EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Food

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: Sch of Biosciences

Abstract

Centre vision: The EPSRC Centre for Innovative Food Manufacturing will meet the challenges of UK and global food security through developing world-leading technologies, tools and leaders, tailored to the specific needs of food products.
With a turnover of £76.2bn (20% of the UK total), Food and drink is the largest manufacturing sector in the UK employing around 400,000 people. With an anticipated rapid growth in 'better value' products and in products designed for the nation's Health and Wellness, in particular for the ageing population, food manufacturing requires innovation in increased productivity - to produce more from less - to preserve natural resources such as water and energy, to minimise waste generation and to decrease the trade deficit in the sector. Crucially this will enable the UK food sector to be at the forefront of the next generation of sustainable production which are more natural and healthier., and to develop more resilient supply chains leading to state of the art manufacturing capability, in an increasingly competitive landscape.
The proposed research focuses on identifying not only new sources of raw material but also on reducing the demand on existing resources through a simultaneous improvement of food products, manufacturing methods and supply networks. In this context, some of the key research questions are: How do we fully valorise biomass (including waste re-use) as new sources of raw material in food production?; How can we design and manufacture products with the high nutritional values using fewer raw materials?; How do we improve the efficiency of food production processes (e.g. through smart monitoring technologies; process intensification / flexible manufacturing) to consume fewer resources (materials, energy and water) across the supply chain?; How can we eliminate the production and post-production waste caused by inefficient supply and manufacturing activities and /or relationships?
The scope of the proposed research focuse on the manufacturing activities from 'post-farm gate to supermarket shelf', and will be considered under two specific Grand Challenges (GC): 1) Innovative materials, products and processes and 2) Sustainable food supply and manufacture. These research challenges closely align with the EPSRC call for 'Centres for Innovative Manufacturing', in particular the three areas of Resource Efficiency in Manufacturing: processes and technologies towards complete reuse of key materials and components; the need to dramatically reduce energy demand, including the incorporation of smart energy monitoring and management technologies; optimisation of material and product re-use, re-manufacturing and recycling, Innovative Production Processes: manufactured foods being complex formulated systems, and Complex Multifunctional Products: food is a high volume product assembled using processes which operate from the nano- (raw material) to the macro-scales (packaged goods).
The proposed EPSRC Centre brings together world leading expertise in the areas of biomaterial science, formulation engineering and sustainable manufacturing. Loughborough and Nottingham are involved in the current EPSRC Centres and will ensure complementarities with other EPSRC research portfolios. The Centre will deliver demonstrable tools, methods and specific technologies, will develop academic and industrial leaders, and will provide evidence to support future policy making, thus ensuring the long-term competitiveness and security of the UK and global food supply chain. The proposal benefits from the interest and support of a wide range of stakeholders from ingredient producers and manufacturers to retailers and governmental organisations and has exploitation opportunities as the research challenges fit with the strategic themes in the new TSB High Value Manufacturing Strategy 2012-2015.

Planned Impact

The Centre will cover the scientific and technological requirements of the food industry along the whole value chain from 'post-farm gate to supermarket shelf', requiring multi-disciplinary technical input from process engineering, chemical engineering, material science, food science, microbiology and toxicology, life cycle analysis, ICT and advanced manufacturing, thus impact will span the manufacturing paradigm from the technology / process level through to production and supply chain level. The scope of impact provides a challenge and a great opportunity to engender vision in the UK science base and to improve uptake and recognition in the industry.
The connection to industry through support, involvement in the advisory board and links to SME networks, through an interaction with the Manufacturing Technology Centre and clear alignment with the TSB High Value Manufacturing Strategy 2012-2015 will provide exploitation routes for the developments within the Centre. This should provide funding routes for sustainability beyond the first 5 years EPSRC funding.
Activity at the interface of disciplines will enable ground breaking publications in leading journals, which focus on specific areas of the food industry (e.g. Food Engineering, Food Hydrocolloids, J of Food Manufacturing Efficiency), and will provide cross-sector dissemination opportunities in (e.g Soft Matter, Langmuir, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Journal of Manufacturing Processes) along with invitations for keynote addresses.
Interaction and involvement with the National Technology Platform, KTN, FDF, ETP Food for Life and KIC Foodbest will provide influence, through delivery, into policy setting for future funding opportunities in the UK and across Europe.
The UK will benefit from the outputs of the Centre through an increase in productivity and efficiencies, a decrease in resource need (energy, water and raw materials) and the provision healthier, wholesome foods to achieve positive healthcare outcomes for the population, thus having impact on Food Security and Sustainability.
As the Centre begins to progress the areas of research equipment suppliers will be invited to become involved. We will host equipment for proof-of-principle, allowing equipment suppliers to design new versions of equipment to suit the developing targets, instead of manufacturing being constrained by what is already present. While developments in automation infrastructure will not be the focus of the Centre, developments in Eco-food production research theme can be shared with the Food Manufacturing Engineering Group. Innovation in production of healthy foods can drive inputs into the Rowett Institute and Institute of Food Research studies on human nutrition, while development of technologies for SME organisations can be translated through collaboration with Leatherhead Food Research and Campden BRI. Progress in the producing new, natural materials could utilise collaboration with the scale-up opportunities at the BDC at York and the BEACON Biorefining CoE for Wales. Technologies developed within the activities of the Centre may become suitable for spin-out to parallel industries (pharmaceutical, cosmetics, paints and chemical) as we would look to spin-in technologies to enhance the capability of the food industry.

In creating such an innovative environment we hope to redress the flow of high quality researchers being lured to overseas competitors, and we aim to nurture the next generation thought leaders for the UK food industry by providing high quality science training. This will include experiment design and execution, writing and presenting skills, knowledge of ideation and new technology scouting, team working and researcher committee leadership opportunities. Business training will be given in accountability against targets set in personal development plans.

Organisations

Publications

10 25 50

publication icon
Sheppard P (2019) Embodied energy in preventable food manufacturing waste in the United Kingdom in Resources, Conservation and Recycling

publication icon
Smaniotto F (2020) Freeze drying and rehydration of alginate fluid gels in Food Hydrocolloids

publication icon
Stone J (2015) An overview of resilience factors in food supply chains in Loughborough University Institutional Repository

publication icon
Webb D (2018) In-plant real-time manufacturing water content characterisation in Water Resources and Industry

 
Description Better understanding of the interplay between food components and processes is needed to sustainably engineer foods that are fit for purpose.
Intact oil bodies can be extracted from oleaginous seeds and the sustainable processing of oilseeds can yield added value ingredients for the food industry. Projects at the Centre are examining the process of oil extraction and purification from oleaginous seeds. Understanding how extraction conditions relate to the quality of oleosomes will allow us to explore the functionality of these naturally emulsified structures for food applications.
A fundamental understanding of the food microstructure, such as foams and emulsions, will enable the design of stable food structures using more sustainable processes. At the Centre, we are using novel techniques to examine foam microstructures, particularly to understand foam drainage to improve foam storage.
Emulsions are present in a large variety of food products, however many conventional processes require high levels of energy. Confined Impinging Jet Reactors (CIJR) is an innovative technology being developed at the centre. An advantage of this processing technology is the reduced energy required to achieve emulsification.
Membrane emulsification is another technique that is used to produce emulsions with a narrow droplet-size distribution. The Centre is investigating the use of a rotating membrane to produce highly mono-disperse stable emulsions using food-grade particles.
The food sector needs to take into consideration its environmental impact in manufacturing and must not continue producing at the expense of the environment.
An approach to reducing environmental impact is for manufacturers to consider the product design and process of manufacturing as a way of developing resilient supply chains. At the Centre we have generated a taxonomy that allows for resilience, whilst taking into account the shelf life and natural variability of materials and product. The Centre is partnering with industry to validate these measures for factory implementation.
Another way to address environmental impact is to categorise and examine the factors contributing to food waste from production to end-product use. These are some of the projects that are being explored at the Centre to aid the reduction and improved utilisation of food waste. A significant cost to the food manufacturing sector is the large volumes of effluent generated. Our researchers have developed a non-invasive sensor which provides feedback on effluent to optimise treatment of water.
The changing consumer behaviours and development of new business operating models is indicating that more adaptable manufacturing is required in the future.
At the Centre, we are exploring the feasibility of food production in relation to distribution chains and food materials and manufacturing processes for distributed manufacturing.
Distributed manufacturing enables production of food to be closer to the point of use. Consumers can finish a product quickly before consuming to the same quality that would have otherwise been completed by the manufacturer. Through distributed manufacturing, the food waste generated is also reduced with extended product shelf life and increased storage stability.
Researchers at the Centre are developing a set of metrics to highlight areas where distributed and localised manufacturing may provide economic, environmental and social benefits.
To improve the shelf life of perishables, a project being explored at the Centre specifically focuses on tomato structure. Cell wall remodeling normally occurs during the process of tomato fruit softening and by modifying cell wall genes expression during ripening the texture and therefore shelf life of the fruit may be altered.
Other projects have focused on formulation and processing techniques that are relevant to the food sector. The team is developing new food formulations that can be dried for prolonged shelf life and rehydrated when required to achieve desirable organoleptic properties.
Additive manufacturing of food can offer the food and drink industry a number of competitive advantages, including: Customisation, Structures with visual appeal, On-demand production, Utilisation of novel materials and Geometric complexity.
The Centre is exploring different methods of using edible materials for additive manufacturing. Our researchers are exploring Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) to process food grade biopolymers to create edible filaments. The properties of particular food grade materials are being explored to ascertain whether they are suitable as a printing medium. In addition, the research is exploring how different materials react throughout the printing process and if their properties are affected after the process.
Other research at the Centre has focused on using natural materials relevant to the food industry and Binder Jetting to create 3D printed materials with feature sizes of less than 100 µm. This produces structures with unique and interesting topographies.
Combining a need to reduce food waste and to impact on a 'Circular Economy' for the food system strategies are required to provide sustainable solutions in getting more out of what nature provides.
The Centre aims to challenge traditional food production by finding more efficient and effective uses of ingredients and food materials.

To align with changing consumer lifestyles, the Centre is also exploring ways to meet demands to produce novel products for healthier diets using natural ingredients. Research at the Centre examines alternative sources to achieve traditional structures.
Some of our projects has been exploring food grade materials, such as protein-pectin complexes, bees wax and lignin-rich particles, derived from food waste, are able to form stable emulsions and foams.
Projects utilising insect and plant-based proteins have proven to be sustainable, nutritious filler ingredients, to provide added functionality to food microstructure. The Centre is currently investigating potential replacements of undesirable solid fats in food products, such as cakes and pastries. Research projects are exploring the functionalities of a range of food hydrocolloids towards the design of healthier foods.
There is a considerable interest in improved delivery and controlled release of actives including tastants, minerals, vitamins, and probiotics. Our researchers are exploring processes to effectively deliver key nutrients for triggered release in the gastrointestinal tract. To improve delivery of such sensitive components, researchers are assessing the processing parameters of specific drying methods and their effects on the integrity of the encapsulated nutrient. In addition, biopolymer complexes have been examined and has demonstrated promising encapsulating potentials.
Exploitation Route We have an industry members list of ~70 and are in dialogue with them about uptake of findings. Some are patented, and we are in discussions wrt licensing. A lot of our science is published >70 peer reviewed articles, which is accessible by the researchers in the field.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

URL http://www.manufacturingfoodfutures.com
 
Description We are in discussion with industry about taking up some of our research findings. They are also funding some of our work.
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Member of the KTN Food Group publishing the pre-competitive research areas for the Food & Drink Industry
 
Description Member of the RCUK Global Food Security working group
 
Description UK delegation to India
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
 
Description defining the top three reserach questions influencing the Food System
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description BBSRC DRINC
Amount £335,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2015 
End 11/2018
 
Description BBSRC NIBB Food Waste Net
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2015 
End 02/2016
 
Description CIM Additive Manufacturing (30000)
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2015 
End 07/2018
 
Description CVCP (Committee of Vice Chancellors and Principals) Vice Chancellors Scholarship (80910; 2015 - 2018
Amount £80,910 (GBP)
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description Campden BRI - PhD Studentship @ UoN - Industry funded (45000)
Amount £45,000 (GBP)
Organisation Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 07/2019
 
Description EPSRC CASE Studentship
Amount £79,198 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2016 
End 04/2020
 
Description EPSRC CDT Sustainable Chemistry
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 08/2015
 
Description EPSRC Circular Economy (1000000)
Amount £1,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2018
 
Description EPSRC Future Formulation Hub
Amount £403,800 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
 
Description EPSRC GCRF
Amount £20,827 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Innovate UK Health and Lifesciences 2
Amount £454,819 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 02/2020
 
Description Innovate UK Jordans (140000)
Amount £140,000 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2018
 
Description Innovate UK Resilience in Supply Chains
Amount £197,000 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2017
 
Description Innovate UK Technology Inspired Innovation
Amount £143,573 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 01/2017
 
Description M & S MRes (24042)
Amount £24,042 (GBP)
Organisation Marks and Spencer 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2018
 
Description Marie Curie Fellowship Award
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions 
Sector Academic/University
Country Global
Start 06/2015 
End 06/2017
 
Description Mondelez Oral processing of chocolate
Amount £90,000 (GBP)
Organisation Mondelez International 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 11/2014 
End 01/2016
 
Description Mondelez funded PhD studentship (45000)
Amount £45,000 (GBP)
Organisation Mondelez International 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 08/2016 
End 07/2019
 
Description Nestle (Fat Mimetics) PDRA (60000)
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Nestlé UK 
Start 06/2016 
End 02/2017
 
Description PepsiCo (MRes NM) (25000)
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Organisation PepsiCo 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 05/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description PepsiCo Industry Funded PDRA Sponsorship UoB (350000)
Amount £35,000 (GBP)
Organisation PepsiCo 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 06/2016 
End 05/2018
 
