Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Department of Chemical Engineering

Abstract

The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater need for grid-scale electrical energy storage schemes. The UK government's target (as part of the EU Renewable Energy Directive) is for 20% of energy to come from renewable sources by 2020. This will require a much a higher proportion of electricity to be generated from uncontrollable sources such as wind, and one of the associated challenges will be providing sufficient electricity storage capacity to deal with the resulting variability in supply. Currently there is about 30 GWh of electricity storage capacity in the UK, with a maximum power output of around 3 GW. Nearly all of this is in the form of Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS), which is expensive and its scope for extension is limited by geographical constraints. Estimates vary, but the expert view is that our storage inventory will need to at least double over the next decade or so in order to efficiently accommodate the expanding fraction of wind and other renewable generation technologies. There is thus strong motivation to develop new, efficient and cost-effective electricity storage methods.

This project is aimed at investigating a novel storage technology known as Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES). PTES uses a high temperature-ratio heat pump to convert electrical energy into thermal energy which is then stored in two large reservoirs - one hot and one cold. The reservoirs contain gravel, or a similar high heat capacity material, and are able to store the energy much more compactly than PHS. When required, the thermal energy can be converted back into electrical energy by effectively running the heat pump backwards as a heat engine. The projected round-trip efficiency is approximately 75%, which is a little lower than PHS, but PTES has a number of potential benefits, including low capital cost and no geographical constraints. Compared to chemical energy storage methods (batteries and flow batteries) it also has the advantage of not requiring any hazardous or scarce substances.

The success of PTES will hinge upon minimising the effect of various thermodynamic irreversibilities (for example, heat transfer across substantial temperature differences and losses associated with compression and expansion of the working fluid) whilst simultaneously keeping capital costs low. Accordingly, the proposed work focuses on investigating fundamental thermodynamic, fluid flow and heat transfer processes using a combination of experimental, theoretical and computational methods. An important aim of the work is also to develop and validate an overall system model and to use this to optimise the design and operation strategy, and to examine the benefits that PTES might bring to the electricity supply chain.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This project has led to the construction of an experimental facility and measurement tools, as well as to the development of a range of models (from fully resolved CFD models to more simplified lumped but dynamic models) that can be used to understand loss mechanisms in reciprocating thermodynamic systems, and for the proposal of next-generation high-performance systems.

The loss mechanisms in such components were studied in detail with a combination of the above mentioned experimental and numerical methods and insight has been gained on how and which mechanisms we can minimised in our attempt to design high-performance components for applications in energy storage, but also beyond this, e.g., distributed power generation systems and even cooling systems.
Exploitation Route The models developed in this project have taken the form of design tools and software package libraries that are now being used to propose new or improved machines with high-efficiency (e.g. we are currently in discussions with Dearman on how to collaborate in support of their reciprocating engine technology).

On the experimental front, the measurement facility has provide information for model validation, but is also under current modification for use as a testing facility for novel piston-expanders in the EPSRC project "Energy-Use Minimisation via High Performance Heat-Power-Cooling Conversion and Integration: A Holistic Molecules to Technologies to Systems Approach" (EP/P004709/1), and also a project funded by Climate-KIC on expanders used in a technology aimed as improving the performance and efficiency of refrigeration systems by company Thermaflex.

This information and data will be made available via open access publications.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Construction,Creative Economy,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

 
Description The findings have been communicated to a number of companies and academic partners, and we are working to define various cooperative technology development and testing activities in various projects currently running (or being discussed) at Imperial College. Specifically, a high-performance reciprocating expander, for example, is a key component of a technology aimed at being retrofitted to refrigeration systems for improved performance and efficiency, that is being developed by UK SME Thermaflex. Thermaflex has obtained funding to test their technology in our facilities, and we have been tasked with considering a piston expander for their application. It is also a key component of a number of distributed power-generation systems such as ORC systems and other applications for solar power generation or waste heat recovery and conversion, and innovative combined cooling-power technologies such as the Dearman engine. We are working closely with a range of energy systems/technology companies to guide the further development of their technologies, as well as reciprocating-piston expander/component companies (Libertine FPE/UK, IVA/Germany). Finally, we have an interest in the further development of our own reciprocating-piston energy technology. These activities are part of other funded projects by EPSRC (e.g., "Energy-Use Minimisation via High Performance Heat-Power-Cooling Conversion and Integration: A Holistic Molecules to Technologies to Systems Approach"/EP/P004709/1; "High Temperature, High Efficiency PV-Thermal Solar System"/EP/M025012/1) and Climate-KIC, and we are also in the process of identifying IP and commercial opportunities with Imperial Innovations.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Chemicals,Construction,Creative Economy,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Contribution to the white paper on 'Liquid Air in the Energy and Transport Systems'
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The white paper (Liquid Air Energy White Paper) was widely disseminated and also presented at the "Liquid Air Energy Conference" that took place at the Royal Academy of Engineering on 9th May 2013, which was attended by ~150 people. Liquid air energy storage is now considered one of the most promising solutions for large-scale storage, promising to service a growing multi billion dollar energy storage market (estimated global potential for grid energy storage by 2017 is $113.5 billion, accounting for 185GWh (52GW) of capacity).
 
