In-situ Visualisation of Surface Dynamics of Friction Modifiers

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Dept of Mechanical Engineering

Abstract

This proposal concerns research into the dynamics and effectiveness of organic friction modifiers (OFMs) in lubricated contacts. In most applications, friction is an expensive nuisance and should be reduced to as low a level as possible. There are, however, also applications, such as friction drives and wet clutches, where high friction is required or friction that increases with speed. Friction must thus be controlled in an informed manner to improve both the efficiency and effectiveness of machines. In the boundary and mixed lubrication regimes, the rubbing surfaces are not fully separated by a fluid film. Contact between rubbing surfaces then occurs and can lead to high friction, wear and scuffing. Therefore surface-active molecules known as organic friction modifiers (OFMs) are commonly added in fuels and lubricants as friction modifiers to improve boundary lubrication.

It is necessary for us to understand how OFMs behave in tribological contacts. Knowledge of the interactions between the surface and these molecules is crucial in the design of effective lubricants. In-situ methods are required to examine these complex processes. This issue is key to this proposed study. The overall aim is to understand the interactions between OFMs, base oil and the rubbing surfaces and how these influence OFM protective films formation and hence lubricating properties. In particular, the effects of the chemistry of rubbing surfaces, degree of OFM saturation and temperature on the formation and dynamics of its self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) will be explored by direct observation of lubricated contacts. In the proposed study, fatty acids are chosen as model OFMs. A fluorescence tracking approach will be developed to explore and understand the lubricating mechanism of OFMs at a single molecule level. A test apparatus for this purpose will be constructed, and advanced, single molecule level fluorescence techniques will be applied to provide direct information of OFM behaviour, and track fatty acid molecules dynamics in-situ. This will enable nanoscopic/molecule level behaviour, in this case, self-assembly and adsorption-desorption kinetics of OFMs measurements, to be correlated of macroscopic observables such as frictional force and wear damage. The proposed work will also provide valuable experimental results that can be used to verify and enhance computer simulations of OFMs in lubricated systems.

Planned Impact

This proposal concerns research into the dynamics and effectiveness as boundary lubricants of organic friction modifiers (OFMs) in lubricated contacts by direct in-situ observation at lubricated contacts.

1. Academic Impact
There are two areas of potential impact. Firstly, the proposed studies will provide crucial information on the fundamental lubrication mechanisms by which OFMs act. This can be used to understand the microscopic mechanisms that cause macroscopic phenomena, such as friction and wear. Thus, researchers in tribology, especially those interested in elastohydrodynamic lubrication, boundary lubrication, and additive interactions, will find such knowledge useful. The experimental quantities measured in the proposed experiments, for example, diffusion coefficients of OFMs, will provide direct inputs to theoretical models and simulations research of OFMs and boundary lubrication. The model OFM in this proposed study is fatty acids. Apart from being an additive with important engineering implications and a crucial component in blends of biodiesel with ultra-low-sulphur petroleum-based fuel, fatty acids also form an important group of biopolymers, such as cutin. The study of the interactions between such monomers in a geometrically well defined environment can be extended to the understanding of short-range structure of biopolymers.

Second is methodological. The proposed work will constitute a breakthrough for the observation of molecular interfacial dynamics under real world conditions, in which single molecule dynamics will be captured in-situ at a tribological contact. Both tribologists and researchers in other area, such as fluid dynamics, contact mechanics, engineering, physics, chemistry and materials science can benefit because the fluorescence technique is general, and can be used to study molecules and additives beyond just lubricant systems. The specific experimental platform, and associated software methods being developed are versatile and should be applicable to areas such as, and not limited to, fluid flow, nanofluidics, adsorption-desorption kinetics, and molecular self-assembly. In fact, it should be useful to any research where nanomater scale phenomena are of interests, and where surface interactions dominate.

2. Economic and societal impacts
Friction must be controlled in an informed manner to improve both the efficiency and effectiveness of machines. The lubricant and additive industries, the automobile industry, and engineering components manufacturers, invests billions of dollars in additives and lubrication research and development. They would directly benefit from this research. The proposed work will provide scientific information, as well as a new method to study the fundamental lubrication mechanisms by which OFMs act. An in-depth understanding of lubrication processes helps develop efficient lubricants. An increase in lubricant performance reduces components' wear and tear and improves fuel efficiency. The latter is particularly important given that fossil fuels are an increasingly scarce resource.

At the same time, the personal care industry can also benefit from the proposed work. OFMs are surface active molecules. Many personal care and cleaning products, such as hand cream, shampoo, detergents, contain surface active molecules that can be tracked and observed directly by fluorescence techniques. The success of these products will partly depend on how these particles interact with human skin / cleaning surface. Better understanding of relevant surface active molecules can lead to better product designs.

