Hydrogen in metals - from fundamentals to the design of new steels (HEmS)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Engineering Science

Abstract

Hydrogen is the lightest of the elements and has some remarkable properties and uses. Its isotopes will provide the nuclear fusion fuel for humanity in the next half century. Even now, it is probably the cleanest available fuel for motor cars and its extraction from sea water using solar power and subsequent transport around the globe is mooted as a potential solutions to our energy crisis. Because of its atomic size, hydrogen is not easy to contain as it diffuses readily through the lattice of solid materials, frequently by quantum mechanical tunnelling. The problem has a darker side; hydrogen has been known for over a hundred years to cause catastrophic failure in high strength steels. All welders know to keep their manual metal arc electrodes dry to avoid the generation of hydrogen from the decomposition of water during welding. The alloys resulting from our experiments and modelling will impact directly on the fuel efficiency of the next generation of automobiles, the service lifetimes of wind turbines and pipelines and lead to the development of new valve gear, and hydrogen handling and transport systems. We expect this to lead to improved profitability of our project partners and the sustainability of UK industry.

The project will develop new design procedures for ultra-high strength steels that resist embrittlement due to the presence of hydrogen for use in the above applications . This will be achieved through a series of advances in materials characterisation, testing and modelling. New experimental techniques will be developed to identify the structure of defects in engineering alloys and how they trap hydrogen. Understanding this trapping process is a key step in understanding how and why hydrogen embrittles steels. A range of modelling techniques from the atomistic through to the continuum will be developed and employed to provide detailed information about the embrittling mechanisms and how these depend on the steel microstructure. This will allow microstructures to be identified that are resistant to hydrogen embrittlement. This information will be employed to guide the development of new procedures for the design of alloys and heat treatments that result in steels that are resistant to attack by hydrogen. These techniques will be validated by processing a range of new alloys designed using our new methodology and examining their mechanical performance in the presence of hydrogen.

Planned Impact

The alloys developed from our experimental and modelling activities will impact directly on the fuel efficiency of the next generation of automobiles and the service lifetimes of wind turbines and pipelines. They will also lead to the development of new valve gear, and hydrogen handling and transport systems. New procedures will be developed for the design of alloys and selection of heat treatments, which will directly benefit steel producers such as SKS and Tata steel, who will gain a competative advantage in each of the sectors identified above. This research will result in the development of more reliable steels for undersea pipelines operated by companies such as BP, providing a significant lifetime cost saving by increasing inspection intervals and extending the life of components. This research will also allow lightweight containment vessels to be developed for hydrogen storage for use in transport, resulting in a dual saving in cost through promoting the use of an energy efficient fuel and minimising vehicle weight. It will also allow improved mechancial gearing structures to be developed for largescale wind turbines, again reducing costs by increasing the life and durability of the structural components. We anticipate that impact will be realised within selected industries that are directly involved in this project within 2 years of completion of the grant. Global impact is likely to take an additional 5 years.

The techniques developed in this research will impact on other areas of technology. They can be extended to other systems that are prone to hydrogen embrittlement, such as zirconium fuel rod casing in nuclear reactors and titanium components in aerospace engines. Companies involved in the development and running of nuclear power plant, such as EDF Energy, and aerospace engines such as Rolls-Royce and British Airways, will directly benefit, with the new techniques allowing alloys to be developed that are more resistant to the agressive environments they operate in. Impact in these areas is likely to be within 20 years, but will require additional research to build on the work of the programme grant.

The full range of experimental and theoretical techniques developed in this research will be of benefit to a broad academic community. For example, the Baysian enhanced APT imaging techniques for the determination of defect structures and energies can be applied to a wide range of material defects and types of solute atmospheres. This will provide valuable new insights into defect structures and how they influence material behaviour. Similarly, the project will result in significant advances in a range of modelling techniques, from atomistic through to continuum, and their integration to provide material models across a wide range of temporal and spacial scales. These techniques will be relevant to any modelling activity that focuses on inelastic deformation, material degradation and fracture, or the development of microstructures during processing or high temperature exposure. The impact of these techniques is likely to be signifiant within the lifetime of the grant.