Description Discussion of advancements in solar-powered systems based on reciprocating systems for small-scale applications at DECC
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Solar-PV is generally acknowledged as an excellent solution for the delivery clean, sustainable power to households. However, PV technology is expensive, as is electricity storage, and also has very significant levels of embedded energy. The present discussion with personnel from DECC centred around alternative thermal-based solutions (e.g. ORC power-generations systems, based on suitable reciprocating components which are idea at such small-scales), far more affordable thermal energy storage, and dual energy output (electrical and thermal, e.g. for hot water) leading to much lower costs per unit energy. DECC expressed a very real interest in this alternative, also thanks to the far more flexible, controllable and wide operating envelope of such a system. Given this encouragements, we are currently investigating this technology further and as soon as we have more concrete proof of the system's performance will return to DECC in order to progress the discussion into future directions of investment/policy.
 
Description Lead the cross-faculty Energy Futures Lab Energy Efficiency Research Network at Imperial College
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact xxx
 
Description Accelerator voucher
Amount £39,998 (GBP)
Organisation Climate-KIC 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description Africa Capacity Building Initiative
Amount £1,017,430 (GBP)
Funding ID AQ150077 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 01/2021
 
Description EU FP7 SME
Amount £210,000 (GBP)
Funding ID FP7-SME-2013/BSG-SME/605826 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2015
 
Description Reducing Industrial Energy Demand (REDIMS)
Amount £1,573,522 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P004709/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 12/2020
 
Description Supergen Solar Challenge
Amount £1,108,936 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/M025012/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2015 
End 07/2018
 
Title Experimental facility for the testing of reciprocating machines (compressors, expanders and gas springs) 
Description An experiment is devised to measure the thermodynamic loss associated with the unsteady heat transfer that takes place in the compression space of a gas spring and differentiate the loss from any mass leakage or viscous or dissipation frictional effects. As the total mass in the system is unknown, due to leakage between the cylinder and the piston, it is necessary to measure three thermodynamic bulk parameters in order to completely determine the system state. Pressure, temperature and volume are convenient choices. However there is a challenge in measuring the gas temperature in the compression space using traditional physically invasive methods, such as thermocouples. These methods generally have a number of undesirable side effects; for example their poor response times due to the added thermal mass, their sensitivity to the varying heat transfer in the cylinder, the disruption of the gas flow and gas temperature, and the fact that they only provide a point measurement of the flow. In this facility a novel technique is developed for the measuring of the temperature of the gas by measuring the time of flight of an ultrasonic pulse across the compression space. The technique is based on the principal that the speed of sound in an ideal gas is dependent on the square root of the absolute temperature, based on which the temperature of the gas along the ultrasonic path can be found. The ultrasonic pulse is transmitted and received at 400 kHz using piezo ceramic transducers with a repetition rate of 2 kHz. This work is being conducted to characterise the heat transfer and resulting thermodynamic loss in all reciprocating machines, and the knowledge gained will not just be limited to gas springs but also be able to be applied to compressors expanders. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Reducing unsteady thermal losses in the Pumped Thermal Energy Storage (PTES) system. Quantifying the performance of such systems. Demonstrating the capability of reciprocating compression/expansion systems for PTES, but also alternative power-generation systems/technologies. Generation of data for model validation of such components. The capability the formed the basis of funding applications (e.g. EU H2020, and EPSRC). 
URL http://www.isentropic.co.uk/our-phes-technology
 
Title Signal delay method based on cross-correlation of the received and transmitted signals in the frequency domain 
Description Method for finding the signal delay between the received and transmitted signal cross-correlation of the signals in the frequency domain with digital processing and filtering for ultrasonic device data processing. Used for temperature measurement based on the time of flight across a cavity. The digital filtering consists of a notch filter in the frequency domain and a frequency down shift. Conversion back to the time domain with an fft and taking the absolute value of the complex signal, the location of the resulting peak gives the delay time. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Very high resolution and fidelity (2 kHz) measurements of transient gas temperatures. Development of new instrument with a capability of simultaneous gas density and temperature. This capability has formed the basis of discussions with companies (e.g. ABB, Shell, Isentropic, Dearman) as well as a capability the formed the basis of funding applications (e.g. EU H2020, Climate-KIC). 
 