Description PepsiCo PhD Studentship UoN (50000)
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation PepsiCo 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description PhD Studentship at UoN- Industry Funded
Amount £117,000 (GBP)
Organisation Unilever 
Department Unilever Research and Development
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description PhD Studentship at UoN- Industry Funded
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation PepsiCo 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 12/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description PhD studentship at UoN- Industry Funded
Amount £36,540 (GBP)
Organisation PepsiCo 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description Postdoctoral Research Grant for UoB
Amount £350,000 (GBP)
Organisation PepsiCo 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 12/2015 
End 12/2018
 
Description Postdoctoral Research Grant for UoN
Amount £105,311 (GBP)
Organisation PepsiCo 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start  
 
Description Signature Bid (250000)
Amount £250,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 08/2019
 
Description University of Birmingham 2 x PhD (120000)
Amount £120,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Birmingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 04/2020
 
Description Vice Chancellors Scholarship
Amount £80,910 (GBP)
Organisation CVCP (Committee of Vice Chancellors and Principals) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Title Development of low energy emulsification 
Description  
Type Of Material  
Provided To Others? No  
 
Description BBSRC DRINC Programme 
Organisation Quadram Institute Bioscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Academic expertise, student associated will be housed at UoN, access to equipment
Collaborator Contribution Academic expertise, access to facilities
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Case Studies - Greencore & Loughborough University 
Organisation Greencore Ltd
PI Contribution Solicited initial meeting, described research context and case study scope, boundaries, goals and potential benefits to partners. Developed and presented a resilience toolkit which was validated and developed using Greencore expertise. Provided a comprehensive summary report for Greencore concerning resilience findings and recommendations.
Collaborator Contribution Provided the expertise of several members of staff to validate and develop the toolkit through a number of in depth interviews, supported by the provision of supplementary information.
Impact Substantial contribution towards a PhD thesis. Provision of a summary report for Greencore, detailing key aspects of the theory behind resilience, how to use the tool and the key findings of the case study and suggestions for future investigations.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Case Studies - Greencore & Loughborough University 
Organisation Greencore Ltd
PI Contribution Solicited initial meeting, described research context and case study scope, boundaries, goals and potential benefits to partners. Developed and presented a resilience toolkit which was validated and developed using Greencore expertise. Provided a comprehensive summary report for Greencore concerning resilience findings and recommendations.
Collaborator Contribution Provided the expertise of several members of staff to validate and develop the toolkit through a number of in depth interviews, supported by the provision of supplementary information.
Impact Substantial contribution towards a PhD thesis. Provision of a summary report for Greencore, detailing key aspects of the theory behind resilience, how to use the tool and the key findings of the case study and suggestions for future investigations.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Catergorisation of food waste and to study different options to optimise the management of food waste. Molson Coors 
Organisation Molson Coors
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution To apply catergorisation of food waste and to study different options to optimise the management of food waste, ask that they complete a Food-Waste Survey designed, analyse the information and send them a report highlighting the findings.
Collaborator Contribution To completed a Food-Waste Survey he designed.
Impact to be completed
Start Year 2015
 
Description Catergorisation of food waste and to study different options to optimise the management of food waste. Quorn Foods 
Organisation Quorn Foods Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Apply catergorisation of food waste and study different options to optimise the management of food waste, get them to complete a specifically designed Food-Waste survey and analyse the information and send them a report of the findings.
Collaborator Contribution Completed a Food-Study survey.
Impact Ongoing
Start Year 2015
 
Description Co-location of Food Manufacturing and Biorefining - Phil Sheppard 
Organisation University of Lincoln
Department National Centre for Food Manufacturing (NCFM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My current collaborator is GGG, with whom I am writing a paper. We may need an additional senior Chemical Engineer academic. We are using information from papers published by Imperial College and the University of York.
Collaborator Contribution N/A
Impact No outputs or outcomes yet. The planned outputs are a journal paper and a proposal for funding further work. I may not be here to write a proposal, so there is no guarantee that anyone else would pick this up.
Start Year 2018
 
Description EPSRC Future Formulation Hub 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Academic expertise relating to additive manufacturing processes / edible materials for additive manufacturing of food. Staff, equipment, studentships, etc..
Collaborator Contribution expertise of additive manufacturing in other sectors. Studentships, etc.
Impact None yet, although there are 5 industrial sponsors of this project
Start Year 2016
 
Description EPSRC Studentship with Devro 
Organisation Devro LTD
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution As part of the EPSRC Case Awards, Devro are the industrial sponsor for the student who will be based at the University of Nottingham, and will be starting in the Spring of 2016.
Collaborator Contribution Providing sponsorship in the form of top-up fees, and some materials
Impact None yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description Engagement with EPSRC funded ICT-enabled "Open Food" innovation 
Organisation Royal College of Art
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Involvement in workshops, discussions, ideas for the RCA-led project
Collaborator Contribution Project leads, design ideas, trials, consumer focus groups, research
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Exploring the role of impact of the Internet of Things in unlocking value in a closed-loop supply chain 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution For Esmee's MSc dissertation, I contributed to the IoT applicability within Food Supply Chain and how IoT can help in improving resource efficiency of food supply chain and at the same time enhancing overall environmental sustainability of food supply chain.
Collaborator Contribution Various IoT applications within supply chain which we were previously unaware of.
Impact Output was Master thesis on IoT and closed loop supply chain
Start Year 2016
 
Description Industry funded PDRA 
Organisation PepsiCo
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Staff member based at UoB, academic expertise, facilities and equipment
Collaborator Contribution Expertise, know how, materials and facilities
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Industry funded PDRA 
Organisation PepsiCo
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Staff housed at UoN, academic expertise, equipment
Collaborator Contribution Financial and materials
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Industry funded studentship 
Organisation PepsiCo
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution student based at UoN, access to equipment and facilities
Collaborator Contribution Financial 'top up' and materials
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Industry funded studentship 
Organisation PepsiCo
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Student based at UoN, academic supervisor and expertise, equipment
Collaborator Contribution Financial 'top up' and materials
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Industry-funded project 
Organisation Mondelez International
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Providing the facilities for research and expertise (academic member of staff)
Collaborator Contribution Financial contribution and expertise
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Industry-funded studentship 
Organisation Unilever
Department Unilever Research and Development
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Student housed at UoN, academic expertise, equipment
Collaborator Contribution Financial, materials, expertise, know-how
Impact None yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Innovate UK Project (Eat Less Meat) 
Organisation Quorn Foods Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Knowledge and expertise
Collaborator Contribution Financial and materials
Impact The Student working on this project has since been awarded an industrial-sponsored studentship. Quorn continue to explore future collaborations with us.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Innovate UK Resilience in Supply Chains 
Organisation Systems Integration Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Providing postdoctoral researcher to carry out the investigation to the project
Collaborator Contribution Leading the project, and providing IT systems and expertise
Impact New partnership, and members to the CIM in Food.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Innovate UK TII with Martec 
Organisation Martec-Conservation
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Loughborough University are leading this work from the CIM's perspective, and will provide the laboratory space and the postdoc to carry out the research
Collaborator Contribution Martec will be providing the materials and the expertise, UoN will also help assemble the rig.
Impact Partnership / member of the CIM in Food
Start Year 2016
 
Description Innovate UK TII with Martec 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department Faculty of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Loughborough University are leading this work from the CIM's perspective, and will provide the laboratory space and the postdoc to carry out the research
Collaborator Contribution Martec will be providing the materials and the expertise, UoN will also help assemble the rig.
Impact Partnership / member of the CIM in Food
Start Year 2016
 
Description Innovative Food Technologies for Redistributed Manufacturing 
Organisation Loughborough University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Loughborough University wrote a report for the LNN on Redistributed Manufacturing (run by the University of Oxford) with the assistance during the three months of the collaborating partners. The report has been provided to them, has been made publicly available and it is expected to be used by the ESRC and EPSRC to shape future research calls on distributed manufacturing.
Collaborator Contribution The partners assisted during the project by providing expertise and supporting the decisions on possible content and structure of the report giving feedback during different stages of the project.
Impact • Project report: "Innovative Food Technologies for Redistributed Manufacturing" • Project results presentation at the conference: "Localising Food Systems: The food-energy-water nexus issues of re-distributed manufacturing" The decision was made to make the report publicly available
Start Year 2016
 
Description Life Cycle assessment of osmotic and freeze drying of stawberries 
Organisation University of Salento
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Freeze drying and osmotic drying experiments; moisture content and water activity analyses.
Collaborator Contribution Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis
Impact A paper, writing in progress
Start Year 2016
 
Description Life Cycle assessment of osmotic and freeze drying of strawberries 
Organisation University of Salerno
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Freeze drying and osmotic drying experiments: moisture content and water activity analyses
Collaborator Contribution Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis
Impact A paper, published on the Journal of Cleaner Production
Start Year 2016
 
Description Mechanical amorphiszation of cellulosic materials and subsequent recrystallization Jade Phillips, Sonia Holland and Tim Foster 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Jade Phillips presented a presentation at the 5th annual EPNOE international polysaccharide conference that compared both her work and Sonia Hollands work on the mechanical amorphization of cellulosic materials and subsequent recrystallization.
Collaborator Contribution Contributions of results found from experimental work.
Impact The outcome resulted in a presentation at a conference and possibly a publication in the form of a paper in the foreseeable future. The collaboration may go on to a paper but if not then it will cease after the conference was attended.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Meeting between CIM Guillermo Garcia-Garcia and Baxter Storey (Catering Company) 
Organisation Baxter Storey
PI Contribution Baxter Storey is a catering company who had been doing some work on reducing and measuring their food waste levels. The purpose of the meeting was to learn about what they do, principally what approach they have to reduce food waste.
Collaborator Contribution Guillermo Garcia-Garcia and Aicha Jellil from the CIM gave a presentation about the CIM work and discussed potential collaborations with Baxter Storey.
Impact So far, no action has occured after the meeting, but the CIM may establish a collaboration project at some point. No outputs or outcomes generated yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Meeting with researchers from the following universities to discuss potential collaborations: 
Organisation University of York
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Nottingham, Birmingham, York, UNSW Australia, Cardiff University, Lincoln Univerisity, CREST (Loughborough University).
Collaborator Contribution Contact with York and Nottingham led to the start of a project which is going to run until end of 2018 __ Contact still exits with other universities, but an output has not occurred yet.
Impact None
Start Year 2016
 
Description Modelling of freeze drying of tomato 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Freeze drying experiments, moisture content, water activity and microstructure analyses.
Collaborator Contribution Modelling of the process, study of drying and rehydration kinetics
Impact A paper almost ready to be submitted
Start Year 2016
 
Description Modelling of freeze drying or tomato 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Freeze drying experiments; moisture content, water activity and porosity analyses
Collaborator Contribution Modelling of process, study of drying and rehydration kinetics
Impact A paper, in writing progress
Start Year 2016
 
Description Phospholipids from Oil Bodies - This collaboration is between the 'oil bodies' group of the CIM at the University of Nottingham and the lipidomic group at Rothamsted Research Centre. The members of the CIM Nottingham involved in the collaboration are David Gray, Vincenzo di Bari, Simone De Chirico and Tim Foster 
Organisation Rothamsted Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Shared findings on a method for the recovery and purification of oil bodies from rapeseeds
Collaborator Contribution Provide purified oil bodies according to different recovery methods
Impact Outcomes have still to be produced. One planned outcome is a joint publication
Start Year 2016
 
Description Science in Sport Product Development 
Organisation Science in Sport plc
PI Contribution Aided in studies relating to development of specific products
Collaborator Contribution Provided materials and funding
Impact Early stage product development
Start Year 2016
 
Description Submission of a successful full proposal to EPSRC Circular Economy Call ' Whole systems understanding of unavoidable food supply chain waste for re-nutrition 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration University of York, University of Nottingham and Loughborough University
Collaborator Contribution Submission of a successful full proposal to EPSRC Circular Economy Call. Funding awarded: £822,615. Funded Period: Jan 17 - Dec 18
Impact Submission of a successful full proposal to EPSRC Circular Economy Call. Funding awarded: £822,615. Funded Period: Jan 17 - Dec 18
Start Year 2016
 
Description Water research collaboration between CIM members George Skouteris and Felix Shin and Pukka Pies 
Organisation Pukka Pies Limited
PI Contribution Water sample collection
Collaborator Contribution Water sample analysis - research in progress
Impact None to report
Start Year 2018
 
Title ALCOHOLIC COMPOSITIONS 
Description A method for manufacturing alcoholic liquid compositions, the method comprises the steps of: · providing an alcoholic liquid composition; • contacting unhydrated hydrocolloid with the alcoholic liquid composition to provide a hydrocolloid composition; • shearing the resulting hydrocolloid composition at a temperature of 60°C or below to hydrate the hydrocolloid. 
IP Reference WO2019008331 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2019
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact In discussion with Industry
 
Title EMULSION 
Description The invention relates to a process for making an emulsion, comprising the steps of: a) providing a first aqueous solution comprising: a hydrocolloid and one or more active ingredients; b) shearing the solution of step a); c) adding the composition from step b) to a hydrophobic solution comprising a first emulsifier; d) shearing the solution of step c) to form a primary emulsion; e) adding the primary emulsion of step d) to a second hydrophilic solution comprising a second emulsifier; and f) shearing the composition of e) to form a double emulsion; wherein the first aqueous solution is charged. The invention also provides a composition comprising an aqueous solvent and one or more particles, the particles comprising: a hydrocolloid core comprising one or more active ingredients; a hydrophobic layer adjacent the hydrocolloid core; a first emulsifier positioned between the hydrocolloid core and the hydrophobic layer; and a second emulsifier positioned between the hydrophobic layer and the aqueous solvent; wherein the one or more active ingredients are thermally sensitive. 
IP Reference WO2017199008 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact In discussion for licensing.
 