Publications

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Alexander Stopher M (2016) Hydrogen embrittlement in bearing steels in Materials Science and Technology

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Bartók A (2015) Gaussian approximation potentials: A brief tutorial introduction in International Journal of Quantum Chemistry

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Bianchini F (2016) Modelling defects in Ni-Al with EAM and DFT calculations in Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering

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Bitzek E (2015) Atomistic aspects of fracture in International Journal of Fracture

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Fletcher C (2019) Fast modelling of field evaporation in atom probe tomography using level set methods in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics

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Galindo-Nava E (2017) Hydrogen transport in metals: Integration of permeation, thermal desorption and degassing in Journal of Materials Science & Technology

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Haley D (2017) Atom Probe Analysis of Ex Situ Gas-Charged Stable Hydrides. in Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada

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Haley D (2019) A Gas-Phase Reaction Cell for Modern Atom Probe Systems in Microscopy and Microanalysis

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Jelita Rydel J (2018) Understanding the factors controlling rolling contact fatigue damage in VIM-VAR M50 steel in International Journal of Fatigue

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Packwood D (2016) A universal preconditioner for simulating condensed phase materials. in The Journal of chemical physics

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Peguiron A (2015) Accuracy of buffered-force QM/MM simulations of silica. in The Journal of chemical physics

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Shishvan S (2020) Hydrogen induced fast-fracture in Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids

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Singh G (2014) Validity of linear elasticity in the crack-tip region of ideal brittle solids in International Journal of Fracture

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Stopher M (2016) Modelling hydrogen migration and trapping in steels in Materials & Design

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Yu H (2019) The influence of hydrogen on Lomer junctions in Scripta Materialia

 
Description The major highlights of the research to date are:
• We have designed 3 new nanoprecipitate strengthened (NP) steels and 3 martensitic bearing steels, which provide a combination of high strength and H trapping. One of the nanoprecipitate steels has been patented. Others are pending.
• The patented NP steel provides high strength and H trapping using a relatively simple microstructure (essentially small coherent vanadium carbide particles in an iron matrix). This steel is providing a focus for many of our experimental and modelling activities.
• We have conducted the highest resolution studies to date, which map out the distribution of Deuterium in a charged sample using the atom probe technique. For the first time, we have demonstrated that the Deuterium in a particle strengthened material is distributed throughout the volume of the particles. This has significant implications for modelling and the performance of these steels.
• New models for diffusion of H have been developed for martensitic steels that take into account the contribution and interaction between the full range of microstructural features.
• We have extended the range of modelling techniques that can be used to calculate interatomic forces in the Fe-C-H system. Before HEmS, studies were limited to using Density Functional Theory (DFT) (which is too slow and cumbersome) and the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) (which is unreliable in view of magnetism and the complex nature of the H-Fe interaction). We have developed two new approaches based on a new Tight Binding (TB) model for C and H in Fe and the use of Gaussian Approximation Potentials (GAP), based on techniques employed in machine learning. The GAP for Fe-H is now being tested and that for Fe-C is under development. We have developed a new class of machine-learning-based, non parametric classical interatomic force fields that are more accurate but as fast as the parametric force fields available in the literature, and demonstrated them for Fe and Ni.

We have developed a database of atomistic structures for grain boundaries in BCC Fe ("Imeall", www.imeall.co.uk) containing over 250 canonical structures curated with QM, EAM, GAP, and classical force fields; we equipped the database with analytic and graphics tools, and prepared tutorials for its usage.
This work offers the prospect of a genuine revolution in the description and implementation of interatomic forces.
• We published the first DFT-based QM/MM MD simulation of stress-corrosion leading to brittle fracture. The work establishes the importance of the chemical role of environmental factors in setting quantitatively the fracture toughness and the crack tip processes responsible for the observed brittle behaviour.
• We have developed fully coupled finite element (FE) models of plastic deformation, hydrogen diffusion and cohesive failure.