Title Compressed Air Energy Storage: Lumped parameter model to capture most of the phenomena in the compression phase of the CAES process 
Description The model captures the heat transfer interaction between the compressed gas (air) and the compressing agent (water) to approximate an isothermal process. Interaction with the walls and surrounds is also taken into account. Heat transfer is enhanced by the use of conventional techniques in a novel way not yet explicitly appearing in the published literature. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This modelling was originally proposed as part of an industrial offering by a wind farm manufacturer where the patent was originally initiated (now transferred). The potential is being exploited with a number of possible funders for the use in sustainable refrigeration for vulnerable crops in Kenya - the modelling and experimentation will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed compression/cycle system. 
 
Title Lumped (reduced-order) models for prediction of performance and cost of components (compressors, expanders, heat exchangers etc.) that make up storage technologies 
Description Thermo-economic for prediction of performance and cost of thermo-mechanical storage technologies at different scales are developed by the various groups involved in the project. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Sevaral papers based on the model are in preparation. 
 
Title Novel data analysis methods or techniques: Proposal of a new framework for understanding and quantifying rigorously the different loss mechanisms in reciprocating machines (compressors, expanders and gas springs) 
Description The framework allows the rigorous breakdown of losses into thermal/heat transfer-based and pressure/fluid mechanical-based. This is done both during a cycle of operation of a reciprocating (or similar) device, and an average over the cycle. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We are currently interacting with a group in Denmark led by Professor Fredrik Haglind to translate this model to programmes written in the Modelica language, which is being developed for relevant systems. 
 
Title Simplified, lumped (reduced-order) models for prediction of thermal losses; application to performance of reciprocating machines (compressors, expanders and gas springs) 
Description A lumped model of the cavity in a reciprocating machine was developed using PDE's intergration and an numerical solver. The model includes a conjugate description of heat transfer, thus accounting for the role of solid walls in relevant processes. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This model won the HEFAT2012 best paper prize, and led to an article publication in an international journal (Heat Transfer Engineering). The conjugate heat transfer aspects of this model were applied to data provide by and in collaboration with Professor Hajime Nakamura at the Japanese Defence Academy, and additional funding in the form of a £0.84M, 3-year EPSRC project [EP/K008595]. We are also currently interacting with a group in Denmark led by Professor Fredrik Haglind to translate this model to programmes written in the Modelica language, which is being developed for relevant systems. 
 
Title Thermodynamic models and cost correlations from manufacturers/literature 
Description Detailed thermo-economic comparison between the considered storage options requires the use of modelling tools (e.g. Matlab) to develop models which are validated against data or experiments. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Several papers based on the models and database are in preparation. 
 