Finally, the tribology group at Imperial College London is already collaborating with leaders in a multitude of industries such as SFK, Infineum, Ford, Tata Motors and Unilever. These existing relationships will allow any scientific and methodological results from this proposal to disseminate to industry and create meaningful impact in an efficient manner.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This work has shown the possibility of using advanced techniques to study the working mechanisms of friction modifiers. The methods developed will be used for other related research.
Combined with more conventional tribological testing and other surface sensitive techniques, we have shown that the propensity of friction modifiers to adsorb on surfaces is chemistry dependence. The surface density (in terms of molecule per area) of commonly used model friction modifiers due to surface adsorption from bulk solutions are not necessarily very high. This however only affects initial performance of additives. Our results show that steady state friction is governed by other factors. It is likely that the rubbing action plays a crucial role in changing the properties of the additive layers on surfaces. This highlights that focusing on adsorption properties of additive alone is not sufficient for design of effective friction modifiers.
Exploitation Route The project is now because extended by a related project funded by the industry. The method developed have also be applied to other additives and on other surfaces.
Sectors Chemicals,Other

 
Description This work has generated a lot of interest from the industry. The technique developed is versatile and has been applied to understand the working mechanisms of other additives, including a commonly used antiwear additives and commercial corrosion inhibitors. Methods developed and learning obtained have helped the industry in developing their in-house testing protocols. The results obtained have also changed the view on how certain additives work and thus impacts of additive design and selection.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Chemicals
Impact Types Economic

 
Description 2015 TTRF Second Research Grant
Amount $24,110 (USD)
Organisation The Taiho Kogyo Tribology Research Foundation 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 02/2016 
End 02/2017
 
Description CRODA CASE conversion
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation Croda International 
Department Croda Chemicals Europe Ltd
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 12/2019
 
Description iCASE studentship topup
Amount £26,800 (GBP)
Organisation Shell International Petroleum 
Department Shell UK Ltd
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 01/2020
 
Description A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue - Meeting with Additive company (15/03/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A discussion with potential sponsor about research conducted in the group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description APPEAL 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This involved presentations and discussions between academic and industrial participants from the energy sections. A lot of discussions were sparked after the meeting.

We have been contacted by companies for collaborations opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Afton 7-2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and a lab tour have been given and both have sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We were asked to provide more information on our research activities and possible collaboration mechanisms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description An event to discuss technical challenge in BP (Upstream Hackathon, 29/11/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact A panel discussion on BP upstream technical challenge and how we can help based on our expertiese
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BASF 2-2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and a lab tour have been given and both have sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We were asked to provide more information on our research activities and possible collaboration mechanisms.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BASF Visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact College visit from the company where presentations and laboratory tours were arranged to showcase our research capability
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BASF visit _ 20180910 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Follow up discussion on research related to lubricants and additives
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BP - 11th Feb 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A meeting was held to discuss projects funded by BP and also EPSRC funded projects that could be of potential interest to BP. BP showed interests.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BP - 12th Nov 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation was given on BP funded projects and EPSRC projects which are of interest to BP.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BP 11-2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and a lab tour have been given and both have sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We were asked to provide more information on our research activities and possible collaboration mechanisms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description BP Annual meeting (09/01/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An event where academic and research group working with BP gets together.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BP lab tour to our lab (29/06/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Lab tour of our facilitate and showcase of research relevant to BP.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BP visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Laboratory visit from the industry which involved presentation and lab demonstration on state-of-the art research tools
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BP-ICAM annual conference (30/10/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A conference where academics that work with BP get together to share learning with each other and BP
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Baker Hughes 6-2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a talk on our research activities and it sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We were in talk of collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Baker Hughes 9-2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and a lab tour have been given and both have sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We were asked to provide more information on our research activities and possible collaboration mechanisms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description CRODA 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation and lab tour by my postdoc and myself sparked questions and discussion.