We have also devloped a new 3D dislocation dynamics code for finite bodies, which takes into account the effect of hydrogen on: elastic shielding of dislocations; dislocation mobility; and dislocation core energy. Simulations of dislcoation activity in stressed components using the code provides possible explanations of the HELP mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement.
Exploitation Route Potential for development of new steels, currently under review or patent pending, by manufacturers and end users, particularly materials development, transport and energy, all within developments towards a 'Hydrogen economy'
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

URL http://www.hems.ox.ac.uk/
 
Description A new high strength steel has been invented, which is based on nanoprecipitation. This has been subject to a company patent. The laboratory based processing has been upscaled to plant trials and now to a new commercial product at Tata Steel Europe
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport
Impact Types Economic

 
Description A tool for atomic scale simulation of corrosion: applications to Mg and Ti alloys
Amount £451,568 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R005230/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 11/2021
 
Description NICOP
Amount $180,000 (USD)
Funding ID N6-2909-15-1-N079 
Organisation US Navy 
Department US Office of Naval Research Global
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 05/2015 
End 05/2017
 
Title Granta MI HEmS Database 
Description Database of Computed and Experimental Information to support HEmS activities: The project is a partnership between HEmS and Granta Ltd, a materials informatics software company based in Cambridge. In collaboration with Granta, we have set up a database that will hold a wide range of materials information, focussing on computed properties that are outputs (and inputs) of simulations, but also holding some experimental measurements. The database supports other HEmS activities. In particular, it can pool together all the density functional modelling that is carried out in various sub-projects of other HEmS work packages, as well as provide a traceable provenance for higher level information derived from that first principles data, e.g. inter atomic potentials, free energies, phase diagrams. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The aim of the project is to take the "Materials Informatics" product of Granta and customise it to cater for the storage of computed data, focussing on atomic scale properties. An installation of the Granta MI software will be hosted by Granta for the use of the HEmS project partners. A public facing version will hold published parts of the database which will be accessible anonymously online. Progress to date: An installation of Granta MI has been set up and is available for the deposition of atomistic configuration sets, associated calculated data, related publications, etc. Some level of access control is provided, with the ability to limit editing and viewing of the data within research groups and the HEmS consortium. The database is currently being populated with data from the groups of Csanyi (WP3) and Rivera (WP1) from the HEmS grant, who have engaged with Granta directly. Other groups from within the HEmS grant and we hope outside the grant, groups will submit their data to the database. The public facing interface of the database is at https://fcf.grantami.com/HEmSglobal/index.aspx 
URL https://fcf.grantami.com/HEmSglobal/index.aspx
 
Description Development of a High Strength Steel with Hydrogen Trapping Sites 
Organisation Tata Steel Europe
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution To manufacture a range of bespoke steels with enhanced resistance to hydrogen embrittlement using the combined outputs of all Work Packages within the HEmS grant.
Collaborator Contribution Support of bespoke steels manufacture through Tata Steel PhD student iCASE award.
Impact One variant of this steel has been patented by Tata Steel. One grade of steel is now commercially available with another grade due to be commercialised shortly. Work is on-going now on another grade steel for commercialisation.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Hydrogen Charging Studies of a Nanoprecipitation Steel 
Organisation ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The nanoprecipitation steels were developed for both high strength and ductility. This steel was developed as a model steel for studying hydrogen embrittlement to provide input into the modelling packages within the HEmS grant and to provide basic insight into the embrittlement mechanisms. To investigate the efficiency of coherent vanadium carbides as hydrogen trapping sites. To provide input parameters and understanding for model development. To investigate the mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement.
Collaborator Contribution A regime for charging specimens with deuterium was established through testing.
Impact This work has provided vital insight into the trapping mechanisms. It has detailed key information that will be used in the modelling programme on the precipitate interface structure, the location of the hydrogen trapping and deformation mechanisms in a charged specimen. It will also inform the steel development programme in the bid to develop a 1.2GPa strength grade steel.
Start Year 2014
 
