Manufacturing bespoke human organs; 3D printed nanocomposite trachea

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Surgery

Abstract

Organ failure and tissue loss are challenging health issues due to widespread aging population, injury, the lack of organs for transplantation and limitations of conventional artificial implants. There is a fast growing need in surgery to replace and repair soft tissues such as blood vessels, stent, trachea, skin, or even entire organs, such as bladder, kidney, heart, facial organs etc. The high demand for new artificial implants for long-term repair and substantially improved clinical outcome still remains .Our well-publicised successes in using tissue-engineering to replace hollow organs in cases of compassionate need have shown the world that an engineering approach to hollow organ replacement is feasible, as well as serving to highlight those areas where more work is required to provide bespoke manufactured tissue scaffolds for routine clinical use Being able to replicate a functional part of one's body as an exact match and therefore to be able to replace it 'as good as before' is familiar in science fiction. Most implants will share limitations that are associated with either the materials used or the traditional way in which they have been made. With the advancement of additive manufacturing technology, 3D printing, biomaterials and cell production, printing an artificial organs is becoming a science and engineering fact and understandably can save lives and enhance quality of life through surgical transplantation of such printed organs produced on-demand, specifically for the individual of interest.

The project seeks to addresses the unmet need in traditional implants by exploiting our proprietary polymer nanocomposites developed at UCL and advanced digital additive manufacturing with surgical practice. we aim to develop a 3D advanced digital bio-printing system for polymer nanocomposites in order to manufacture a new-generation of synthetic soft organs 'on-demand' and bespoke to the patient's particular needs. Our extensive preclinical and on-going preclinical study on the nanocomposite-based organs will ensure the construct is able to induce angiogenesis and to perform function of an epithelium. Here we take these experiences in the compassionate case, and take trachea as an exemplar to develop a manufacturing method of producing bespoke tubular organs for transplantation with nanocomposite material.

This proposal will allow us to develop; a) a customer made 3D bioprinter with multi-printing heads and an environmental chamber which can print 'live' soft organs/scaffolds with seeded cells to meet the individual patients needs; b) a series of polymer nanocomposites suitable for 3D printingorgan constructs/host scaffolds; c) a formulations of bio-inks for printing cells, proteins and biomolecules. d) a printed artificial tracheal constructs using their radiographic images with optimised biochemical, biophysical and mechanical properties. e) Establishment of in-vivo feasibility data through observation of restoration of respiratory function and normal tissue integration of pig models which will be surgically transplanted

Planned Impact

Clinical Impact
Live organ harvesting and transport, as well as the intensive care of critically ill patients and the loss of useful and healthy lives costs the UK and worldwide an inestimable amount in active resources. The successful outcome of this research proposal will enable manufacturing of tailor made organs for those require critical clinical attention and can potentially change the NHS surgical protocols for organ transplantation. This will shorten waiting times, allow early effective treatment, shorter hospital stay, and reduce or eliminate costs for direct hospital and palliative care costs, costs to the patient and loss of productivity e.g. employment (indirect costs). Therefore if this clinical need was to be successfully met, at a cost that was acceptable to society, not only will patient's benefit (reduced mortality/morbidity) but also national resources. Once we have established the exemplar protocol with this project it will catalyse the progress of a number of other tubular organ manufacturing to potentially have a greater impact.

3D printing/Rapid prototyping
Organ replacement is one of the supreme applications of 3D printing, which can really establish rapid prototyping as a key technology requirement not only in major surgical centres, but the spin of interest in what is possible with these techniques will rapidly establish this new technology as a norm. This will certainly have a significant impact on the manufacturers of this technology.

Capacity Building
This project will require training of RAs in multidisciplinary activities unique to this project and thus at the completion of the project will be great assets to the UK as well as internationally in terms of source of knowledge and experience. This manufacturing protocols developed in this research will interest many polymer manufacturing industry as well as instrument manufacturing industry (3D printing industry) who could use these developments to potentially establish a unique industry of tubular organ manufacturing for clinical applications, down the line and therefore should bring in a great deal of income to the country and create jobs for highly skilled individuals. Global medical implant industry such as Boston scientific has expressed their interest in being a partner in taking the end products to clinic and for commercialisation.