We have been asked to submit proposal to the company for possible funding opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Company visit - Baker Hughes _ 20181101 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Presentation and discussion on Baker Hughes on the research progress in the area of lubricant, additives and coatings and the potential applications to the industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Company visit - Edwards Vaccuum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact To give a presentation to a company on recent progress in work related to additives and lubricants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Company visit_Croda_20190430 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A follow up presentation and discussion to allow our work to be shown to other part of the company. There were discussion on how our work can be applied to area beyond lubrication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Company visit_EV_20190626 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation and discussion session that showcase our research on nanoadditives and lubricant flow to engineer from all parts of the company. It sparked a very lively discussion and follow up discussions were discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Company visit_Oleon_20190212 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The activity involved a 3-hour presentation and discussion section. The discussion focused on our recent research findings and the implications to working mechanisms and development of commercial additive products.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Croda - 21st Dec 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We presented our current work. A discussion was held to see how we can apply our knowhow on what Croda is interested.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Croda - 21th Dec 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A discussion was held on what the company is interested and how our research can help. More information was provided.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description DENSO 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact My postdoc gave a short presentation and a lab tour to sponsor industrial beneficiaries. The event sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We were contacted by the company for more information about our research activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Dephi 6-2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a presentation and my postdoc has given a lab tour about our research activities. Both events have sparked questions and discussions afterwards.

The company has asked us for more information about our research activities after the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Discussion on choke value, BP 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion of our expertise and how we can help BP
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with BP (11/5/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion with BP on possible future work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with BP (16/11/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion among academics and industrial representatives from BP
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with CRRC_20190329 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation and discussion of the group activities which are relevant to future transportation needs. Lots of questions were entertained.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion with CRRC_20191009 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation, laboratory demonstration and lab tour show casing how our work can help developing of future transportation systems. A lively discussion was held.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion with Croda (15/5/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A discussion of recent research progress in the group and possible collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with Croda (23/10/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of current work and discussion of potential future work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with Croda (6/2/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation and discussion with R&D team in Croda
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Discussion with Croda _ 20190130 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation on recent progress in the area of additives which has led to consensus on some possible future actions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion with Edward (19/6/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion of our current research and possible future research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with Edward (30/5/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion of relevant research that prompted discussion of possible research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with Edwards Vacuum (09/05/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A discussion held to share our research findings and explore common research interest, An understanding was established and the participants requested more info.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Discussion with Lubrizol_20190317 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation, discussion and lab tour to highlight the research activity in the group. And NDA was signed as a result to facilitate further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion with Oleon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion of potential future work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with Oleon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An update on the recent progress in research related to lubricants and discussion potential applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Discussion with Oleon (13/12/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of current research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with Oleon (28/6/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of our current research and discussion of possible future research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description EM 11-2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This involved round table discussions and lab tour. The discussions were stimulating and discussed the possibility of collaborations afterward.

After this event, the company invited me to visit them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Evonik - 3 March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I held discussion with the technical manager from Evonik about potential collaborations. I showed him my research through a short presentation and we held discussed on how I can apply my research knowhow into questions that Evonik interested in. We are identified areas of common interest. He will passed on the information he has received and we shall hold further discussions in the near future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Evonik 11-2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and a lab tour have been given and both have sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We were asked to provide more information on our research activities and possible collaboration mechanisms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Evonik 2-2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and a lab tour have been given and both have sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

The company has asked us to submit proposal for funding considerations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Exxon Mobil discussion - 9th Aug 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation was provided on our research and a discussion was held on how we can help the company with their area of interest
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Gordon conference (27-30/06/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A presentation of research findings to researchers in tribology, which sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Hoerbiger - 1st April 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation on our research work was given. Discussion on potential collaboration was held.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Hoerbiger - 8th Dec 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A discussion was held to present our current research and potential collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description IMechE Event - 50th Anniversary of Jost Report 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The event was for celebration of 50th anniversary of Jost Report. We held a stand to showcase our research with posters, powerpoint slide shows and also held general discussion with participants. We have made contacts with potential sponsors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ITC_20190918 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Multiple presentation in one of the largest tribology conference, showcasing our research to both practioners, students and researchers. All presentations drew large crowds and lively discussions follows
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Imatsu 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation I gave has sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

The company has asked for information on collaboration after the visit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Imperial research showcase 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An event with presentations and poster from research groups are Imperial
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Tribology Symposium (20/3/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An international conference held in South Korea with participant main from the Asia-pacific region. Participants are interested in my work and they have asked for more info.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Lab tour for president and vice chancellor of Imperial (22/11/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Presentation and lab tour of our facilities to increase awareness of our work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Lab visit - BP / APC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact My postdoc and I were involved in discussing our research with companies representatives during the lab tour. The event sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