Description NOMAD - NOVEL MATERIALS DISCOVERY LAB (NOMAD) 
Organisation NOMAD Team
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The work within Prof Alessandro De Vita's HEmS group at Kings College establish the Kings College research group as a leader in "big data"-related materials modelling, enabling bids for related funding to be obtained and shared methods between projects with related goals: EC- Funding of a H2020 EU Centre of Excellence (CoE) (2015-2018) "NOVEL MATERIALS DIS-COVERY (NOMAD)", (worth approximately €5M) centred on data curation and inference, with MPG, Cambridge, Aalto, Barcelona, Humboldt and TU-Denmark universities, Garching, CSC and Barcelona Supercomputing Centres, is funding two PDRAs for three years at KCL, and one PDRA for one year at Warwick (supervised by J.Kermode [HEmS Associate/former grant member]). Professor De Vita is leading Work Package 5 within the NOMAD consortium.
Collaborator Contribution This data -related aspect created a useful synergy with the EC-funded NOMAD CoE, within which A.De Vita's group develops database-related analytic tools and industrial outreach. (Following their endorsement of the HEmS proposal, BP has now volunteered a representative in the NOMAD's Industrial Advisory Committee, also notably including BASF).
Impact The Novel Materials Discovery (NOMAD) Laboratory maintains the largest Repository for Input and Output files of all important Computational Materials Science Codes. From its open-access data it builds several Big-Data Services helping to advance materials science and engineering.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Professor Michael Finnis - MPIE and Ruhr University Bochum 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute for Iron Research
Country Germany 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Prof Finnis spends 2 months each summer at the MPIE and the Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation' in Bochum as part of his Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship to work on the further development of atomistic models. Finnis will spend several weeks during 2017 as a guest scientist at the MPIE in Düsseldorf and ICAMS at the Ruhr-Universität, Bochum, where other work on modelling hydrogen in steel is in progress, and the Directors have a strong interest in following the progress we are making in the HEmS grant.
Collaborator Contribution Information and research sharing, based around the development of atomistic models that model hydrogen in steel.
Impact Significant progress in researching 'Stability of Transitional Iron Carbides' This project was initiated following discussions with the Cambridge Materials group within HEmS and Materials at Oxford, who drew our attention to the current uncertainties and controversies about the structure of certain iron carbides that appear during the ageing of martensite. It is a small contribution to the question of the existence and stability of possible traps for sequestration of hydrogen.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Professor Michael Finnis - MPIE and Ruhr University Bochum 
Organisation Ruhr University Bochum
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Prof Finnis spends 2 months each summer at the MPIE and the Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation' in Bochum as part of his Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship to work on the further development of atomistic models. Finnis will spend several weeks during 2017 as a guest scientist at the MPIE in Düsseldorf and ICAMS at the Ruhr-Universität, Bochum, where other work on modelling hydrogen in steel is in progress, and the Directors have a strong interest in following the progress we are making in the HEmS grant.
Collaborator Contribution Information and research sharing, based around the development of atomistic models that model hydrogen in steel.
Impact Significant progress in researching 'Stability of Transitional Iron Carbides' This project was initiated following discussions with the Cambridge Materials group within HEmS and Materials at Oxford, who drew our attention to the current uncertainties and controversies about the structure of certain iron carbides that appear during the ageing of martensite. It is a small contribution to the question of the existence and stability of possible traps for sequestration of hydrogen.
Start Year 2015
 
Description BBC World Service Steel Programme 'The Forum' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Mark Rainforth (CI, Sheffield University) participated in the BBC world service 'Forum' programme, with the discussion topic of steels (www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p030mb9q). This was broadcast via the BBC World Service worldwide and is still available on the BBC website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p030mb9q
 
Description HEmS Earley Career Researchers & Industry workshop - 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The first HEmS ECR / industrial workshop was held in Sept 15 and included early career and established research and development engineers from industry and covered H embrittlement in titanium, nickel and zirconium alloys as well as steels.
The second workshop was held in Sept 16 and involved an expanded list of companies and young and established researchers from across Europe. These events have now gathered momentum, with significant interest from industry. The next planned workshop will be in 2017 and will take a new format, with industry posing challenges that they face to the Early Career group who will discuss potential solutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.hems.ox.ac.uk/
 
Description Invited Talk by Prof Pedro Rivera, Denver, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Pedro Rivera-Diaz-Del-Castillo, the HEmS CI from Lancaster University will be presenting a talk entitled "Rolling Contact Fatigue Transformations in Aero Steels: the effect of temperature on microstructural decay" at the 12th International Symposium on Rolling Bearing Steels, 15-17 May 2019, Denver, CO, USA. This is an Invited talk that is directly associated with the HEMS project. In addition to the audience at the event, the media coverage associated with this annual international symposium should ensure that details of this work under HEmS will be widely distributed to many potentially interested parties.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2019
 