World leading research to meet national strategic needs
The applicants contribute to the national policies in applied regenerative science and technology through their representation in relevant select committee at the House of Lords (eg, Nov 2012) and the applicants continue to contribute to national policy making and the proposed developments should be of interest to be considered in the future development and encouraged for wider applications in regenerative medicine. Furthermore, the developments for bespoke manufacturing of implants should also bring solutions to those issues raised at the WHO, such as organ trafficking, transplantation tourism of organ and commercialism as highlighted in 'Declaration of Istanbul, 2008, WHO'

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description 1. The first breakthrough of the project is a novel 3D manufacturing technique for solution based materials. We have developed an indirect 3D printing technique, 3D-TIPS, which permits manufacture of wide range of printable and unprintable polymers and their nanocomposites at low cost and with a short lead time.
2. We developed a new rotational 3D printer which provide unique capacity of manufacturing thin wall tubular scaffolds with tunable stiffness, which can be applied for a range of tubular organ reconstruction and regeneration, such as blood vessels, tracheal and oesophasgus etc.
3. We developed a wide range of polyurethane and composite constructs, for example, from the same solution were produced through thermally controlled phase separation at different scales. Each produced scaffolds with distinctly different structure, mechanical and cell-guiding properties.
4. We first time report an early insight into cell responses to the stiffness and nanoporous structure of our fabricated scaffolds in real 3D without changing the chemistry of the scaffolds, contributing to original knowledge.
5. We have also successfully developed synthetic airway-like tissues which potentially offers a customizable reproducible technology to generate physiologically relevant 3D biomimetic systems and advanced our understanding of airway tissue regeneration for drug discovery, organ regeneration and surgical reconstruction.
Exploitation Route 1. 3D-TIPS technique presents a new and highly versatile approach to the manufacture of bespoke implants/scaffolds for tissue engineering with fundamental understanding of polymer structure, properties and cellular response in 3D. We created an exciting paradigm for future studies of 3D tissue engineering scaffolds based on otherwise 'unprintable' liquid polymers.
2. Using 3D-TIPS technique, we design and manufacture the first-in-man 3D printed laryngeal stents, which was successfully implanted for treatment of an infant patient at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children May 2017.
3. We have recently upgraded the 2nd generation of a rotational 3D printer with improved resolution and stability. New projects on development cardiovascular devices are on-going such as stent, blood vessel and heart valve.
4. This process technique and soft scaffolds developed are currently applied for a major on-going project of manufacturing synthetic voice box implant funded by Wellcome Trust translational grant. With the outcomes of this funding, a collaborative research project of 3D printed bone cancer model has recently been awarded by Bone Cancer Research Trust.
Sectors Chemicals,Education,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL https://3dprint.com/225729/puu-thermoresponsive-scaffolds/
 
Description 1. The outcomes and industrial and social impact achieved still continue increasing. Three new industrial partners participated the project, contributing both in cash and in-kind, including two PhD studentships and two 3D control systems for bio-printers. 2. First-in-man clinical application of 3D printed laryngeal stent was successful for treatment of an infant patient at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children May 2017. Follow-up treatment outcome has been extremely positive. 3. Developed more international collaborators including academics and clinicians in China, Taiwan and USA.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Creative Economy,Education,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description Clinical translation: first-in-man compationate application of 3D printed bespoke laryngeal stent
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The first compassionate treatment (approved by MHRA and GOSH) using 3D printed stent device for supporting laryngotrachael reconstruction developed by our team has been delivered with great success at GOSH. This custom-made short-term implant (Class IIa for 4 weeks) was manufactured following MHRA Medical Device Regulation and ISO medical devices standard in a certified clean room, packaged, sterilised and tested by an independently certified company. These strategic collaborations with clinicians, major industries and SMEs will contribute to the success of the UK and the global industry as a leading competitor in the field of biomedical and manufacturing research, creating new job opportunities and benefiting industries and society.
 