The company enquired the possibility of collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Laboratory demonstration_SKF_20190308 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A laboratory demonstration of our work, showing our latest experimental development and how knowledge obtained can be applied to the industry. Lots of questions from the audience were entertained.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Laboratory visit_colonoscopy company_20190309 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A laboratory tour and demonstration were provided to show case our experimental capability and a lively discussion was held in relationship to how our work can help the development of novel medical devices
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Meeting with BP (04,05/01/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The meeting involves researchers working on the oil-and-gas industry to discuss their latest findings and working to solve problem in this area. The presentation sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meeting with BP (09/11/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation and discussions on our latest research findings and
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with BP (10/02/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented our latest findings and discussed on how we can help the industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meeting with BP (26/09/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The meeting involves researchers working on the oil-and-gas industry to discuss their latest findings and working to solve problem in this area. The presentation sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with Croda (09/02/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented our latest work and had constructive discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meeting with Croda (10/11/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation and discussion on our latest findings and how we can help the industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with Croda (16/08/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussion of our research and capability and on how we can help.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with Oleon (29/3/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A meeting with representative from Oleon to discuss recent research progress and potential future work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meeting with Oleon, Paris (27/10/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of current research that is possibly of interest to Oleon
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meeting with Shell (27/04/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A meeting to present our work and constructive discussion were carried out.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with Shell (31/05/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We shared our latest research in area the industry is interested in and sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Olen - 2nd Oct 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation on our research work was given. We discussed on potential collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Oleon - 19th March 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation was provided on our research work and discussion was held about potential collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Oleon - 4th Dec 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We presented our research. A discussion was held about potential collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Oleon 10-2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and a lab tour have been given and both have sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We were asked to provide more information on our research activities and possible collaboration mechanisms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Participation in APPEAL meeting (5/4/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A presentation and discussion of possible collaboration with companies representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation and discussion with Dalian Dianqian and Yongji Dainji_20190628 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation and panel discussion on how our research can be helpful in the development of drive train of future transportation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation and discussion with company on high speed bearing_20190828 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation and a lively discussion on our research in nanoadditives and how this can be applied to high speed bearing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation in BP _ 20180928 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation on how research tools developed can benefit the industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation in Esslingen Conference (10/01/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation on current work that has sparked interest and questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Research discussion with BP 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The discussions with people from the industry and also academics/postgraduate students on the recent progress in the research area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Rheology Meeting (19/04/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Our work was presented and it has sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SKF lab visit (26/01/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Arrange lab tour for Technical VP and R&D stuff from SKF
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description SKF lab visit - 9th June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation of our research and also a lab visit were provided. SKF showed interest in our work and request more information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description STLE conference_Nashville_20190520 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Multiple presentations were done in STLE meeting (one of the largest professional lubrication engineering conference). They are have attracted large crowds and smaller groups discussion were held on various topics of our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Shell - 18th Nov 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A meeting was held between Shell representatives and us to discuss progress on Shell's projects and EPSRC projects which Shell are interested in.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Shell - 2nd March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We held a meeting with Shell with 4 participants. We discussed projects that we currently hold with Shell and EPSRC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Shell - Lab visit _ 25th Feb 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The new VP and also a technical manager from Shell visited our research facilities. Both showed strong interests in our work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Shell - lab visit - 10th Feb 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A lab visit to showcase our research capability was provided. They showed interested in our work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Shell 10-2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and a lab tour have been given and both have sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We were asked to provide more information on our research activities and possible collaboration mechanisms.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Shell 4-2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and a lab tour have been given and both have sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We were asked to provide more information on our research activities and possible collaboration mechanisms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Shell 6-2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and a lab tour were provided for staff of a particular department of Shell. Both events sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We were contacted for more information about our research activities afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Shell 9-2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact My postdoc has given a presentation on our research. The talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

We have discussed the possibility for the company to fund our work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Shell dinner (11/10/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A dinner even that allow academic and representative from Shell to discuss research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Shell gasoline group - lab visit (27/02/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Lab tour for Shell Houston Gasoline R&D team
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description TOTAL 6-2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk and a lab tour were given and they have sparked a lot of questions and discussions.

We have held further discussion on the possible projects that the company may consider funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Total Visit (7/2/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of current work and discussion of possible future work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2018
 
Description Tribology showcase_20190708 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participation in an event that showcase the research in the group both present and future. A laboratory demonstration followed. A lively discussion were conducted after.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Visit BP at Naperville (16/11/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation and a discussion of our latest research findings and how we can help the company.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Visit Shell (Houston, 17/11/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented our research and held panel discussions on how we can help the company.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Visit from Oleon (15/09/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Showcase our research capability and held discussion on how we can help the industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop presentation_Viscous liquids_20190509 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A panel discussion that discuss the latest development in the theory of viscous fluid flow. We presented our latest experimental development on how we can bridge developed theories to engineering applications. Lots of interest were generated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description World Tribology Congress Beijing (18/09/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of Current research work and discussion with potential sponsors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017