Title Emulsion 
Description The invention relates to a process for making an emulsion, comprising the steps of: a) providing a first aqueous solution comprising: a hydrocolloid and one or more active ingredients; b) shearing the solution of step a); c) adding the composition from step b) to a hydrophobic solution comprising a first emulsifier; d) shearing the solution of step c) to form a primary emulsion; e) adding the primary emulsion of step d) to a second hydrophilic solution comprising a second emulsifier; and f) shearing the composition of e) to form a double emulsion; wherein the first aqueous solution is charged. The invention also provides a composition comprising an aqueous solvent and one or more particles, the particles comprising: a hydrocolloid core comprising one or more active ingredients; a hydrophobic layer adjacent the hydrocolloid core; a first emulsifier positioned between the hydrocolloid core and the hydrophobic layer; and a second emulsifier positioned between the hydrophobic layer and the aqueous solvent; wherein the one or more active ingredients are thermally sensitive. 
IP Reference WO2017199008 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed No
Impact Exploitation in progress with Industry
 
Title FOOD AND BEVERAGE ADDITIVE 
Description The present invention relates to a method for the manufacture of edible gel particles having a mean longest diameter of from 0.1 to 20 µm, the method comprising: high-shear mixing a solution comprising an alginate, while adding a source of calcium ions to the solution. 
IP Reference US2015320090 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2015
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact In discussion with Industry
 
Title LOW-SUGAR CHOCOLATE 
Description A low sugar chocolate composition comprising a water-in-oil emulsion comprising cocoa butter, an emulsifier and a fat-crystal stabilised and non-gelled aqueous phase dispersed substantially through the cocoa butter continuous phase, and one or more additional ingredients of chocolate including a natural sugar in less than 45% by weight of the total composition. 
IP Reference WO2018185502 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact In discussion with Industry
 
Title Low Fat Chocolate 
Description The application describes comestible products comprising a water-in-oil emulsion, the water-in-oil emulsion comprising cocoa butter and a fat-crystal stabilised aqueous phase dispersed substantially through the cocoa butter continuous phase and optionally one or more additional ingredients of chocolate. Hydrocolloids, such as gelative or carrageenan are typically used to stabilise the aqueous phase. Methods of making comestible products are also provided. 
IP Reference WO2010146350 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2015
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact Not known
 
Title Novel Nanonization 
Description The invention provides a method of nanonization or micronization of a compound comprising heating the mixture of a solvent, in which compound of interest is solubilized, and antisolvent with microwave radiation to form nanocrystals or microcrystals or amorphous particles of the compound. Apparatus for use in the invention are also provided. 
IP Reference WO2017174969 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed No
Impact Exploitation in progress with industry
 
Title PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF STABLE EMULSIONS 
Description A process for the production of a stable water-in-oil emulsion comprising a fat phase and an aqueous phase, wherein the process comprises: an emulsification step wherein the aqueous phase and fat phase are mixed under high shear, characterized in that the obtained emulsion is not subsequently subjected to any further high shear mixing. 
IP Reference US2016037791 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact In discussion with Industry
 
Title Pickering Emulsion Formulations 
Description The invention provides an emulsion comprising: (a) a continuous phase; (b) a dispersed phase comprising an active compound (1); and (c) colloidal particles located at the interface between the continuous phase and the dispersed phase. These are particularly useful with one or more agrochemicals or food additives as an active compound. 
IP Reference WO2015170099 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed No
Impact Exploitation in progress with industry
 
Title Satiety gel 
Description The present invention relates to a composition comprising xanthan gum or ?-carrageenan, a swellable particulate and protein and/or a polysaccharide which forms a synergistic gel with xanthan and/or ?-carrageenan (e.g. galactomannan or glucomannan), and uses of such a composition, for example, to treat obesity. The present invention further relates to kits comprising said composition, wherein the composition is provided in separate first and second parts, and ranges of foodstuffs. The present invention also relates to a composition comprising ?-carrageenan and a swellable particulate. The present invention further relates to a method for forming an edible gel, gels so formed and uses for said gels, as well as food stuffs containing the compositions of the invention. 
IP Reference WO2014202997 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed No
Impact Exploitation in progress with industry
 
Title The technology was previously patented and a licence has been taken. The work within this PhD provided some underpinning of the technology 
Description Interaction of two separated materials when combined in the stomach 
IP Reference  
Protection Protection not required
Year Protection Granted 2014
Licensed Yes
Impact Technology has been successfully applied to commercial product formulations, and these are now in the stage of going to clinical trial.
 
Description 11th European PhD workshop on food engineering and technology. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Each year, the 'European Federation of Chemical Engineering' (EFCE) organizes the 'European PhD Workshop on Food and Technology' The 11th edition of this event will be held on the 27th & 28th April 2017 at the Nestle Product Technology Center in Singen, Germany. EFFoST is one of the organizers of the European PhD Workshop on Food Engineering and Technology. High qualified young European scientists who will finish their PhD in Food Engineering and Technology soon or have innovative topics at the interface between food and engineering are accepted, particularly those of relevance to food industry. The Scientific Committee selects the best papers, and aims to keep as a rule one PhD student per country.

Abstract title: Food-grade Pickering Emulsions via Rotating Memrane Emulsification
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.effost.org/events/agenda/724982.aspx
 
Description 13th International Hydrocolloids Conference, Ontario, Canada 16th - 20th May 2016. CIM team member Tom Mills attended as a delegate. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Networking visit to Rich Products sites afterwards to maintain relationship for future projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 16th Food Colloids, 10th - 13th April 2016 Vincenzo diBari 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Conference has allowed expanding engagement with other Universities, primarily the University of Wageningen with which a collaborative research program has started since the conference focusing on the 'oil bodies' research field. The event has also allowed meeting other scientists (mainly Prof A Marangoni) with whom there may be opportunities in the early future to collaborate in the field of oleogels.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2nd Congress Food Structure Design Conference attended by Kurnia from the CIM as a Speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Kurnia Ramadhan participated in this three days international conference and delivered a 15 minutes presentation at the last session of the first day. Communications were built between the participants.

Title of presentation and abstract

Effects of Ball Milling on the Selected Properties of High Protein Oat Bran Powder and Slurry
This study aims to evaluate the selected properties of high protein oat bran (HPOB) powder and slurry, i.e. particle size distribution, chemical, thermal, and rheological properties, as affected by different speeds of ball milling. The medians of particle sizes decreased from 128.4 µm to 37.76, 12.48, and 7.20 µm after ball milling at 300, 500, and 800 rpm respectively. Particle size distribution curve altered from nearly unimodal into multimodal with a broader size range. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra showed a peak intensity increase in protein associated bands of ball milled HPOB. Gaussian curve fitting of amide I spectra region showed an escalation of random coil protein secondary structure as the beta-sheet structure declined, which confirmed protein denaturation. Contrariwise, a weaker peak intensity in carbohydrate associated bands indicated the loss of crystallinity. Scanning calorimetric studies revealed a reduced protein thermal stability of ball milled HPOB, shown by increment on heat capacity and shifting on onset and melting temperatures. Disruptive effects of ball milling significantly lowered the storage and loss modulus of HPOB slurry.

The CIM was able to contribute to the scientific community, particularly in the interest of food structure, through dissemination of work in this conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.fsd2016.org/v1/
 
Description 3D Food Printing Conference, Villa Flora, Venlo, Netherlands attended by Sonia Holland from the CIM team 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentations from Academics/PhD Students, Business Owners, Online Publishers from the 3D printing sector. Plus demonstrations/product display, mostly from businesses/ a few independent researchers/designers.
Sonia gave a scientific focused presentation on her work, Jennie Lord past CIM team member gave a joint presentation with KTN regarding the CIM. Get us known in the world of 3D printing food. Contact has since be made by people at the Conference about various things, including a special food engineering journal publication, which Sonia is hoping to get a paper in.

As well as, knowing what other groups are doing to advance 3D Printing technology for food and meeting the people behind certain things Sonia have the opportunity of being able to chat to them about it directly.

Abstract
Cellulose as an edible ingredient for 3D Printing.
Cellulose is the most abundant polymer in nature, providing structure to plant cell walls. It is therefore consumed regularly in the diet, not contributing any calorific value but acting as a natural dietary fiber. Its use as an ingredient, however, is somewhat limited to 'filler' type roles or as a bulking agent as good solvents are not suitable for food use. Mechanical abrasion by ball milling can render an amorphous powder which, when the recrystallisation kinetics are known, may be utilized in a Binder Jetting 3D process to create edible cellulose-based structures.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://3dfoodprintingconference.com/2016-2/
 
Description 3D Printing (additive Manufacturing) Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Exploring the barriers and challenges of 3D printing of food manufacture. With experts from additive manufacturing and food structuring, the Centre's for Innovative Manufacturing in Food and Additive Manufacturing came together with 40 industry delegates to discuss the potential of 3D printing for personalised and sustainable food manufacture.

It was agreed that a second workshop in 2016 should explore the opportunities further.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.manufacturingfoodfutures.com/manufacturingfoodfutures/documents/workshop-doc.pdf
 
Description APPG for Food and Drink Manufacturing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Science and Food Manufacturing discussion meeting addresses by Tim Foster EPSRC, John Bows, Research & Development Director, PepsiCo, Dr Ian Noble Senior RDQ Director - Mondelez International and Helen Munday, Chief Scientific Officer, Food and Drink Federation. Chairman - Stephen Metcalf MP & John Stevenson MP
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Additive Manufacturing in Food Workshop 07 - 08th April 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This workshop gave the opportunity to engage with people in industry and academia. The event focused on identifying research needs and looking into the future and how will additive manufacturing or 3D printing fit into food industry. There was a final report on the workshop circulated among the participants.

This activity helped with the definition and generation of a set of research challenges and directions that will support the future research into applications of additive manufacturing in the food industry. More over this activity helped with the visualisation from other perspectives of a subject which can be related to my work in the food CIM.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.manufacturingfoodfutures.com/events/agrifood-opportunities-in-additive-manufacturing.aspx
 
Description AgroCycle workshop: Barriers and Opportunities to Valorising Agri-food wastes, co products and by-products (AWCBs) Brussels, 26 Jan 2017 attended by CIM member Guillermo Garcia-Garcia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Round table discussions and presentations, Learn about projects and partners in Europe looking into valorization of food waste.

Outcome and impact of this activity was to network and other colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Article in Science Impact 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact World-class tools for worldwide food security
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Article in Science Impact 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Securing Sustainability
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Birmingham Food Council Food Security Meeting in Birmingham attended by Jamie Stone 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact CIM members attended visit to the research organisation, which sparked questions and discussions afterwards, and increased interest related subject areas. Contribution to panel questions and networking after the event generated a number of contacts and possible follow up potential. The outcome is Networking and representation of the Food CIM in the Midlands area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.birminghamfoodcouncil.org/
 
Description Book chapter in the Routledge Handbook of Food Waste Research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Upcycling and valorisation of food waste, Mohamed A. Gedi1, Vincenzo di Bari1, Roger Ibbett1, Randa Darwish1, Ogueri Nwaiwu1, Zainudin Umar2, Deepa Agarwal1; Richard Worrall1, David Gray1; Tim Foster1, Division of Food Science, School of Bioscience, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonnington, LE12 5RD; 2PepsiCo International, Beaumont Park, 4 Leycroft Road, Leicester, LE4 1ET, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Booth at 'Appetitie for Engineering' 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity
 
Description British Science Festival fringe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interactive activity looking at 'jelly worms', chocolate engineering, foams and food microstructures.

Held at Bradford university, the activity took place on a Sunday over several hours, and roughly 100 people (families, children) took part in educational games and activities. Parents and carers engaged in discussions with researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.fringesciencefestival.org/
 
Description CIM Conference 2017 Chris Clarke was a speaker at the Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Annual CIM conference to spread awareness about group's activities from other institutions. Updates for relevant industrial partners and chance for discussion and networking relating to future collaborations. Foam Drainage: Microscale flow in an ideal isolated system
Drainage models in foams are based primarily on the flow of liquid through the network of Plateau borders (PB) and junctions that define the foam geometry. Such models arise from the extension of theory and assumptions made at the micro-scale, detailing flow through isolated PBs and nodes. Despite this, the experimental verification of such microscopic flow models, especially those for nodes, is limited.

We propose a novel experimental setup that utilises the convenience and accuracy of stereolithography to allow for analysis of an ideal, isolated PB and node system. A computer modelled geometry has been demonstrated to produce a stable PB and node with PB height and liquid flow rate as user defined variables. Measurements of PB radius, flow pressure changes and velocity of tracked fluorescent particles will enable fitting of theoretical models to data, determining flow profiles, average flow velocity and surface shear viscosity of gas/liquid interfaces for a variety of surfactants.

Initial results are outlined that highlight the potential of this setup to provide reliable data, furthering the understanding of both micro and macroscopic drainage characteristics, as well as providing in-situ micro-rheological measurements of the gas/liquid interface.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description CIM Conference 2018 Speaker - Chris Clarke 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact CIM Conference updating progress and research from the CIM to other members and industry representatives. Facilitated discussion and networking, plus introduction to additional research groups and partners. Talk Title - Food Foams: Microscale Flow in an Ideal System.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.manufacturingfoodfutures.com/documents/foam-drainage-microscale-flow-in-an-ideal-system-c...
 
Description CIM team member Guillermo Garcia-Garcia participated in seven 'Grime Scene Investigation' Waste audits to classify and quantify waste generated across Loughborough University campus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Raise students and staff awareness of the issue of food waste.

Following results obtained, publicity materials are developed to raise student and staff awareness.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description CPACT Conference- Uni of Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussions for food industry on how process analytical control technologies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Campden BRI day 2017 - Open day attended by James Huscroft 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact CIM company members attended the day representing their respective businesses. Biggest impact of the activity is showing Campden BRI and it's research to the wider food sector as well as getting a number of delegates across this sector into the same place for a day of networking.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.campdenbri.co.uk/campdenbri-day.php
 
Description Chris Clarke attended Food Matters Live 2017 and presented a poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Annual industrial conference linking small and large businesses to current research and technology, as well as suppliers and potential collaborators. Large-scale networking and opportunities to discuss current political climate relating to the industry. CIM members attended in order to promote the CIM to potential collaborators and share some current research. Title of presentation: Food Foams on the Microscale
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.foodmatterslive.com/
 
Description CoCo Tea 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Jo Gould gave an Oral Presentation -Application of cocoa particles as an emulsifier. In this research the novel application of cocoa particles as emulsifying particles was investigated. The presentation will demonstrate that the ability of cocoa particles to absorb at interfaces is not due their lipid, polyphenol, protein or starch content. The lignin present in cocoa particles may be crucial to their interfacial activity as well as their surface roughness. A report will be written from ongoing investigations including high fat cocoa powder and cocoa fibre.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conference (3-Day) - RSC/SCI Colliods Group Meeting: Particles at Interfaces, Leeds was attended by Aris Lazidis from the CIM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Aris attended the Conference along with Fotis Spyropoulos, have showcased the work they are carrying out in the field of particle stabilization emulsion and foams and how they can be used for targeted delivery. They were engaged with a number of conversations and emphasized the work of the CIM as a whole and benefit of being part of it.