Description CFD of Reciprocating Piston Machines - Professor Pietro De Palma 
Organisation Polytechnic University of Bari
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have made available a series of experimentally validated CFD codes developed during the Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES) project, as well as personnel to support the collaborative activities of this interaction. Specifically, Dr. Paul Sapin is working closely with Mr. Giuseppe Rotolo who is visiting us for 6-months from Professor Pietro De Palma's group at Politecnico di Bari.
Collaborator Contribution Professor De Palma is an expert in CFD and in particular in conjugate-heat-transfer problems in complex geometries. We have began a collaboration on applications of these advanced tools to reciprocating piston machines. We are currently hosting Mr. Giuseppe Rotolo, a student from Professor Pietro De Palma's group, who is working with personnel from my group to extend our gas spring CFD tools. Professor De Palma recently (mid-March 2017) visited us, gave an open cross-Departmental seminar on this work, and had update meetings with the team of researchers that are working in this area.
Impact Advanced CFD tools in OpenFOAM with an extended ability to solve the full conjugate thermal problem inside reciprocating piston machines. The collaboration has only just started so these activities are on-going.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Experiments on our reciprocating expander facility - P. Farres-Antunez 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have provided access to our reciprocating expander facility as well as guidance and knowledge during the visit of Mr. Pau Farres-Antunez.
Collaborator Contribution Mr. Farres-Antunez helped with the design, development and commissioning of acoustic shielding/isolation for the ultrasonic probe used for temperature measurements.
Impact A new ultrasonic probe capable of simultaneous high-frequency temperature and density measurements in a gas space, in our case, applied and tested in an reciprocating expander for operational characterisation. Following his stay with us, Mr. Farres-Antunez moved to Cambridge to start a PhD under the supervision of Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES) project partner Dr. Alexander White on the modelling of new variants of the PTES system. Our interaction has continued in this new capacity.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Experiments/modelling of reciprocating expander - J. Wronski 
Organisation Technical University of Denmark
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Simple (reduced-order) modelling codes and experimental data from our reciprocating expander facility. During the collaboration, we compared these results with an Opensource Modelica based reciprocating expander/compressor model (developed by Mr Wronski). In particular, the Imperial contributed towards the improved heat transfer description of the process being investigated.
Collaborator Contribution Opensource Modelica based reciprocating expander/compressor model (developed by Mr Wronski) for systems design of refrigorators, ORC's and other applications. Mr Wronski supplied his codes and models of the same system.
Impact New experimental data was generated and made available for the refinement of modelling codes for the prediction of the performance of reciprocating components. In parallel, revised modules/functions were developed for these codes.
Start Year 2012
 
