research institutes, from 6 European countries,Us, Japan, and Canada.
Start Year 2014
 
Description H2020 ITN Proposal QCALL 
Organisation Telecome ParisTech
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I coordinated a consortium of 6 beneficiary and 8 partner organisations for an Innovative Training Network (ITN) bid on "Quantum Communications for ALL". If successful, 15 PhD students will be funded, where three of which will be based in Leeds. We have partners from industry (Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, ID Quantique, NTT, BBN) and academia and research institutes, from 6 European countries,Us, Japan, and Canada.
Start Year 2014
 
Description H2020 ITN Proposal QCALL 
Organisation Toshiba Research Europe Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I coordinated a consortium of 6 beneficiary and 8 partner organisations for an Innovative Training Network (ITN) bid on "Quantum Communications for ALL". If successful, 15 PhD students will be funded, where three of which will be based in Leeds. We have partners from industry (Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, ID Quantique, NTT, BBN) and academia and research institutes, from 6 European countries,Us, Japan, and Canada.
Start Year 2014
 
Description H2020 ITN Proposal QCALL 
Organisation University of Padova
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I coordinated a consortium of 6 beneficiary and 8 partner organisations for an Innovative Training Network (ITN) bid on "Quantum Communications for ALL". If successful, 15 PhD students will be funded, where three of which will be based in Leeds. We have partners from industry (Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, ID Quantique, NTT, BBN) and academia and research institutes, from 6 European countries,Us, Japan, and Canada.
Start Year 2014
 
Description H2020 ITN Proposal QCALL 
Organisation University of Vigo
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I coordinated a consortium of 6 beneficiary and 8 partner organisations for an Innovative Training Network (ITN) bid on "Quantum Communications for ALL". If successful, 15 PhD students will be funded, where three of which will be based in Leeds. We have partners from industry (Toshiba Research Europe Ltd, ID Quantique, NTT, BBN) and academia and research institutes, from 6 European countries,Us, Japan, and Canada.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Quantum Communication Technologies Hub 
Organisation Heriot-Watt University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Part of the consortium applying for an EPSRC quantum technology hub. Other members are from Sheffield, York, Strathclyde, Heriot-Watt, and Bristol universities
Start Year 2014
 
Description Quantum Communication Technologies Hub 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Part of the consortium applying for an EPSRC quantum technology hub. Other members are from Sheffield, York, Strathclyde, Heriot-Watt, and Bristol universities
Collaborator Contribution The proposal is funded now; its outcome will be reported under EP/M013472/1.
Impact will be listed in under QCom hub outcomes
Start Year 2014
 
Description Quantum Communication Technologies Hub 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Part of the consortium applying for an EPSRC quantum technology hub. Other members are from Sheffield, York, Strathclyde, Heriot-Watt, and Bristol universities
Start Year 2014
 
Description Quantum Communication Technologies Hub 
Organisation University of Strathclyde
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Part of the consortium applying for an EPSRC quantum technology hub. Other members are from Sheffield, York, Strathclyde, Heriot-Watt, and Bristol universities
Start Year 2014
 
Description Quantum Communication Technologies Hub 
Organisation University of York
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Part of the consortium applying for an EPSRC quantum technology hub. Other members are from Sheffield, York, Strathclyde, Heriot-Watt, and Bristol universities
Start Year 2014
 
Description Alternative Schemes for measurement device independent quantum key distribution 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Conference presentation of X. Ma and M. Razavi, Phys. Rev. A 86, 062319 (2012).

This was presented at Quantum Cryptography (QCrypt 2012). QCrypt is the largest annual focused conference in the field of quantum cryptography.