Abstract title: Wax particles for the stabilization of emulsions and foams.

The most significant outcome /impact of the activity was the networking and showcasing of their work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://engineering.leeds.ac.uk/events/event/160/rscsci_colloids_group_meeting_particles_at_interfac...
 
Description Conference Systems Changing Thinking - attended by Rhianna Briars 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Organised in partnership by the CIM as a dissemination activity for projects including the Re_SAUCE circular economy project. Useful questions and discussions sparked during the event including potential access to another feedstock and a company interested in the fibrous residue created from our process. Presentation and abstract: Post harvest treatment of post harvest pea vine field residue for nutrient stabilisation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Conference UK - Gluten Free Bakery attended by CIM member Yi Ren 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Yi Ren wrote -
The conference is closely related to my project, therefore good communication has been made between academic and industries. New product, algal protein, by Naturis is very interesting product for increasing nutritious quality and being applied as an inert filler in bakery products. However, sample request was not successful.

Title of presentation and abstract

Applications of Methyl Cellulose and Psyllium in Gluten Free Bread and Manufacturing Issues
Yi Ren, Tim Foster
For the purpose of dealing with gluten intolerance and meeting the trend of "free from" food among consumers and markets, gluten free products are becoming a new favourite but pose a challenge to both manufacturers and consumers. One of the biggest challenges is the production and quality improvement of gluten free bread, a staple food in many regions, as the results of the absence of gluten whose function is maximised in normal wheat bread as structure creator and stabiliser. In normal wheat bread, Gluten mainly plays roles in the film formation, gas trapping, gas cell stabilisation, and moisture control. Currently, gluten free breads are mainly produced by using alternative flours and starches, such as rice flour, sorghum, corn starch, potato starch etc. However, these bread have inferior qualities such as small loaf volume, fragile crumb, sandy texture etc. Hydrocolloids are proven to be promising in improving the qualities of gluten free bread. Besides, they also have certain health benefits such as low-calorie content, blood sugar control, lowering cholesterol levels. The variability and versatility of hydrocolloids' functions offer the combinative application but also lead to complexity.
This study targets the investigation on the functionalities of cellulose derivatives and psyllium and their influences on gluten free bread quality, as well as the formulation optimisation of gluten free bread based on rice flour by response surface design.
Four types of cellulose derivatives with different gelation properties and viscosities were applied and results showed that viscosity is more influential than gelation properties in loaf volume increase. Psyllium with different particle size was also compared and the results showed that it mainly influences cell size rather than loaf volume. A comparison between MC bread and psyllium bread and the optimised formulation by response surface design showed that methyl cellulose might be more influential to loaf volume while psyllium addition is more beneficial to crumb springiness and cohesiveness. Besides, psyllium appears to bind water more tightly during heating than MC. Rheological tests showed that the functions of hydrocolloids can be reduced in high flour/starch content system.
From both literature reviews and the investigation of the process, it can be observed that holes in crumb are a severe issue in gluten free bread making and the severity is dependent on flour type and, possibly, their pasting properties. Three types of holes are identified according to the causes and stages during bread making which can be solved by reducing water content and hydrocolloid addition. Therefore, a compromise between loaf volume and crumb hole size might be considered.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.campdenbri.co.uk/gluten-free-bakery-conference.php
 
Description Conference and Workshop on Innovations in Aerated Food Processing for Sustainability, Health and Life - Jan 2017 attend by CIM members Jo Gould and Bettina Wolf 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact UK and Malaysian early career researchers in attendance
Communication of research
Network with Malaysia

Joanne Gould and Bettina Wolf
Clean labels are more important than ever to consumers with a recent survey finding that 58% of people would switch brands for an alternative without artificial ingredients. With this in mind, there has been an increasing interest into alternative, natural and sustainable food additives to replace artificial stabilisers and emulsifiers. For aerated food products surfactants and proteins are commonly used to reduce the surface tension at an air/water interface to infer stability.

In this contribution we will introduce two alternative novel foam stabilisers. Firstly, low fat cocoa particles acting as natural Pickering particles capable of stabilising aqueous foams. We will also present how that these particles are also amenable to stabilising food foams such as cake and ice cream while removing added fat or egg from the ingredient list. Our second example looks towards the extraction of protein from insects rather than using whey proteins as a source of protein for foam stabilisation.

Attracted significant interest in the research
Contacts
Invited to speak at Campden BRI Bakery Technology Conference May 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference attended by Jo Gould and Bettina Wolf from the CIM, International Congress on Particle Technology, Nuremburg, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Communication of Research - Presentation and abstract. Creating particulate emulsifiers from food waste. The outcome and inpact attracted significant interest in the research.
Abstract
Particulate emulsifiers, an alternative to small molecular surfactants for stabilisation of emulsion interfaces, have generated increasing interest in recent years as they impart excellent microstructure stability. Presently, however, except for hydrophobic starches, a food ingredient of the particulate emulsifier type is not available. This may be due to the lack of design rules as well as the desire not to create artificial processed particles as a new food ingredient. For this reason, food particles already present in processed foods or particles generated from food waste appear more attractive.
This paper reports on the functionality and functionalisation of spent coffee particles as an emulsifier for o/w and w/o emulsions, respectively. Spent coffee was chosen as candidate waste material as it naturally contains lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. Ground spent coffee particles will be shown to stabilise o/w emulsions at 1:1 fraction of oil: water and a range of oil polarities. Albeit flocculated, these emulsions were shear stable. Hydrothermally treated particles stabilised w/o emulsions, due to the relocation of lignin trapped in the cell wall material onto the particle surface during treatment. These emulsions were also shear stable but showed a more complex impact of shear history on viscosity behaviour. In conclusion, particulate emulsifiers for versatile application can be created from spent coffee. Transferability of this finding to other sources of lignin-rich food waste remains to be investigated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Conference speaker at Sustainable Design and Manufacturing Conference 25 - 28th April 2017 - Elliott Woolley 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Presentation of new research regarding environmentally informed decision making within industrial organisation. Included a number of case studies pertaining to the food manufacturing industry.

Abstract title:
Eco-Intelligent Factories: Timescales for Environmental Decision Support
Manufacturing decisions are currently made based on considerations of cost, time and quality. However there is increasing pressure to also routinely incorporate environmental considerations into the decision making processes. Despite the existence of a number of tools for environmental analysis of manufacturing activities, there does not appear to be a structured approach for generating relevant environmental information that can be fed into manufacturing decision making. This research proposes an overarching structure that leads to three approaches, pertaining to different timescales that enable the generation of environmental information, suitable for consideration during decision making. The approaches are demonstrated through three industrial case studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-57078-5_32
 
Description Conference, Edie Live, 18 May 2016. CIM members Guillermo Garcia-Garcia, Sandeep Jagtap and Pedro Gimenez 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Event with presentations and exhibitions about energy, sustainability and resource efficiency. Learning about companies working in the field. With hundreds of world-class experts and exhibitors (130 companies), it is the only event for sustainability and environment professionals to pinpoint innovation, source new suppliers and learn from peers. From energy efficiency to carbon reduction, from water and resource management to water recovery and re-use, from on-site generation to energy storage and from water retail to demand response, edie live is your destination.

This was a good conference to interact with industrialists and to know more about the latest research being carried out in food sector. More relevant to Loughborough's research activities on water, energy and resource efficiency. It also gave the opportunity to explore further in Pedro's research and gave some new directions to look into that helped improve research quality. Moreover he had the chance to understand industry view on future manufacturing and sustainability and this support for research direction.

Sandeep met Mr Ove Lundahl of Arotek Aps which supports food production companies in improving efficiency and transparency within food supply chain. He visited Loughborough University on 23rd September 2016 and gave a brief presentation about his company activities and open to future tie-ups on CIM research projects.

The most significant impact and outcome was to be given the opportunity to talk with industry and keep updated on latest research activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://exhibition.edie.net/
 
Description Conference, Germany - 19th Gums & Stabilisters for the Food Industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Yi Ren wrote -

The conference is closely related to my project, therefore good communication has been made between academic and industries.

Title of presentation and abstract

The Influences of Methyl Cellulose and Psyllium and Their Applications in a Flour-Water System with Medium Water Content (ca. 55%).
Yi Ren, Tim Foster
Hydrocolloids have a wide application in food industry because of their functions to create structure, stabilise the system, influence texture and sensory perception (Foster, 2010). On the other hand, starch and starch based flours are also popular ingredients for researchers and manufacturers as either additives or main ingredients in products varying from beverages, soup and sauce, to pasta, noodles and bread etc. with a wide range of water content. However, there are some constraints of their applications and qualities of final products due to the properties of starch/flour and/or the absence of some components e.g. proteins. An example of latter cases is gluten free bread, which is investigated and produced to meet gluten intolerance and the "free from" trend. The addition of hydrocolloids is one method to reduce these constraints. Using the example of gluten free bread, hydrocolloids have been investigated and applied as dough stabilisers, structure creators, and moisture controllers. Besides, most hydrocolloids also have certain health benefits such as low-calorie content, blood sugar control, and lowering cholesterol levels. However, though some fundamental understanding and mechanisms are reported based on the system with high moisture content, due to the complexity and variability of systems and limitation of testing methods, fundamental understandings to hydrocolloid-flour/starch system with medium water content are limited.

This study investigates the functionalities of methyl cellulose (MC) and psyllium, as well as their influences on flour-water systems with medium water content (50 to 60% of water).
The thermal gelation properties of MC and water mobility in psyllium solutions were investigated by measuring proton relaxation and the results showed that water mobility in MC solution increases when temperature increases while water molecules are trapped in the MC network after thermal gelation, with a mobility decrease. A stronger water binding ability of psyllium is seen. In terms of rheological properties of flour-water systems at room temperature (20°C), MC increased damping factors (tand) while psyllium showed no such effects. The influence of each hydrocolloid on the storage and loss moduli is dependent on the water amount in extragranular spaces. The monitoring of storage modulus (G') over temperature showed similar results with Keetels et al. (1996) who worked on a higher water content. An increase of G' with heating, which is possibly due to starch granules swelling, was observed until a maximum was reached where granules became closely packed. With further heating, starch granule softening appeared to happened which leads to a decrease of G'. Starch retrogradation was observed with a G' increase during cooling. The additions of hydrocolloids had effects on initial G' values, G' increase, and maximum values, thought to be due to water availability, space occupation, and the properties of hydrocolloids themselves. There was no obvious reduction in retrogradation rate when psyllium was added. The monitor of proton relaxation showed that hydrocolloids reduced starch hydration, especially the water migration into amorphous areas, by competing for water. It also showed the possibility that hydrocolloids are able to prevent long-term retrogradation.
FOSTER, T. J. 2010. Technofunctionality of Hydrocolloids and Their Impact on Food Structure. Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry 15, 103-112.
KEETELS, C. J. A. M., VANVLIET, T. & WALSTRA, P. 1996. Gelation and retrogradation of concentrated starch systems .1. Gelation. Food Hydrocolloids, 10, 343-353.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://foodhydrocolloidstrust.org.uk/
 
Description Conference, Germany - 19th Gums & Stabilisters for the Food Industry attended by Jade Philips from the CIM in Food 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The most significant outcome of the event was speaking to people also working on similar areas/or the same area and enabling on another to discuss appropriate methods for future research applications. Also both discussing what methods have not worked thereby saving on another time and money. Also raising awareness for the research going on in the CIM and additionally advertising our food hyrdrocolloids conference coming up this September. Furthermore, learning of new techniques and methods ongoing in research, that are based upon similar materials, but that have a completely different function was very interesting.

Title of presentation and abstract:
Functionalising cellulose waste as a replacer for high energy dense ingredients.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference: Sustainable Food Expo, Birmingham November 2016, Patrick Webb from the CIM was a speaker at the Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The purpose was dissemination of a CIM project intentions and results. There were several questions asked indicating interest in the potential of the work.

When the project had reached the stage of pexploitation it will be easier to find commercial support partners their there is already some industry familiarity with the motivations for development and potential value to be gained from the technology.

Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Water Consumption in Food Manufacture.
The true cost of water to manufacturers can be up to three times supply and effluent charges. In addition water shortages, lack of water company treatment capacity and ever changing legislation are business risks. In mitigation forward thinking companies will implement a water management policy, but long term sustainable reductions in water and effluent in manufacturing can only be achieved by understanding and addressing water use by individual process steps, on which there is rarely substantial operational or engineering data. To overcome this lack, Loughborough University is developing a set of flexible, non-invasive water analysis instrumentation to monitor in-plant effluent flows. The data obtained will be used in a previously developed Water Management Framework to identify hotspots for process or product redesign to improve water sustainability.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sustainablefoodexpo.com/
 
Description Defining and Modelling Resilience along Food Supply Chain 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Jamie, Elliot and Shahin attended the Conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description EPS Research Conference, 25 October 2016. Valentina Prosapio from the CIM team, presented a poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The main purpose of the EPS Conference was to highlight the interdisciplinary strengths of groups and individuals across the disciplines of the College of Engineering and Physical Sciences of the University of Birmingham. It was a good opportunity to share ideas with members of other groups and identify possible collaborations.

Title of presentation and abstract
Drying of foods
Drying of foods is one of the most common preservation processes, since the removal of water inhibits microorganisms' growth and, therefore, prolongs the product shelf life. Since traditional drying techniques show long processing times and change in food characteristics, osmotic dehydration pre-treatment can be applied in order to produce an intermediate moisture product and, therefore, to improve the drying process. In this work, the influence of osmotic dehydration on oven drying and freeze drying performance in terms of product moisture content, water activity, rehydration ability and properties retention was investigated.