Description International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program with the Office of China Postdoc Council 
Organisation Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We accommodated a visiting postdoctoral researcher from China for 2 years to assist our work on thermal energy storage.
Collaborator Contribution A visiting postdoctoral researcher from the collaborating institution came in 2019. The postdoc has helped with setting up a test-rig for thermal energy storage and performed modelling on the relevant projects.
Impact Several papers in preparation.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Joint PhD student program with China Scholarship Council 
Organisation Xi'an Jiaotong University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We accommodated a visiting PhD student from China for a year to assist our work on pumped thermal electricity storage.
Collaborator Contribution One visiting PhD student from the collaborating institution came in 2019. The student has helped with setting up a performed modelling on the relevant pumped thermal electricity storage technology.
Impact Several papers are in preparation.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Review paper on energy storage technologies 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences
Country China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We use thermodynamic models to capture different configurations and design options and to therefore compare thermo-mechanical energy storage technologies within a unified modelling framework.
Collaborator Contribution They provide their expertise and models to capture the technical and cost prediction complexities associated with each type of thermo-mechanical storage system.
Impact We aim to write a review paper that provides a detailed and fair thermo-economic comparison of thermo-mechanical energy storage technologies, which can be used as a benchmark for the future evolution of these highly-promising solutions.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Review paper on energy storage technologies 
Organisation German Aerospace Centre (DLR)
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We use thermodynamic models to capture different configurations and design options and to therefore compare thermo-mechanical energy storage technologies within a unified modelling framework.
Collaborator Contribution They provide their expertise and models to capture the technical and cost prediction complexities associated with each type of thermo-mechanical storage system.
Impact We aim to write a review paper that provides a detailed and fair thermo-economic comparison of thermo-mechanical energy storage technologies, which can be used as a benchmark for the future evolution of these highly-promising solutions.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Review paper on energy storage technologies 
Organisation Nanyang Technological University
Country Singapore 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We use thermodynamic models to capture different configurations and design options and to therefore compare thermo-mechanical energy storage technologies within a unified modelling framework.
Collaborator Contribution They provide their expertise and models to capture the technical and cost prediction complexities associated with each type of thermo-mechanical storage system.
Impact We aim to write a review paper that provides a detailed and fair thermo-economic comparison of thermo-mechanical energy storage technologies, which can be used as a benchmark for the future evolution of these highly-promising solutions.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Review paper on energy storage technologies 
Organisation U.S. Department of Energy
Department National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We use thermodynamic models to capture different configurations and design options and to therefore compare thermo-mechanical energy storage technologies within a unified modelling framework.
Collaborator Contribution They provide their expertise and models to capture the technical and cost prediction complexities associated with each type of thermo-mechanical storage system.
Impact We aim to write a review paper that provides a detailed and fair thermo-economic comparison of thermo-mechanical energy storage technologies, which can be used as a benchmark for the future evolution of these highly-promising solutions.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Review paper on energy storage technologies 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We use thermodynamic models to capture different configurations and design options and to therefore compare thermo-mechanical energy storage technologies within a unified modelling framework.
Collaborator Contribution They provide their expertise and models to capture the technical and cost prediction complexities associated with each type of thermo-mechanical storage system.
Impact We aim to write a review paper that provides a detailed and fair thermo-economic comparison of thermo-mechanical energy storage technologies, which can be used as a benchmark for the future evolution of these highly-promising solutions.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Sabbatical year at Imperial College London - Professor Drazen Fabris 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Department School of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Professor Drazen Fabris and I made contact at the HEFAT 2012 conference where I had presented the paper: A FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THERMAL LOSSES IN RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS AND EXPANDERS (by Mathie R., Markides C.N.* and White A.J.) This initial contact formed the start of an on-going discussion on the experimental testing and modelling of reciprocating machines, mainly in the context of the Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES) system in this project, but also beyond. This on-going discussion led to my inviting him to spend a year in London visiting and working with me and also a number of relevant people in my group as part of his sabbatical. During his time in London, we made available the gas-spring apparatus that we had constructed in our laboratories as part of the PTES project, CFD and lumped modelling tools, and a number of Postdoctoral researchers, PhD and Masters students who interacted closely with him during his time in London. He is now back in Santa Clara, but the collaboration is continuing on experimental and modelling aspects of high-performance components for use in different energy applications.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Fabris worked closely with Dr. Paul Sapin (assigned to the PTES project) in identifying a suitable correlation method that is now currently used for the in-line ultrasonic temperature measurements in our gas spring apparatus. He also supported the experimental work but assisting with error analysis and propagation in the measurements of pressure, volume and temperature. Professor Fabris also worked to assist Dr. Sapin along with PhD student Mr. Aly Taleb in performing a series of CFD simulations of gas springs in OpenFOAM, both with ideal gases and also investigating the role of real gas effects. Finally, Professor Fabris, Dr. Sapin and I also worked to develop a pseudo-2D code to predict the thermal processes reciprocating-piston spaces.
Impact We have developed new tools for the experimental measurements in reciprocating gas springs (the most involved of which is the in-line ultrasonic temperature technique) that allow the full lumped, dynamic investigation of these systems and the evaluation of cycle-resolved mass leakage and heat transfer. We have also developed a pseudo-2D code to predict the thermal processes in reciprocating-piston spaces, and performed CFD simulations of gas springs in OpenFOAM, both with ideal gases and also investigating the role of real gas effects. The motivation behind these various strands of research has been to validate the detailed simulations against the experimental data, and then to use the full knowledge of the flow and thermal fields in the former to develop more simple lumped, dynamic models of the gas dsirng processes. These final models can then act as reliable design tools for reciprocating machines, such as compressors and expanders.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Tests and modelling of the reciprocating piston Dearman engine 
Organisation Dearman
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution My team has developed an experimental facility, testing protocols and various models of gas spring and compressor/expander machines. Dearman's technology is exactly this type of engine and is a novel development that could benefit from the insight and tools we have developed over the course of the Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES) project.
Collaborator Contribution The relationship is in its early days, but we are currently discussing exchange of data and a joint project to support Dearman in the further development of their next-generation machines. There has also been discussion of access to a Dearman engine for testing and further development of hardware and software tools. This may involved direct funding and certainly some in-kind support but the details are not yet finalised.
Impact On-going.
Start Year 2017
 
Title Reduced order model (ROM) codes for gas spring, compressor and expander simulations 
Description These software codes allow a user to perform fast calculations of the thermal and pressure losses (where relevant) in gas springs and compressors/expanders for the purpose of early-stage design/operation, and appreciation of the relative magnitude of losses. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The codes are being used to provide thermal and pressure (where relevant) loss variations with important design (e.g. geometry of the compression/expansion space) and operation (frequency, valve timings). These have formed the basis of a closer interaction with the Universities of Ghent and Liege, and also with companies like Dearman and IAV. Ultimately, an attempt will be made to incorporate these into libraries for the modelling of reciprocating machines, but also for suggesting next-generation high-performance compression/expansion machines. 
 