Description Teaching and training undergraduates and postgraduate students
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact There are about 20-30 iBSc undergraduate and 40-60 MSc students who take modules of Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration every year. 6-7 research students receive research training and take their individual research projects in the field of 3D printing tissue engineering. Over hundreds prospective students visit the Biomanufacturing lab and lab tours for summer school of Biomedical students (over 100s students) visit the Biomanufacturing laboratory.
URL https://www.ucl.ac.uk/surgery/
 
Description 3D Bioprinting Bioactive Collagen Based Tissue Models for Cartilage Regeneration, Royal Society International Exchange Scheme
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Funding ID IEC\R3\203066 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2021 
End 03/2022
 
Description BBSRC Industrial CASE & GSK: 3D Bioprinting Engineering Artificial Respiratory Tract Tissue
Amount £169,522 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R505985/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Developing patient-near organotypic models of human osteosarcoma
Amount £156,440 (GBP)
Funding ID 3080583 
Organisation Bone Cancer Research Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2021 
End 07/2025
 
Description SoRo for Health: Implantable soft robotics for restoration of physiological function
Amount £1,895,192 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R02961X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 05/2023
 
Description UCL Graduate Research Scholarship and Overseas Research Scholarship (UCL GRS & ORS)
Amount £1,346,678 (GBP)
Organisation University College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2019 
End 09/2022
 
Description UCL Impact studentship
Amount £111,560 (GBP)
Organisation Guangzhou Honsea Sunshine Biotech Co., Ltd 
Sector Private
Country China
Start 09/2015 
End 09/2021
 
Title 3D-printed preform phase separation 
Description We have developed a novel indirect 3D printing technique, 3D-PPPS, which permits manufacture 3D scaffolds or implant from a wide range of printable and unprintable polymers and their nanocomposites at low cost and with a short lead time. Also novel is that a wide range of polyurethane constructs, for example, from the same solution were produced through thermally controlled phase separation at different scales. Each produced scaffolds with distinctly different structure, mechanical and cell-guiding properties. We provide an early insight into potential cell responses to the stiffness and nanoporous structure of our fabricated scaffolds in real 3D. Both degradable and non-degradable POSS-polyurethane nanocomposites based tracheas, ears and noses have been designed and fabricated. The on-going and near-future in vivo work will provide preclinical validation of the trachea implants designed and optimised in vitro. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - in vitro 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Three new industrial partners have recently participated the project, contributing both in cash and in-kind, including two PhD studentships and two 3D control systems for bio-printers. One quality journal article and one grant application based on the 3D-PPPS technique developed is under review, and more publications and impact will be following up in the near future. 
 
Title Data in Brief 2018 
Description This article contains data related to the research article entitled "Stiffness memory of indirectly 3D-printed elastomer nanohybrid regulates chondrogenesis and osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells" [1] (Wu et al., 2018). Cells respond to the local microenvironment in a context dependent fashion and a continuous challenge is to provide a living construct that can adapt to the viscoelasticity changes of surrounding tissues. Several materials are attractive candidates to be used in tissue engineering, but conventional manufactured scaffolds are primarily static models with well-defined and stable stiffness that lack the dynamic biological nature required to undergo changes in substrate elasticity decisive in several cellular processes key during tissue development and wound healing. A family of poly (urea-urethane) (PUU) elastomeric nanohybrid scaffolds (PUU-POSS) with thermoresponsive mechanical properties that soften by reverse self-assembling at body temperature had been developed through a 3D thermal induced phase transition process (3D-TIPS) at various thermal conditions: cryo-coagulation (CC), cryo-coagulation and heating (CC + H) and room temperature coagulation and heating (RTC + H). The stiffness relaxation and stiffness softening of these scaffolds suggest regulatory effects in proliferation and differentiation of human bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) towards the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact DiB is an open access data base journal. People will have free access to our experimental data 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352340918311466?via%3Dihub
 
Title Data in Brief 2019 
Description This DiB article contains data related to the research article entitled "Cellular responses to thermoresponsive stiffness memory elastomer nanohybrid scaffolds by 3D-TIPS" (Wu et al., 2018). Thermoresponsive poly (urea-urethane) nanohybrid elastomer (PUU-POSS) scaffolds were implanted in rats for up to 3 months. The porous structure and tensile mechanical properties of the scaffolds are listed and compared before and after in vitro and in vivo tests. The details of the histological analysis of the explants with different initial stiffness and porous structures at various time points are presented. The images and data presented support the conclusion about the coupled effects of stiffness softening and the hierarchical porous structure modulating tissue ingrowth, vascularization and macrophage polarization in the article (Wu et al., 2018). 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data in Brief is an open access database journal. 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352340919300137?via%3Dihub
 