The most significant outcome was a fruitful discussion about the research with other postdocs and academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/university/colleges/eps/events/2016/College-of-Engineering-and-Physical-...
 
Description EPSRC CIM Conference MFF - 23rd March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This event bought together industry and academic experts to discuss challenges and showcase the latest innovations in the food sector. The Conference garnered attention towards 'Eco-Intelligent Management of Food Supply Chain as well as some contacts both from academia and industries such as Mark Swainson of Lincoln University and Jaro Tomik of Traceall Global, who showed great interest in the Food CIM research activities. Both visited the Centre for SMART and are open for any future collaborations.

Title of presentation and abstract from Sandeep Jagtap CIM team member 'Eco-Intelligent Management of Food Supply Chain'.
Title of presentation and abstract from Pedro Gimenez CIM team member 'Distributed and Localised Manufacture of Food Products'
Abstract:
There is a need for a shift towards smaller-scale local manufacturing which has been highlighted by a range of factors such as changes in transport and labour costs, the availability and access to materials, energy and water; and the need for long-term resilience to market changes. The term 'distributed and localised manufacturing' (DLM) refers to a conglomerate of distributed and autonomous food production units which operate as a set of cooperating entities. The unique attributes of food products make them particularly suitable for localised, distributed manufacturing as they require a consideration of factors such as the need for fresh perishable ingredients, stringent storage and health risks associated with inappropriate distribution together with short post-production shelf-lives.
This research aims to develop a number of DLM models, tailored to specific characteristics of food groups, and the understanding of particular attributes that make a food product suitable for one of these DLM models. Furthermore, simulation-based decision support tools will be developed to allow 'what-if' scenario planning to assess the feasibility and viability, in addition of supporting the implementation of new DLM models.
The expected benefits from this research will include the ability to facilitate the provision of customised/personalised food products in support of dietary requirements, creation of more agile and shorter supply chains, minimisation of the environmental impact and cost associated with food transportation, reduction in the risk and cost of recovery from major failures occurring in a single production line, and support of local economies.

This activity helped dissemination of the CIM research activities and also helped to the cohort of researchers to gain knowledge from experienced academics and industrialist. It also helped to network with industrial partners and to gather their ideas on our research activities from different perspectives.


This conference gave the opportunity for CIM team members to present their research to both academia and food industry and to receive constructive feedback from them on their research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.manufacturingfoodfutures.com
 
Description EPSRC Centre for Industrial Sustainability Conference 07th - 08th July - attended by CIM team member Pedro Gimenez 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This research conference helped Pedro to show his research and gather ideas and feedback from the sustainability perspective of the topic. This event provided knowledge in different areas and gave some contacts which might be of use for future projects. The activity helped disseminate Pedro's research and gather feedback and knowledge which he has used to improve his work taking some ideas from sustainability research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.industrialsustainability.org/news-events-/annual-conference-2016/
 
Description EU FRIENZ delegation to New Zealand 
Form Of Engagement Activity
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity
 
Description East Midlands University Association Conference - Sandeep from the CIM Presented a Poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Sandeep was representing the Food CIM and had an opportunity to introduce other Food CIM member's research activities to wider audiences and researchers from other universities. The response was outstanding and Sandeep handed out flyers and business cards and received emails requesting information about the Centre.

The title of the presentation; 'Application of Internet of Things (IoT) in Food Supply Chain

The significant outcome and impact of this activity was an opportunity to network with researchers with similar research interests in the field of food supply chain.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.lboro.ac.uk/services/graduateschool/training/pastevents/emua2016/
 
Description Elliot Woolley - 4th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International dissemination and networking. Development of follow on journal paper. Title: Eco-Intelligent Factories: Timescales for Environmental Decision Support. Manufacturing decisions are currently made based on considerations of cost, time and quality. However there is increasing pressure to also routinely incorporate environmental considerations into the decision making processes. Despite the existence of a number of tools for environmental analysis of manufacturing activities, there does not appear to be a structured approach for generating relevant environmental information that can be fed into manufacturing decision making. This research proposes an overarching structure that leads to three approaches, pertaining to different timescales that enable the generation of environmental information, suitable for consideration during decision making. The approaches are demonstrated through three industrial case studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-57078-5_32
 
Description Elliot Woolley - PPMA (Processing Packaging Machinery Association) Show 2017 - speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of research applicable to industry. Invitation to organise a session of talks (sustainability theme) for the following year. Title: Energy efficient production: uncover the potential of waste - Manufacturing is responsible for about one third of global energy consumption and can represent a significant business cost. In this session, discover how waste heat energy can be recovered and re-used within a manufacturing environment and take a look into the future to see how new energy consumption models can change the way we manufacture products.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ppmashow.co.uk/contact/about-ppma
 
Description Exhibition at EPSRC Manufacturing the Future Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact exhibition stand over 2 days, and a talk by Centre Director.

Video footage also of Tim below in the URL box. Use password EPSRC1 to open the link.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://vimeo.com/user20828710/review/141783272/09da46683e
 
Description Farm to Fork and beyond CIM Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The first mini conference with talks delivered by Postdoctoral and PhD researchers covering ingredients, processes and resilience in the supply chain, with invited opinions and questions from our industry members, discussions on ingredient optimisation and trends in food waste were hot topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Food Matter Live 2016 - Conference delegate Jamie Stone 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact CIM members attended visit to the research organisation which sparked questions and discussions afterwards, and increased interest related subject areas. Activities consisted of manning the Food CIM stand and representing it's work to delegates from all around the world who represented a variety of audiences from policy to NGO's. Academia and Industry. Participation in after talk questions also sparked useful discussion and helped promote the Food CIM in key areas (for Jamie's part, resilience and sustainability in food supply chains and logistics).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.foodmatterslive.com/
 
Description Food Matters Live 23rd Nov 2016 - Guillermo Garcia-Garcia and Pedro Gimenez from the CIM team attend this Conference. Gimenez presented a poster. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This is an annual event which aims to show and gather different advances in the food sector. The CIM had a stand to showcase and demonstrate our projects and to attract possible future members and partners.

This event helped to show the CIM activities and impacted different people which did not know about our work or existence. Moreover numerous students and businesses came to us to discuss future opportunities.

Pedro had the opportunity to interact with academic Prof Mark Jolly of Cranfield University who has similar research interest in using IoT to improve food supply chain sustainability. Also, I was able to get hold of Terry Prior of Innovation food who would like to publish Food CIM research in his scientific magazines and Anne-Celine Renaud of Vitagora who would like to link up our food research with food industries.

There was opportunity to obtain feedback around the CIMs research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.foodmatterslive.com/
 
Description Food Matters Live Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Held an exhibit at the 3 day event, held in London's ExCel arena. Our exhibition size was 9m x 2m.

At the event we also gave two seminars, one on policy and one on duplex emulsions for salt reduction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.globaleventslist.elsevier.com/events/2015/11/food-matters-live/
 
Description Global Conference in Sustainable Manufacturing, South Africa. 3-5 October 2016 - CIM team member Guillermo Garcia-Garcia attended the Conference as a speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Title of Conference paper presented in the 12th paper session 'Optimization' on Tuesday 4th October. Guillermo attended other presentations by researchers, workshops and two visits. A visit to Stellenbosch Technology Centre and Polyoak, a company that produces plastic containers.

Title: Optimising industrial food waste management
Abstract: Global levels of food waste are attracting growing concern and require immediate action to mitigate their negative ecological and socio-economic ramifications. In the developed world, of the order of 20-40% of food waste is generated at the manufacturing stage of supply chains and is often managed in non-optimised ways leading to additional environmental impacts. This research describes a novel decision-support tool to enable food manufacturers to evaluate a range of waste management options and identify the most sustainable solution. A nine-stage qualitative evaluation tool is used in conjunction with a number of quantitative parameters to assess industrial food waste, which is then used to generate performance factors that enable the evaluation of economic, environmental and social implications of a range of food-waste management alternatives. The applicability of this process in a software-based decision-support tool is discussed in the context of two industrial case studies.

Guillermo promoted his research in front of a large academic and industrial audience and had the opportunity to network during three days with academics from all over the world. Guillermo learnt about different areas of sustainability from other presentations given. He visited the Stellenbosch Technology Centre and the company Polyoak and learnt a lot about manufacturing processes and management.

The most significant outcome / impact of this activity for Guillermo was to promote his research, networking, learn from other researchers' work and from the visits.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.gcsm.eu/SouthAfrica/index.html
 
Description Global Conference in Sustainable Manufacturing, in South Africa, 3 - 5 October 2016 attended by Guillermo Garcia-Garcia as a speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Guillermo promoted his research in front of a large academic and industrial audience. I had the opportunity to network during three days with academics from all over the world. He learnt about different areas of sustainability from other presentations given. He visited the Stellenbosch Technology Centre and the company Polyoak and learnt a lot about manufacturing processes and management. Title: Optimising industrial food waste management
Abstract: Global levels of food waste are attracting growing concern and require immediate action to mitigate their negative ecological and socio-economic ramifications. In the developed world, of the order of 20-40% of food waste is generated at the manufacturing stage of supply chains and is often managed in non-optimised ways leading to additional environmental impacts. This research describes a novel decision-support tool to enable food manufacturers to evaluate a range of waste management options and identify the most sustainable solution. A nine-stage qualitative evaluation tool is used in conjunction with a number of quantitative parameters to assess industrial food waste, which is then used to generate performance factors that enable the evaluation of economic, environmental and social implications of a range of food-waste management alternatives. The applicability of this process in a software-based decision-support tool is discussed in the context of two industrial case studies. the most significant outcome / impact of this activity?
The most significant outcome was to promote his research, networking, learn from other researchers' work and from the visits
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.gcsm.eu/SouthAfrica/index.html
 
Description Gums & Stabilisers Conference Berlin - June 2017 attended by CIM Michelle Neville, Yi Ren, Jade Philips 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Comparison of the suitability of different citrus fibres as ice cream stabilisers
The structure and functionality of two types of citrus fibre as sources of novel ice cream stabilisers and as combination blends with guar gum were investigated in comparison to a commercial ice cream stabilised using a hydrocolloid blend.
Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigated the structure of fibres in-situ. Rheological assessment identified differences in the consistency coefficient of aged ice cream mixes containing different fibres, as calculated using the Power Law Model and was associated with a reduction in the rate of meltdown [1]. It was found that plant fibres largely postponed the time of onset of ice cream melting in comparison to hydrocolloid stabilisers.
Spin-spin relaxation NMR (T2) identified differences in the impact on water (proton) mobility between fibre suspensions. However, this reduction in T2 was not reflected in control over ice recrystallisation [2].
The ability of fibres to control microstructural deteriorations with heat shock were assessed. Cryo-Scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) identified that differences in control over air cell coarsening differed between fibres. Blending fibres with guar gum also contributed to improved functionality. The effect of microstructure on sensory properties was also studied and the present investigation identified that plant fibres show promise as effective ice cream stabilisers.

References
1. Alvarez, V.B., et al., Physical properties of ice cream containing milk protein concentrates. Journal of Dairy Science, 2005. 88(3): p. 862-871.
2. Herrera, M.L., et al., Thermal, mechanical, and molecular relaxation properties of frozen sucrose and fructose solutions containing hydrocolloids. Food Biophysics, 2007. 2(1): p. 20-28.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2017
URL http://foodhydrocolloidstrust.org.uk/conference-programme
 
Description Holly Cuthill CIM team member presenting at Innovate UK / KTN network titled Early career researchers. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Holly presented an overview of work including the impact of her research and was awarded a visit to Allied Bakeries site in Maidenhead.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description IFST Food Sustainability Conference - Waste not want not attended by Jade Phillips and Pedro Gimenez from the CIM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact CIM members attended the conference on the basis of gathering information regarding to statistics and current methods of improving food and industrial waste within the UK and other developing countries. These included both pre- and post-harvest initiatives for food sustainability across the food chain. These talks then created discussions of whether these methods of reducing negative environmental impacts were plausible.

Considered outcomes and impact of this;
Statistics and learning what industrial companies see feasible about reducing food waste enabling better sustainability.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ifst.org/knowledge-centre-event-highlights/spring-conference-2016-food-sustainability-was...
 
Description Image J Workshop Delegate - CIM member Khat Hussain 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Using image J / fiji for digital image processing. Discussion concerning image analysis of own data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www2.le.ac.uk/colleges/medbiopsych/facilities-and-services/cbs/AIF/workshops/imagej-workshops...
 
Description Influence and Impact Annual Research Conference 31 October 2016, Conference delegate Guillermo Garcia-Garcia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The main aim of the event was to enable current researchers to showcase why and how they are making valuable contributions to their field of interest. Guillermo had the opportunity to promote his research with a poster, learn about other researchers work, learn from the keynote speakers and improve communication skills thanks to a workshop. Poster ' Sustainable waste management in the food industry'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.lboro.ac.uk/services/graduatesschool/training/researchconf
 
Description Influence and Impact Annual Research Conference, 31st October 2016 - was attended by Guillermo Garcia-Garcia CIM team member and presented a poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The main aim of the event was to enable current researchers to showcase why and how they are making valuable contributions to their field of interest. I had the opportunity to promote my research with a poster, learn about other researchers' work, learn from the keynote speakers and improve communication skills thanks to a workshop.

Poster title, ' Sustainable waste management in the food industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.lboro.ac.uk/services/graduateschool/training/researchconf/
 
Description Institute for Manufacturing - Open Innovation Forum Meeting - attended by Natalie Chiu Outreach Officer for the CIM in Food as a speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Centre was invited to give a talk on trends and drivers, with a focus on processes, materials and value chains. The topic of the event was on 'Value Chain: Developing a Roadmap for Food, Drink and FMCG' and the presentations stimulated the roadmapping exercises which took place during the workshop.