N/A
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description International Workshop on Quantum Communication Networks 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience
Results and Impact This was the first international workshop on the developing field of quantum communication networks, which was hosted and organised by the PI in Leeds in Jan 2014. External funding, in addition to the budget envisaged in the EPSRC grant, was raised to bring in 15 invited participants from leading industrial and academic institutes to Leeds. The work carried out in Leeds, as well as contributions from over 50 participants were presented at this conference. Arrangements were made by the PI for all invited participants to attend a working dinner to discuss collaboration opportunities within Horizon 2020. The PI, consequently, coordinated a bid on an innovative training network (QCALL) with a subset of participant in the conference. Discussion sessions were also conducted during the conference over which the key challenges of the field were discussed in smaller groups and then the results were summarised for all the participants. In all categories the conference received nearly 90% (or higher) satisfaction based on the feedback collected from the participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.leeds.ac.uk/qcn2014
 
Description Long-distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience
Results and Impact This work combines the merits of MDI-QKD with quantum repeaters. Presented as a poster at



- International Conference on Quantum Cryptography, Aug 2013 in Waterloo, Canada

- International Workshop on Quantum Communication Networks, Jan 2014 in Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/qcn2014.

Also an extended version at QCN2014 9-10 Jan 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Long-distance quantum key distribution with imperfect devices 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience
Results and Impact This is the conference version of the paper published at [Phys. Rev. A 88, 012332 (2013)], presented at at one of the key conferences in the field: QCMC. The proceeding paper will be published soon.

QCMC: Quantum Communication, Measurement, and Computing is one of the major conferences in the field of quantum information science held every other year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Measurement device independent quantum key distribution with imperfect quantum memories 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience
Results and Impact These are the conference/summer school versions of what eventually published at Christiana Panayi et al 2014 New J. Phys. 16 043005. The work was presented at different stages of its development at



- Summer School on Quantum Information, Computing and Control (QuICC), Aberystwyth, Wales, 27 August - 1 September 2012 (Poster)

- Topical Research Meetings on Physics: Quantum Technologies: Taking Concepts Through to Implementations, Institute of Physics, London, UK (Poster), 17-18 Dec 2012.

- Quantum Fields, Gravity and Information, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK , 3-5 April 2013 (Talk).

- Second AQuA student Congress on Quantum Information and Computation, Waterloo, Canada, 26-29 August 2013 (Talk).

- International Workshop on Quantum Communication Networks, 9-10 Jan 2014 in Leeds, UK, www.leeds.ac.uk/qcn2014 (poster).

The start-end dates represent the span of time over which these events have occurred.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Open Day Activities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience
Results and Impact I have participated in our School's Open Day events, which are open to the public. I have used these events to promote the thrust of quantum technologies and to make the public familiar with the benefits it offers.

There have been many occasions along the way including UCAS open days where new undergrad candidates visit the school. They are sporadically distributed over the year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Quantum communication in curved spacetimes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience
Results and Impact Seminar talks by the PDRA at various places including



University of Warsaw on 25/11/2013

University of Oxford on 18/11/2013
.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience
Results and Impact A talk given at the Israel Physical Society meeting by the PDRA;



also presented as a poster at QCrypt 2013, Waterloo, Canada, 1-5 August 2013.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The First International Workshop on Quantum Communication Networks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience
Results and Impact Chaired and organised by the PI. Held in Leeds 9-10 Jan 2014 with nearly 15 invited participants from Academia and industry; attracted over 50 participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Toward Public Quantum Communication Networks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience
Results and Impact Invited to a sandpit meeting, as part of the bridge-the-gap grant, to talk to a broad scientific audience about quantum communication networks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Toward Public Quantum Communication Networks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience
Results and Impact Invited seminar at York University to an audience in Computer Science; presented the big picture, the latest developments in the field, and how our research contributes to shaping it.

Hosted by Stefano Pirandola; we discussed how we can collaborate further on some problems of mutual interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Toward Public Quantum Key Distribution Networks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience
Results and Impact Invited seminar at the University of Innsbruck, Sept. 2012. talking about QKD networks, and their requirements with respect to, especially, sources that are being developed at Innsbruck.

This talk was part of a two-day visit to Innsbruck, hosted by Gregor Weihs, to discuss some of the ongoing collaborations and to find grounds for new ones.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012