Description Invited talk by Prof Pedro Rivera, at an international symposium, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof, Pedro Rivera-Diaz-Castillo, the HEMs CI based at the University of Lancaster presented an invited talk about HEmS activities entitled "The relationship between 100Cr6 steelmaking, inclusion microstructure and rolling contact fatigue performance" at the International Symposium on Rolling Bearings, 18-21 September 2018, Shanghai, China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Keynote speech by Prof Pedro Rivera at an international event, Mexico 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof, Pedro Rivera-Diaz-Castillo, the HEMs CI based at the University of Lancaster presented a talk entitled "Hydrogen diffusion and trapping: perspectives for microstructure design against hydrogen em- brittlement," This HEmS related presentation was the keynote address at CALPHAD XLVII, May 27 to June 1 2018, Queretaro, Mexico.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Manchester workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A workshop to tell the community of the equipment already received in the Henry Royce Institute and to obtain feedback from the community on the strategy going forward.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Oxford Science Blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Science writer with Prof Alan Cocks (HEmS PI) for the Oxford University Science Blog, 'How can engineers make steel that doesn't baulk at hydrogen?'.

Interview piece for the Oxford University Science Blog about the problem of hydrogen embrittlement in metals and how scientists have used different techniques to overcome this problem.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/science-blog/how-can-engineers-make-steel-doesnt-baulk-hydrogen
 
Description Presentation to NTNU and SINTEF, Norway 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Haiyang Yi presented the latest HEmS results to the colleagues in NTNU and SINTEF in Norway in August 2018. The hosts posted this as a news item on twitter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Royal Society Discussion Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A bid led by Professor Tony Paxton to the Royal Society to hold a Royal Society sponsored Scientific Discussion Meeting was successful. A 3-day meeting involving many leading international researchers on "The Challenges of Hydrogen and Metals", its role in energy and how it influences the properties of a wide range of engineering alloys will be held at the Royal Society in London in Jan 17, see https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2017/01/hydrogen-and-metals/. This is also a major advocacy event with a major session on political, economic and environmental concerns led by Jon Saltmarsh from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2017/01/hydrogen-and-metals/
 
Description Seminar in Freiburg, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof AT Paxton presented a paper entitled "Hydrogen in iron: theory and modelling" during a seminar at Fraunhofer IWM, Freiburg, Germany on 13 June 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at focused symposium on Hydrogen Embrittlement at the MSE conference, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on developing new steels more resistant to hydrogen embrittlement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Tutorial at NOMAD Industry meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Hands-on tutorial session to demonstrate and test the recently developed "Imeall" iron grain boundary database. On 05 - 06 February 2018, The EC-funded NOMAD Centre of Excellence hosted its third Industry Meeting at the Cumberland Lodge, Windsor. The focus was on showcasing tools for research based on data generation, curation and inference, and its impact on industrial R&D. A particular emphasis was placed on metallurgy, including representatives from Arcelormittal (keynote speaker: Dr. Astrid Perlade, Paris, France), Rolls Royce (keynote speaker Mr. Benjamin Saunders, Derby UK), Baker Hughes, Granta Design Ltd, and Johnson Matthey.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.nomad-coe.eu/the-project/outreach/outreach-workshops-tutorials
 
Description UNIQ Summer School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This UNIQ Materials Science course is an opportunity for students to experience a subject that is not offered at A-Level but uses concepts across a broad spectrum of subjects from maths to chemistry to engineering to even biology. The aim of the course is to give brief insight into this unique subject, and to break down those conventional physics, chemistry, maths subject separations.

Lectures include topics such as molecular modelling, photovoltaic cells and materials for nuclear fusion, then move onto a more practical element in the afternoons, where students get to experience making your own solar cells and running mechanical property tests - sometimes with open ended investigation. There is also a tutorial session in groups of 3 to give students the full "Oxford experience", giving you them the chance to converse with experts in their field. A few tips on interviews can be picked up during the mock interview session later in the week.

UNIQ is a free summer school. Most of the students that were selected to attend the school meet one or both conditions of being from a disadvantaged socio-economic background and/or from a neighbourhood with low participation in higher education. A number of the students who attended the school ultimately applied to study Materials Sceince at Oxford
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.uniq.ox.ac.uk/content/materials-science-0