Title of presentation:
'EPSRC CIM in Food roadmapping'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Internal discussion on Extraction of valuable compounds from food waste using super critical CO2 technologies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Jamie & Guillermo talked with the Food-CIM researchers Mattia and Vincenzo on possibilities to collaborate in a project to extract valuable compounds from food waste using super critical CO2 technology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description International Conference on Food and Environmental Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A talk titled 'A framework for a more efficient approach to food waste management'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Resource Use in Food Chains - Panos from the CIM was a speaker at this Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Technologies and approaches for energy demand reduction and minimisation of resource use, including water and waste, across all stages of food chains for primary production to consumption and waste management.

Title and presentation abstract:
Food grade Pickering Emulsions via Rotating Memrane Emulsification
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.foodenergy.org.uk/events.html
 
Description International Union of Food Science and Technology, 18th World Congress of Food Science and Technology Conference in Dublin, Ireland - August 2016 attended and presented by CIM team members Jo Gould, Khat Nawaz Husain and Bettina Wolf 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Communication of research

Pickering Particles Prepared From Food Waste

J. GOULD, K. NAWAZ HUSAIN AND B. WOLF

EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Food, Division of Food Sciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD, U.K.

Particulate emulsifiers as alternative to small molecular surfactants for stabilisation of emulsion interfaces have generated increasing interest in recent years in academia and industry as they impart excellent microstructure stability. Presently however, except for hydrophobic starches, a food ingredient of the particulate emulsifier type is not available. This may be due to the lack of design rules as well as the desire to not create artificial processed particles as a new food ingredient. For this reason, food particles already present in processed foods or particles generated from food waste appear more attractive. We have previously demonstrated that commercial cocoa particles act as particulate emulsifiers. An investigation into the underlying mechanism of this functionality has enabled us to identify further food ingredient particles with emulsifying ability as well as pathways for converting selected sources of food waste into particulate emulsifiers. One of the pathways includes hydrothermal treatment of lignin-rich particulate source material to concentrate the lignin on their surface imparting interfacial activity as we will evidence in our contribution.

Attracted significant interest in the research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Polysaccharide Innovations for Structuring Food @ Polysaccharides as Sweet Spot for Innovation, KU Leuven, 17th & 18th September 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description KTN Early Research Careers in Manchester - attended by Aicha Jellil 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of research, aim: outreach activity to increase awareness of industry business, academics and other researchers about ongoing research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://connect.innovateuk.org/web/food-for-health/article-view/-/blogs/ktn-early-career-researchers...
 
Description Kurnia Ramadhan attended The 19th Gums & Stabilisers for the Food Industry Conference 27th - 30th June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact There were five of CIM members presenting either a talk or poster.

Effects of Oat Bran Protein Particle
s on the Rheological Properties of Soy Protein Gel . This study aims to evaluate the effects of oat bran protein particles on the gelation and rheological properties of a soy-based dense protein gel. The oat bran protein particles used were of various sizes and were dispersed in different concentrations. Temperature-sweep rheological measurements were performed to obtain information on gelation properties. Frequency-sweep tests were conducted to evaluate the structure of soy protein gel. Upon heating, the increase in storage modulus reached its maximum at 83oC and then continued to a higher plateau upon cooling back to room temperature. Incorporation of oat bran protein particles at the higher addition levels weakened the structure of heated-cooled soy protein gel. At equivalent addition levels, larger particle size caused a decreased weakening effect to the gel structure. The widely dispersed small particles may disrupt the formation of a continuous protein gel network due to their large surface area. Therefore, the addition of oat bran protein particles may be suitable for designing alternative structure of soy-based protein-rich foods.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.foodhydrocolloidstrust.org.uk/node/1
 
Description Localising Food Systems: The food-energy-water nexus issues of re-distributed manufacturing 07th December 2016. Conference / Workshop attended by CIM team member Pedro Gimenez as a Delegate / Speaker / Poster presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Pedro presented his work done as a member of the LNN in the 3 month project in collaboration with them.

In this event we presented a report done during a three months project in partnership with other universities. It helped us disseminate our research and to increase the interest in my research area. Moreover it gave me the chance to participate in a workshop to understand the future of manufacturing and identify potential needs for research.

Title: Innovative Food Technology for RDM

Abstract:

The need for a shift towards smaller-scale local manufacturing has been highlighted by a range of factors such as changes in transport and labour costs, the availability and access to materials, energy and water; and the need for long-term resilience to market changes. The unique attributes of food products make them particularly suitable for localised, distributed manufacturing as they require considerations for fresh perishable ingredients, stringent storage and health risks associated with inappropriate distribution together with short post-production shelf-life. This project aims to develop an assessment framework based on 'product attributes versus market conditions', to highlight those food applications in which distributed manufacturing is economically feasible, environmentally beneficial, as well as having potential to support local economies. In addition a number of 'Distributed and Localised Food Manufacture' implementation models, tailored to specific characteristics of various food products categories, will be developed. These implementation models will form the foundations for a simulation-based decision support tool to allow 'what-if' scenario planning to assess their feasibility and viability. The expected outcome from the research will facilitate the provision of customised/personalised food products in support of dietary requirements, creation of more agile and shorter supply chains, minimisation of the environmental impact and the cost associated with food transportation.

We made public the report which we expect to be used by the UK research council to influence future research calls. Moreover we made several contacts which could support future projects and collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://localnexus.org/conference-on-localising-food-systems-the-food-energy-water-nexus-issues-of-re...
 
Description Mattia Cassanelli - Early Career Conference in Food speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The conference was about the food sector. Networking with delegates from industries. Mattia presented what he has done during his PhD and the CIM outreach activities. Title of presentation: The Food Industry: Investigation of Drying Mechanisms.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description National Conference on Food - Conference - London: Delegate James Huscroft 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact CIM members attended visit to the research organisation, which sparked questions and discussions afterwards, and increased interest related subject areas. Knowledge transfer and innovation across the whole food sector showcasing new and upcoming technology as well as allowing for debate from across the whole sector and different food chains. Great activity event for showcasing the CIM research to a wider audience as well as to a non-CIM.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.foodmatterslive.com
 
Description New Product Development Workshop - attended by CIM Members Shahin Rahimifard, Lucia Azanedo and Sandeep Jagtap 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Food CIM Members engaged in discussion on NPD with industry including start-ups and SME's. The most significant outcome was the identification of industrial needs in the area of sustainable new product development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Open Access Government Article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The role of the UK food manufacturing industry in global food science and innovation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Oracle Brand Compliance Industry Consultation - A special Conference for the Food and Drink Industry attended by Aicha Jellil from the CIM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Oracle consultation to build a platform to enable for transparency and trace-ability in the food supply chain. Intended purpose to establish contact with major retailers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Participation - Congress of Food Science and Technology Congress 2017 - Speaker Tim Foster - CIM Director 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Title of presentations:
'Impactful food innovations: connecting fundamental research to industry changes'
'Food micro-structure design for optimal performance'

Approach to Healthy Food Design - has its distinctive element to integrate the research areas of Science and Food Technology with those inherent in the Human Nutrition aiming to positively impact the health and well-being of people. It provided an excellent space to promote the interdisciplinary encounter and scientific discussion among students, academics and professionals from national and international institutions and organizations. There were parallel sessions by leading national and international researchers a workshop focused on Food, Nutrition and Health, and a symposium on food safety and quality organised jointly with the Latin American and Caribbean Association in Science and Technology in Food (ALACCTA).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://sochital.com/xxi-congreso-chileno-de-ciencias-y-tecnologia-de-alimentos-sochital-2017/
 
Description Participation 4th International Conference on Sustainable Design Manufacturing - 26th - 28th April - Keynote Speaker Shahin Rahimifard Deputy Director CIM in Food 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The keynote presented research currently underway at Loughborough and related future gazing. The purpose was to bring this knowledge to the academic community, policymakers, etc. who were part of an international audience. The keynote sparked discussions and interactions that we hope to follow up on.

Title of presentation / abstract, Forging New Frontiers in Sustainable Food Manufacturing

Abstract
One of the most prominent challenges commonly acknowledged by modern manufacturing industries is 'how to produce more with fewer resources?' Nowhere is this more true than in the food sector due to the recent concerns regarding the long-term availability and security of food products. The unique attributes of food products such as the need for fresh perishable ingredients, health risks associated with inappropriate production environment, stringent storage and distributions requirements together with relatively short post-production shelf-life makes their preparation, production and supply considerably different to other manufactured goods. Furthermore, the impacts of climate change on our ability to produce food, the rapidly increasing global population, as well as changes in demand and dietary behaviours both within developed and developing countries urgently demands a need to change the way we grow, manufacture and consume our food products. This paper discusses a number of key research challenges facing modern food manufacturers, including improved productivity using fewer resources, valorisation of food waste, improving the resilience of food supply chains, localisation of food production, and utilisation of new sustainable sources of nutrition for provision of customised food products.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-57078-5_2
 
Description Pedro Gimenez-Escalante Speaker and poster presentation at Manufacturing Food Futures 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The activity was aimed at demonstrating and showcasing the research being undertaken by the CIM members in a professional conference. It served as a networking event and as an information and feedback gathering activity which always provides good inputs to the academia.
In my opinion this activity helped dissemination of the CIM research activities and also helped to the cohort of researchers to gain knowledge from experienced academics and industrialist. It also helped to network with industrial partners and to gather their ideas on our research activities from different perspectives.

Title:

"Innovative Technologies for Distributed Localised Food Manufacturing"

Abstract:

The food sector is now facing increased pressure from governments and consumers to improve the sustainability of their products, production processes, supply chain activities and business strategies. Traditional business models focusing on the centralisation and large scale production of food products are increasingly being challenged due to increasing demand for authentic local
products, food waste associated with large supply chains, consumer demand for food sustainability, and concerns regarding the long-term resilience of complex food systems. In this context, the concept of Distributed Manufacturing (DM) has been identified as an emerging organisational theory that can support the food industry in its upcoming and future challenges.

This research focuses on how food technologies could enable the shift from centralised systems to distributed and localised systems. Numerous technologies are available or in development with promising potential for application in distributed food manufacturing. Fourteen criteria have been defined and used to demonstrate the suitability and applicability of these existing and emerging food technologies in support of DM. In addition, the research will explore a number of related key research questions regarding the viability of DM within the food sector, including the profitability of traditional technologies in smaller scale; scalability, reliability and ability of novel food technologies to produce high quality food products at affordable prices; and social and societal acceptance of small factories within urban areas.

Title:

"Distributed Localised Manufacturing of Food Products"

Abstract:

The need for a shift towards smaller-scale local manufacturing has been highlighted by a range of factors such as changes in transport and labour costs, the availability and access to materials, energy and water; and the need for long-term resilience to market changes. The unique attributes of food products make them particularly suitable for localised, distributed manufacturing as they require considerations for fresh perishable ingredients, stringent storage and health risks associated with inappropriate distribution together with short post-production shelf-life.

This research aims to develop an assessment framework based on 'product attributes versus market conditions', to highlight those food applications in which distributed manufacturing is economically feasible, environmentally beneficial, as well as having potential to support local economies. In addition, a number of 'Distributed and Localised Food Manufacture' implementation models, tailored to specific characteristics of various food products categories, will be developed. These implementation models will form the foundations for a simulation-based decision support tool to allow 'what-if' scenario planning to assess their feasibility and viability.

The expected outcome from the research will support the provision of customised/personalised food products in support of dietary requirements, creation of more agile and shorter supply chains, minimisation of the environmental impact and the cost associated with food transportation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.manufacturingfoodfutures.com/reports/presentations.aspx
 
Description Pedro Gimenez-Escalante Speaker and poster presentation at Manufacturing Food Futures 2017 at Wolfson School 2017 PhD Research Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This activity was a two days research conference with multiple presentations and poster exhibitions of a wide range of topics developed in the Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering. The conference helped me promote my research and gather some positive feedback.

Title:

'Distributed Localised Manufacturing of Food Products"

Abstract:

The unique attributes of food products make them particularly suitable for localised, distributed manufacturing as they require considerations for fresh perishable ingredients and the stringent storage and health risks associated with inappropriate distribution together with short post-production shelf-life. This research aims to develop a sustainability assessment framework based on 'product attributes versus market conditions' to highlight the food applications in which
distributed manufacturing is economically feasible, environmentally beneficial, as well as having the potential to support local economies. The expected outcomes of this research will also support the feasibility of provision of customised/personalised food products in aid of dietary requirements, the creation of more agile and shorter supply chains, and the minimisation of the environmental impact and cost associated with food transportation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Pedro Gimenez-Escalante delegate at Food Matters Live Conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This is an annual event which aims to show and gather different advances in the food sector. The CIM had a stand to showcase and demonstrate our projects and to attract possible future members and partners.
This event helped to show the CIM activities and impacted different people which did not know about our work or existence. Moreover numerous students and businesses came to us to discuss future opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.foodmatterslive.com
 
Description Pedro Gimenez-Escalante presented at the 7th International Conference on Food Studies 26th & 27th October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This activity was a two days research conference with multiple presentations and poster exhibitions of a wide range of topics surrounding Food Systems design and innovation.
The conference helped me promote my research and gather some positive feedback. Moreover, it allowed me meet some peers working on other areas of the field with similar interests and has enabled me to make some contacts which might be useful for making new collaborations and generating more impact with my research. Ultimately a journal paper will come out from my attendance to the conference which also will support the justification of my research work and help spread the CIM work internationally.
'Challenges in implementation of a Distributed and Localised approach to food manufacturing'

Abstract:

The existing large-scale centralised food production practices are often unsustainable due to requirements for significant transportation of both raw materials and finished products. These approaches also require large substantial concentration of demands on energy and water. Furthermore, increasing amounts of food waste are being generated worldwide by manufacturers and retailers due to their need for accurate demand forecasting methods as part of centralised production practices. In addition, regulatory pressures and policy requirements as well as consumer demands for increased variety, improved traceability and food quality, healthy diets and organic products are forcing manufacturers and retailers to reconsider their ingredient sourcing, production, storage and distribution strategies. "Distributed and Localised Manufacturing" (DLM) aims to provide the food sector with capabilities to improve the efficiency of production systems, to optimise logistics operations across the supply chains and to extend products shelf life. However, to achieve these potential benefits, the implementation of DLM will face a number of challenges which need to be carefully considered and addressed. This paper explores these challenges and describes implementation models to aid with the development of innovative and appropriate DLM structures for various food products.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://food-studies.com/about/history/2017-conference
 
Description PhD Research Conference, A Multi-view Approach to Establishing Resilience in Food Supply Chains 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact To address current food supply chain issues. Investigating contemporary challenges with various food supply chains and to define a systematic framework to identify unique capabilities and vulnerabilities for various actors. It will then enable these actors to develop bespoke mitigation strategies that not only safeguard their long-term future but which also enhance resilience across the entire food supply chain.