Title Software - Pseudo/Two-dimensional, time-resolved dynamic codes in Matlab for gas spring simulations 
Description Pseudo/Two-dimensional, time-resolved dynamic codes in Matlab for solving the heat transfer problem in a cylindrical geometry without the need for imposed (empirical) heat transfer coefficients. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact On-going 
 
Title Three-dimensional, time-resolved CFD codes in OpenFOAM for gas spring simulations 
Description OpenFOAM is a free, open source CFD software package. Cases were set-up using the OpenFOAM coldengine foam solver. The cases included techniques for novel boundary conditions, dynamic meshing, and analysis. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The code is now being used to provide detailed on flow and heat transfer in compression/expansion spaces in the presence of net flow through these spaces and (importantly) behind meshes/orifices which more realistically represent the flow that would be expected in high-performance such systems. These data will have also formed a point of contact with other groups (e.g. Denmark Technical University, University of Twente, University of Ghent) who require this for advanced model and practical system development, as well as non-academic/industrial contacts (e.g. Isentropic Ltd., Dearman Ltd.) 
 
Title Ultrasonic device for simultaneous density and average temperature measurements 
Description New ultrasonic device for simultaneous density and average temperature measurements in reciprocating machines (compressors, expanders and gas springs) based on time-of-flight of high-frequency carrier. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The capability enabled by this device has formed the basis of discussions with companies (e.g. ABB, Shell, Isentropic, Dearman) and formed the basis of funding applications (e.g. EU H2020, Climate-KIC). 
 
Description AIChE Conference Session Keynote Speech (San Francisco) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited keynote presentation in a session of the annual American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) on next-generation high-efficiency conversion systems with integrated storage, followed by questions from the audience and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Chair 9th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Facilitated the event; chairing led to discussion with presenters and members of the audience.

Discussion led to: (1) suggestions for a number visit/exchanges; and (2) suggestions for an extension to some work that found its way into a related publication, namely: R. Mathie, C.N. Markides*, A. White, A Framework for the Analysis of Thermal Losses in Reciprocating Compressors and Expanders. Heat Transfer Engineering, 35 (2014) 1435-1449.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Contribution to RCUK SUPERGEN Energy Storage Scoping Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact We had discussions covering all aspects of energy storage in the UK, to guide research directions in recent years. My contribution was to highlight the importance in thermal energy storage, as well as large-scale energy storage with systems such as PTES (under development in this EPSRC project) and similar ones.

The areas that were suggested (i.e. thermal energy storage, as well as large-scale energy storage with systems such as PTES and similar thermodynamic systems) were acknowledged as important parts of any future energy storage technology portfolio for the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Meeting industrial partners and engaging in STEMnet activities (Women in Engineering Day) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact My colleague (and industrial contact) holds the patent for the overall project - our updates were to inform him of progress and to field queries which arose as a result of his funding bids. As a result, considerable interest in the project was generated. The STEM activity - held at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers was part of an activity with several organisations provided information to encourage the girls to consider engineering courses for study; in my case I devised a demonstration to illustrate CAES.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020
 
Description Meeting with ABB 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation of mine sparked interest in fluid measurements and metering devices that has led to an on-going discussion in the area.

We had a discussion on new "advanced" flow meters, with ABB expressing a significant interest in such a concept.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Meeting with Shell 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation of mine sparked interest in fluid measurements and metering devices that has led to an on-going discussion in the area.

Shell requested and now has access to my presentation which has been shared internally; it is being considered further.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Member of the Organising Committee and Plenary Speech at EORCC Conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact xxx
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Member of the Organising Committee and Session Chair ASME-ORC Conference 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminal conference on organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology attended by the vast majority of academics and professionals (industry, end-users, technology developers, component manufacturers, etc.) working this area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Panel discussion moderation (G3 Energy Summit, London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact This student-organised event had about 150 attendees from a waive-range of backgrounds and involved a number of keynote speeches from a mix of academics and industrialists, plus 3 panel discussions on:
1. Decentralised Energy Technology: Science and Application
2. Decentralised Energy and Development: Contributions, Opportunities and Challenges
3. Decentralised Energy in Mature Markets: Disruption from Decentralisation?
I help moderate the third panel discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description School visit (Queen Elizabeth's School, North London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Visit to a student to present in lay terms the research that we are doing within my group at Imperial College. This let to questions from the students and schools staff about going university and on the new technologies being developed in our laboratory.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Scientific Committee Member 8th World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Facilitated the event.

Was introduced to other members of the scientific committee, who invited me to visit and to present work at follow-on events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Session Chair 5th International Conference on Applied Energy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Facilitated the event; chairing led to discussion with presenters and members of the audience.

Following this chairing activity, I was asked to forward information on some papers we had published in the area, and asked what our next research directions were.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013