Proposed solution to undertake a number of case studies across different food supply chains and analyse the results to produce a better understanding of trade-offs involved in achieving resilience across the entire supply chain.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Phil Sheppard attend the CIM Food Annual Conference 30 & 31st March as a speaker and presented a poster. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Annual dissemination of Food CIM activity reports and outputs. No outcomes or impacts with respect to my presentation.
Title of Presentation / Abstract Embodied Energy in Preventable Food Manufacturing Waste
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Phil Sheppard attended the Energy Efficiency Conference as a delegate 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This was an exercise for me to gather information on the state of knowledge and activity in energy efficiency and to meet potential collaborators with and users of my research.

I met someone who introduced me to a company which is now a collaborator in a project proposal. Information presented also supported aspects of my research findings and gave me additional references for my work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Phil Sheppard attended the International Symposium on Sustainable Systems and Technologies (ISSST 2018) as a speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The event will provide an opportunity to:

• Make my work known to a wide audience.

• Possibly attract funding interest from the USA in the feasibility project currently being proposed.

• Learn a great deal.

Title of presentation and abstract

Self-Sustaining Innovation for Industrial Energy Efficiency
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://issst2018.net/
 
Description Phil Sheppard attended the LBNet Conference (Lignocellulose Biorefining Network) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The conference (fully funded by the Network) was useful for my research into the energy and resource efficiency benefits of co-locating food manufacturing with biorefining.

I benefited from attending in the following ways, in order of importance:

• Grant Chapman's talk provided strong confirmation that a concept I have developed and am writing a journal paper on is well-founded. Grant might be a useful collaborator in the future for other colleagues (my research contract ends this year).

• Two other talks confirmed another part of the same concept, relating to the production of proteins from lignocellulosic material.

• Updated my knowledge on the state of knowledge and implementation in the sector, which could be useful in future jobs in the cleantech space. Increased my awareness of companies in the field.

• Sarah Webb's talk alerted me to the BEIS Energy Innovation Programme, which could be a source of funding if/when the next calls come out.

• IBioIC's Resource Mapping Tool will be a useful reference for the paper I am writing.

• Had a useful discussion with Michael Lewis, a farmer, which helped to shape my thinking about an issue on which I'm writing a blog article which could become a research programme as a result of someone else reading the blog. I gave Michael some information on the subject which he requested and I hope he will find useful.

• I was able to draw the attention of the Network Chair and Administrator to successful policy and lobbying work done by another EPSRC network (CO2Chem), following the discussion on these issues in the final session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poster and Oral presentations at 32nd EFFost International Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Holly Cuthill, Yi Ren and Tengku Che Ku Jusoh gave either a poster or and an oral presentation at the 32nd EFFost International Conference. The conference was based around 'Developing innovative food structures and functionalities through process and reformulation to satisfy consumer needs and expectations'. It was a 4 day conference in which there was specific student activities as well as, a wide range of research topics presented in posters and oral presentations. Industry partners were additionally present making the event a good networking opportunity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation by Jo Gould and Vincenzo diBari CIM team members. at the M&S Innovation Day, July 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Attending gave the opportunity to describe the research conducted in the CIM to the M&S team at their innovation day. The day aimed to spark interest and ideas within the M&S team.

A significant outcome attracted interest in the research.
Network expanded.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentations at the 1st International Conference on Oil Bodies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Filippo presented a poster on 'The Phospholipid and sterol composition of oilseed rape oleosomes' and Vincenzo gave a talk on 'Cryo-milling as a novel processing approach for oil body recovery'. Both talk and poster presentations were received well and the attendees established/gained further knowledge on the most recent scientific advancements on oil bodies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Processing, Operations and Preservation Member Interest Group - Campden BRI attended by James Huscroft 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Food industry areas for delegates and topics of research cover - processing and preservation technologies, hygiene - through design and practices, engineering and maintenance Factory and equipment design, resource utilisation and sustainability.

Impact is showing the results of the 1st year of James Huscroft PhD to members at Campden BRI due to sponsorship from Campden BRI as partners in the project. Intending to feedback and input from industry in order to make the research more commercially relevant with regards to the processing sector.

Overview
By-product of various manufacturing processes are a wide scale problem facing the food sector. Previous research has highlighted the role of lignin as a surface active constituent to stabilise food emulsions and foams. This session will discuss ongoing research investigating process-based modification of lignin-rich feed material into functional food particles using a range of thermal processing techniques .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.campdenbri.co.uk/research/panelpop.php
 
Description Rank Prize Funds Mini - Symposium on Carbohydrates and Health - Sonia Holland 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Rank Prize Funds organizes similar symposia annually; they are in an intimate setting with all attendees giving presentations so there is plenty of time to converse with one another, discuss collaborations etc. Significant outcomes include networking/connections being made, knowledge of health implications of research and how certain policies are decided upon in the UK and USA and disseminating research.

Title of presentation and abstract
3D Printing of Carbohydrate Structures
Sonia Holland, PhD Student at The University of Nottingham
Following the expiry of a number of key patents in the area of Additive Manufacturing (AM) within the past decade the interest in 3D printing research has excited a number of industries. Key advantages offered by the technology include increased freedom of design, mass customisation, elimination of cost and time for tooling, increased part functionality and economy at low production volume. More recently the technology has been utilised to accommodate food material feedstocks. Of the seven categories of AM existing under the ASTM standard [1] extrusion based processes, such as fused deposition modelling, or powder bed processes, such as binder jetting, have been used to create 3D food structures. In general, progress in this area has used foods which are already in a paste format (purées, dough, mashed potato, soft cheese or marzipan) or can be melted and re-solidified (chocolate, sugar or hard cheese) to create aesthetically pleasing designs [2,3]. Recent, novel applications include the 'Performance' project to design healthy meals for elderly people with dysphagia [4], utilisation as an educational tool for children [5] and a growing interest in the technology as a texture control mechanism [6,7]. The work detailed here aimed to differentiate the use of food materials in AM processes from previous ventures in two ways; firstly to work on smaller length scales relevant to food systems in order to create structural 'ingredients' rather than 'ready to eat' products, and secondly to utilise sustainable plant polysaccharides as feedstock materials as a nutritionally favourable alternative to the often sweet materials that are currently used.
Powdered cellulose was ball mill treated to increase its amorphous content. Thermal analysis indicated a moisture and temperature dependence on the recrystallization of this amorphous powder, which was also influenced by the inclusion of stereochemically similar polysaccharides. An aqueous ink formulation was developed which included an interacting polysaccharide, xanthan gum. The ink was then deposited in a pattern onto 100µm thick layers of powder, the sequential layering process mimicked AM 'binder jetting' (figure 1) to build 3D structures. A post-printing heat step was then applied. Areas of powder in contact with ink recrystallized during the processing whereas areas that had not been printed on with ink remained amorphous.
This provided a proof of concept for creating selectively recrystallized cellulose structures via AM. Materials may be scaled up for use in an automated powder layering process.
Future work will focus on the use of agar fluid gel systems as a feedstock for high viscosity jet printing of 3D structures with controlled, variable texture.
References:
1) ASTM International, 2013. F2792-12a - Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing Technologies. Rapid Manuf. Assoc. 10-12. doi:10.1520/F2792-12A.2
2) Lipton, J.I., Cutler, M., Nigl, F., Cohen, D., Lipson, H., 2015. Additive Manufacturing for the Food Industry - A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 43, 114-123. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2015.02.004
3) Wegrzyn, T.F., Golding, M., Archer, R.H., 2012. Food Layered Manufacture: A new process for constructing solid foods. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 27, 66-72. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2012.04.006
4) Kuck, M., 2015. First 3D Printed Full Meal : A New Nutrition Concept for the Elderly.
5) Hamilton, C.A., Alici, G., In Het Panhuis, M., 2017. 3D printing Vegemite and Marmite: Redefining " breadboards " 6-11. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2017.01.008
6) van Bommel, K., Berkhout, M., Diaz, J., Harianto, S., Henket, J., Hoppenbrouwers, M., Klomp, D., Noort, M., Vallons,K. 2015. '3D Food Printing - An Overview'. in 29th EFFoST International Conference Proceedings. Athens, Greece. pp. 40.
7) Lipton, J.I., Lipson, H., 2016. 3D Printing Variable Stiffness Foams Using Viscous Thread Instability. Sci. Rep. 6, 29996. doi:10.1038/srep29996
8) Gibson, I., Rosen, D., Stucker, B. (2010) Additive Manufacturing Technologies. 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping and Direct Digital Manufacturing. 2nd 385 ed. Springer-Verlag, New York
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Research Impact and the UK Parliament - in London attended by Jamie Stone 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The purpose was to learn about how the Food CIM can more actively engage its research with policy makers in parliament to ultimately influence policy formation and possibly legislation. The act of becoming more actively involved with Parliament is anticipated to result in significant promotion of the Food CIM not just to policy makers, but also to industry lobbies, the wider research field and relevant non-governmental organisations. An outcome of this training event was the creation of a policy guide document initially distributed to Loughborough researchers but available to the wider Food CIM upon request.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.parliament.uk/get-involved/
 
Description Showcasing the best of the City across all sectors with specific events on STEM, how brexit will affect science and technological transfer and also food sustainability. attended as delegate James Huscroft. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact CIM members attended visit to the research organisation, which sparked questions and discussions afterwards, and increased interest related subject areas. Stand holder in the STEM for the future (University of Nottingham), delegate to the food sustainability workshop on how to alter diets for a more sustainable future, active question asking member of the audience on how Brexit will change the way British science is across the board and how we can link that with changes to STEM legislation.

Useful day showcasing Nottingham's role in not only the up and coming research in the food sector and through Industry links (CIM) but also how this is being applied across the range of sectors (automotive, IT, technology, etc.).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.nottinghaminparliamentday.uk
 
Description Simone De Chirico - Eurofed Lipid Congress - Poster presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Simone had the opportunity to show his work to people from industry ( e g Cargill or Synergy Flavors) and was asked for a copy of his poster afterwards. He also had the opportunity to meet Dr Lucie Kalvodova (Editor of the European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology) She was interested in his work and asked to write review for their journal. Title of poster: Oil bodies: an environmental-friendly alternative to the current process of manufacturing oil-in-water emulsions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.eurofedlipids.org
 
Description Simone De Chirico SCI Young Lipid Scientist Presentation June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Simone was shortlisted for the SCI award and had the opportunity to present his work with a presentation. He had interesting questions about his work which were helpful for critical thinking of his research. Thanks to this event he was able to meet the chief scientist of oil bodies from Cargill who was interested in his PhD. Title of Presentation: Oil bodies: an environmental-friendly alternative to the current process of manufacturing oil-in-water emulsions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Sustainable Food Expo 15th Nov 2016 conference delegate Elliot Woolley 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Elliot Woolley CIM member attended visit to the research organisation, which sparked questions and discussions afterwards, and increased interest related subject areas. Presentation on Presentation entitled 'Food Waste and Why We Can't Just Eat It' which detailed research indicating that we should better manage food waste from factories and limit the production of food waste in homes. Discussion with resource future regarding future collaborations on reporting in writing. Visit by Baxter Story to SMART to discuss crossover of approaches for reducing food waste.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sustainablefoodexpo.com
 
Description Sutton Trust Summer School Workshop, July 2016 - CIM team Jo Gould, Michelle Neville, Jade Phillips, Steve Johnson and Vincenzo diBari 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact CIM members attended the Workshop which sparked questions and discussions during and afterwards, and increased interest related subject areas. The CIM team ran an interactive workshop titled ' Creating Food Microstructures'. The session demonstrated typical processes used to create different microstructures in foods and how these affect the final product. The aim of running a session as part of the summer school was to inspire the students into thinking about attending University with a particular focus on considering the study of food science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.suttontrust.com/
 
Description Tim Foster CIM Director presented at the FDF Workshop 21st June 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Hygiene by design workshop - This one day event has been organised to help manufacturers develop best practice based upon the principles of hygienic engineering and design, and their application at every stage of the manufacturing process from plant design through to processing and packaging.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Total Food 2017 attended by Rhianna Briars and speaker at the Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of research results led to discussions with other delegates and enabled promotion of the CIM organised Systems Change Thinking conference.

"Valorisation of Pea Harvest Residues for use as Functional Food Ingredients: Post-Harvest Treatment of Pea Haulm for the Preservation of Nutrients"

Previous research has indicated that biomass from green plants can be a source of nutrient-rich functional food ingredients though the liberation of chloroplasts from the plant cell walls. Chloroplast membranes are rich in glycolipids, with a high a-linolenic acid content; the thylakoid membranes consist of a number of protein complexes, responsible for photosynthesis; and key micronutrients, such as carotenoids, tocopherols and phylloquinone, are synthesised within the chloroplasts. This could provide a route of valorisation for agricultural residues, such as the haulm generated from the harvesting of peas. Each year a 25000 acre pea crop generates 153000 tonnes of residues; currently this material is left on the ground, therefore there is a vast untapped source of nutrients which could be valorised.

Due to the seasonality of materials it is important to investigate nutrient stabilisation through the management of enzyme activity. Enzyme activity can be mitigated through treatment methods such as, blanching the biomass, pasteurising extracted juice or through the addition of anti-oxidants or inhibitors. In the current study, an initial screening step is employed to test a range of treatment activities. Different blanching techniques (including hot water, steam and microwave), high and low temperature pasteurisation and the addition of natural food-grade anti-oxidants are tested, and the aesthetic quality and enzymatic activity, of biomass and juice, observed over time. Due to their heat stability, peroxidase enzymes can be used as effective indicator enzymes for the success of treatments. This is achieved through a simple colorimetric assay observing the oxidation of guaiacol, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Following this the nutrient content of Chloroplast-rich fractions extracted from fresh (and frozen stored) versus treated (and frozen stored) material, is examined. This matrix will allow a nutrient stabilisation procedure to be formed, allowing seasonal green biomass to be valorised as functional food ingredients.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://totalfood2017.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Session-5.03-Rhianna-Briars.pdf
 
Description UoN delegation to Brazil 
Form Of Engagement Activity
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity
 
Description Valentina Prosapio - Conference Speaker at 3rd Hydrocolloids Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The main purpose of the symposium was to promote the exchange of ideas between disciplines for hydrocolloid applications.
.It was a good opportunity to interact with academics and industrial colleagues.

Control of vitamin release from dried gels
The incorporation of bioactive molecules into polymeric carriers has gained relevance in the last decades as an effective mean of producing controlled delivery systems. According to the specific application, the release needs to be fast or prolonged. However, several mechanisms (diffusion, swelling, osmosis) can concur simultaneously and alter the leaching, resulting in a difficult control over the release rate. In order to modulate the release kinetics, the delivery system microstructure can be designed to provide specific mechanical and physical properties.
Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin (B2), crucial for many human metabolic reactions. In the body, Riboflavin is readily absorbed but it is not stored due to its hydrophilicity; moreover, like other vitamins, it is sensitive to light, oxygen and high temperature. In order to overcome these limitations, an effective approach is represented by the dispersion of the vitamin in a porous dried substrate with the aims of preserving it from degradation and controlling its release. Among the most common substrates, Gellan gum is widely used for food, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications since it is non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable.
The gel formulation, in particular the pH of the aqueous solution, can affect significantly the gel mechanical properties and, therefore, modify the release rate of the active compound.
Another important parameter is the chosen drying technique, which can affect the microstructure of the dried gel with consequent impact on the way the active molecule is released into the medium.
In this work, for the first time the effects of the pH of the solution and the drying technique (oven drying/freeze-drying) on the riboflavin release rate from Gellan dried gels have been investigated to identify the ideal conditions for a fast or prolonged delivery.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/conference/fac-sci/biosciences/3rdukhydrocolloidsymposium/index.aspx
 
Description Valentina Prosapio - Presented a Posted at EPS Research Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The main purpose of the EPS Conference was to highlight the interdisciplinary strengths of groups and individuals across the disciplines of the College of Engineering and Physical Sciences of the University of Birmingham. It was a good opportunity to share ideas with members of other groups and identify possible collaborations.

Drying of foods
Drying of foods is one of the most common preservation processes, since the removal of water inhibits microorganisms' growth and, therefore, prolongs the product shelf life. Since traditional drying techniques show long processing times and change in food characteristics, osmotic dehydration pre-treatment can be applied in order to produce an intermediate moisture product and, therefore, to improve the drying process. In this work, the influence of osmotic dehydration on oven drying and freeze drying performance in terms of product moisture content, water activity, rehydration ability and properties retention was investigated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/university/colleges/eps/events/2016/College-of-Engineering-and-Physical-...
 
Description Vincenzo di Bari Conference Poster presentation - 17th Food Colloids Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Food Colloids conference is a biennial international conference which attracts some of the world leading experts in the research field of food colloids (i.e., emulsions, proteins, polysaccharides, etc). As part of the conference activity, guided laboratory tours were organized and regular networking sessions planned. Scientific discussions occurred with various researchers and the most relevant was with Prof. A. Marangoni about some of the findings we have produced with respect to rice bran wax oleogels and we have planned to carry out some work together next year. Funding opportunities to enable that to happen are being explored.


Title:
Understanding the role of processing and formulation on microstructural properties of rice bran wax oleogels

Abstract:
Oleogels are lipophilic colloidal systems where the gelling component (oleogelator) forms a 3-dimensional thermo-reversible network physically trapping the oil phase. Rice bran wax (RBW) is a promising oleogelator known to form crystalline networks with great ability to entrap oil. The aim of this work was to elucidate the effect of cooling rate, setting temperature and addition of lipophilic surfactants on microstructural, textural and rheological properties of RBW oleogels in sunflower oil.
The minimum RBW gelling concentration was 5% (wt%) for a cooling rate of 0.5°C/min which decreased to 0.5% when cooling at 2°C/min. Firmness, yield stress and oil binding capacity of the oleogels increased with increasing RBW concentration and increasing cooling rate. Microstructure visualisation using temperature controlled polarised light microscopy revealed that the network was always formed by crystals appearing as long needle-like particles, with cooling rate only affecting size of crystals: when cooling at 0.5, 5 and 50°C/min the average crystal length was 130, 100 and 50 µm, respectively. These findings suggest that a system made up of many small crystals with a high degree of inter-connectivity is developed when applying fast cooling which results in a higher shear elastic modulus (G') and ability to bind oil. G' remained constant up to temperatures close to the onset of melting, suggesting material properties remain constant over a large temperature range. PGPR and Span 60 addition to RBW oleogels significantly increased and reduced the onset of crystallisation, respectively, and all systems containing surfactants displayed a lower G' than bulk RBW oleogels. At the microstructural level only Span 60 modified the crystalline particle shape, which became spherulitic.
This work is the first to demonstrate that lipophilic surfactants can be used to tailor the microstructural properties of RBW oleogels, which offer a new route for the design of functional systems to replace fats
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.foodcolloids2018.co.uk/
 
Description Vincenzo di Bari Conference Speaker at 4th International Bakery technology Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I was invited at the 4th International Bakery technology Conference as speaker. My presentation covered the use of oleogels as saturated and trans-fat replacement in baked foods. The presentation received a good level of interest and I was approached by several industrial representative. Discussions are undergoing to evaluate the possibility of developing collaborative projects.


Title:
Oleogels: a functional ingredient for the replacement of saturated and trans-fats in cakes

No abstract required
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.campdenbri.co.uk/training/international_bakery_technology_conference_2018.pdf
 
Description Vincenzo di Bari Workshop Speaker - Translating knowledge into innovation: exploring of biological soft matter science in agrifood challenges 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The purpose of the "Newton Fund Researcher Links" workshop was to provide opportunities for early career researchers working in soft matter within the agrifood subject to interact, learn from each other and explore opportunities for building long-lasting research collaborations. As part of this programme early career researchers from the UK, Brazil and Uruguay, and internationally, were recruited to participate in the above workshop. Several connections with researchers from UK, Brazilian and Uruguayan institutions were made and currently two are being pushed forward for research collaborations. One in particular has led to a funding application for an Uruguayan researcher to visit the University of Nottingham from March to June 2019.

Title:
Oleosomes: natural plant organelles for the replacement of synthetic emulsions to tackle the agrifood and pharma challenges

Abstract:
My research focuses on the optimisation of a water-based method for the recovery of oil from oleaginous seeds. This approach offers two main advantages: (1) the oil is recovered in its natural form, i.e. intracellular organelles called 'oleosomes'; (2) water is used as extraction medium thus replacing organic solvents currently used to extract oils. Oleosomes are micron-size lipid droplets where the triacylglycerol core is stabilised by a half-unit membrane of phospholipids and proteins. These novel colloids, naturally rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols, are stable on pasteurisation. From a fundamental science perspective, oleosomes represent an exciting example of bio-soft materials stabilised by mixed emulsifiers. These systems offer a wide range of applications including natural food ingredients and delivery vehicles of bioactive compounds. Use of oleosomes requires a multi-disciplinary approach ranging from agricultural-biological science (role of seed type and history) through to engineering (recovery optimisation) to food technology (product formulation).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.britishcouncil.org.br/events/NFRL-Gadelha?_ga=2.15300274.587136974.1499421117-324448334....
 
Description Vincenzo di-Bari attended 31st EFFoST International Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Title: Understanding the role of processing and formulation on microstructure functionalisation of rice bran wax oleogels
Abstract: Fats have been used for decades in foods to achieve a range of functional and sensorial properties. However, fats contain high amounts of saturated and trans¬-unsaturated triglycerides and their consumption is considered a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Oleogels, lipid gels where non-triglyceride molecules provide a solid-like consistency, are a promising alternative to fats. The aim of this work is to understand the effect of processing and formulation on microstructural propertied of rice bran wax (RBW) oleogels.
Dispersions of RBW in sunflower and rapeseed oil were heated to 90°C; oleogels were produced by cooling the melts to a range of temperatures at various cooling rates.
Results show that RBW can form an oleogel at concentration of 0.5% (wt%). Microstructure visualisation using cryo-SEM revealed that the network is formed by plate crystals appearing as long needle-like particles when visualised under polarised light. No difference between the oils was found. Melting ranges determined by DSC were 77-87°C and 53-70°C for bulk RBW and oleogels, respectively. Data on the effect of cooling suggest that cooling rates greater than 5°C/min led to firmer networks. These results, in combination with microscopy data, indicate that a network made up of many small crystals, with high degree of inter-connectivity, is formed when fast cooling is applied. Rheological characterisation revealed that gels shear elastic modulus remains constant up to temperatures close to the melting onset, suggesting that RBW can effectively trap oil over a large temperature range (5°C to 50°C). Furthermore, results suggest that gel elasticity and hardness increased with increasing RBW concentration. The addition of Span 60 in oleogels formulation resulted in lower melting temperature, suggesting that it may hinder network development.
This work has demonstrated that the functional properties of oleogels can be tailored through processing and formulation to design alternatives to fats.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.effost.org/effost+international+conference/31st+effost+international+conference+2017/def...
 
Description Wolfson School PhD Researcher Conference 15 June 2016 CIM team member Guillermo attended this Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentations from PhD students from the Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University

Title of presentation and abstract: Optimising industrial food waste management.

This was good experience for Guillermo to practice his presentation skills.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop - 11th EFFoST European Workshop on Food Engineering and Technology attended by CIM in Food member Panagiotis Arkoumanis as a speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The 11th European PhD Workshop on Food Engineering and Technology (EFFoST), Nestle Research and Buhler group. For this workshop, 14 PhD students in food engineering and technology from 10 different countries were pre-selected and invited to present their PhD projects.
The workshop provided a good opportunity to network and compete with top-level PhD students in the field of food engineering and technology.

Title of Presentation and Abstract:
Low-energy emulsification manufacture using Confined Impringing Jets
Emulsions, i.e dispersions of liquid droplets in a continuous immisible medium, have numerous industrial applications in personal care, pharmaceutical and food products (1) Physicochemical and sensorial features of food emulsions in particular, depend on the microstructure of the final product, which is influenced, amongst other factors, by the emulsification method used during manufacture (2) Established emulsification processes easily meet industrial requirements such as high throughputs and flexibility of operation, nonetheless they are energy intensive (2,3) What is more, this is high energy input is poorly dissipated (thus hydrodynamic conditions are not uniform) across the system under processing and a significant proportion of this is in most cases unavoidably wasted (3) Although lower-energy approaches to emulsion manufacture, such as a membrane and microchannels emulsification, are under investigation, these are currently limited to bench-scale operation and are faced with challenges in terms of delivering high product throughputs (2)

Confined Impinging Jet Reactors (CIJRs) represent a novel emulsification route that combines low-energy operation with the potential of providing high product throughputs. By head-on impinging of two jets. CIJRs promote high levels of energy dissipation over a localised volume promoting significant droplet break-up at a lower overall energy input (4) The present study aims to evaluate the emulsification performance of CIJRs for the production of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. For this purpose, a number of processing (e.g. jet flow rates, CIJR residence time) and formulation (e.g type and concentration or emulsifier) parameters have been investigated in terms of impact upon the final emulsion droplet size and overall emulsion stability.

More specifically, emulsions were produces under jet hydrodynamic conditions varying from a laminar (jet Reynolds number of ~2,000) to a fully turbulent flow regime (jet Reynolds numbr of ~11,000). Increasing the system.s residence time within the high energy-dissipation zone by repeatedly recirculating the formed emulsions through the CIJR was also studied. Overall, it is demonstrated that emulsion droplet size in mainly affected by the flow regime of the impinging jets (smallest droplet sizes were obtained for jets under fully turbulent hydrodynamic conditions), while prolonging the system's residence time within high energy dissipation zone only resulted in the narrowing of emulsion's droplet size distribution (without the average droplet size being affected). We are currently using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to extend our investigation into processing conditions under CIJR operation. In addition, emulsions were produced at varying oil mass fractions (5-40 wt.%) and for a range of emulsifiers of different type and concentrations. Formulation parameters were tuned by varying type and concentration of oil and emulsifier (Tween20, Span20, Casein, HydroxyPropyl MethylCellulose). It is determined that the type and concentration of emulsifier do impact upon final emulsion droplet size but only for impingment of jets with lower Reynolds numbers. In this case the droplet size is largely controlled by the emulsifier's ability to lower (or not) the oil/water interfacial tension and thus promote droplet break-up. Nonetheless, at high Reynolds numbers, the final mean droplet size is completely dominated by the induced processing conditions and any formulation effects (type of emulsifier and dispersed mass fraction) are significantly diminished. Presently, we explore whether the previously reported (5) advantages of using mixed emulsifier systems (surfactancts in combination with particles) during high shear emulsification, will also emerge for emulsions formed in CIJRs.
In conclusion, our work offers further insight into CIJR operation and the suitability of this approach as a realistic lower-energy alternative to established and industrially preferred emulsification methods.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.effost.org/events/agenda/724982.aspx
 
Description Yr 11 Pathways to STEM Demonstration Presentation by Jo Gould from the CIM 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Yr 11 Pathways to STEM programme is aimed at encouraging students to consider their future options in terms of attending the University of Nottingham as well as which STEM subject to study. Alongside Plant Science, ran a session of Global Food Security which included a debate on global food security led by Plant Science followed by several interactive food science demonstrations. Students appeared inspired, with one student asking the grade requirements for studying in the School of Biosciences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.suttontrust.com/