Description Biomer Technology Ltd 
Organisation Biomer Technology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Biomer is a manufacturer of biomedical grade polyurethanes. We develop biomedical application using the polymer Biomer produced. This would promote their products in the biomedical market.
Collaborator Contribution Biomer has been involved in the synthesis of POSS reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (POSS-TPU) using the reactor in the company. The characterisation and 3D printing POSS-TPU is under investigation.
Impact The project is till on-going. The output and impact will be following up in the near future.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Prof WeiTso Chia and Dr Chingyu Wang, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Taiwan 
Organisation National Taiwan University Hospital
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution It is a grant of Royal Society International Exchanges 2020, £12000. My team work on 3D Bioprinting Cartilage, in collaboration with Prof WeiTso Chia and Dr Chingyu Wang, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, with an award of NT$ 509,620 by Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST), 2021-2023.
Collaborator Contribution Prof WeiTso Chia and Dr Chingyu Wang are orthopaedic surgeons who contribute to in vivo and clinical research in this collaboration
Impact The application is to establish collaboration in the areas of 3D tissue models for drug discovery and cartilage regeneration between Prof Wenhui Song and her team in UCL Centre for Biomaterials in Surgical Reconstruction and Regeneration, University College London, and Associate Professor WeiTso Chia at Department of Orthopaedics, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Taiwan. The aim of this project is to develop and optimise engineered healthy and inflammatory cartilage tissues amenable to human joint organ-like culture and osteoarthritis-like disease condition. We propose to investigate approaches to enable the growth of healthy and inflammatory tissue in test bioreactors by making use of advances in 3D bioprinting technologies, and demonstrate biological functions of the artificial cartilage tissue though formulations of cell-laden collagen hydrogel-based bioinks and screening drug molecules. The ultimate goal of this co-creative effort is to develop long-term collaborations between UK and Taiwan and to increase fundamental understanding of biological principles of cartilage tissue regeneration and pathology of osteoarthritis. The success of the collaboration will contribute to original fundamental science and engineering, and improvement of clinical treatments and significantly reduction/entirely replacement of the use of animal organs in research and drug discovery, generating substantial impact in ageing population, healthcare industry and society in UK, Taiwan and worldwide.
Start Year 2021
 
Description GSK 
Organisation GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are going to develop synthetic human tissue model which will support the drug discovery and screening at GSK
Collaborator Contribution GSK will contribute 50% of the studentship. GSK will provide expertise in histological, transcriptomic and biomarker based characterisation of tissue and cellular function.
Impact The project will start in Sept 2016
Start Year 2016
 
Description Renishaw partnership for Manufacturing Bespoke human organs 
Organisation Renishaw PLC
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provide case study about biomedical application of 3D bioprinting and potential market.
Collaborator Contribution Renishaw provides two 3D control systems for instrumentation of 3D bioprinter
Impact The collaboration just started in April. This is multi-disciplinary collaboration. Renishaw is a global manufacturer of 3D printer. UCL team specialise in development of scaffold for tissue engineering. We will develop a custom-made 3D bioprinter based on Renishaw's 3D control system.
Start Year 2016
 
Description UCL Ear Institute 
Organisation University College London
Department Ear Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our collaboration brings the award of the EPSRC project of peizo-nanofibre based acoustic sensor for cochlea implant
Collaborator Contribution UCL Ear Institute has received £159,861 fund for working on in vitro study of the neuron cell response on the piezoelectric nanofibre devices.
Impact The collaboration is still active and hasn't made impact yet.
Start Year 2014
 
Title 3D Thermo-induced phase separation (3D-TIPS) Manufacturing of Scaffolds with Hierarchical Porous Structure (3D-CPI), 
Description The invention discloses a generic manufacturing method of producing soft and hard 3D porous implants or scaffolds. the technique permits manufacture of wide range of printable and unprintable polymers and their composites at low cost and with a short lead time. It also permits flexibility in the complex architecture of fabricated constructs, tunability in structure and properties not presently achievable by conventional direct 3D printing techniques or by phase-separation alone. 
IP Reference  
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2015
Licensed No
Impact 3D-TIPS is a low-cost, reproducible and versatile fabrication technique, which will be very useful for manufacturing implants, scaffold for tissue engineering. It is envisaged that the technique will be widely adapted by the researchers and developers from both academic and industrial community.
 
Title 3D rotational bioprinter 
Description A novel 3D rotational bioprinting system was developed, tha t consists of a microprocessor, X and Z motor controlled motion, one rotational motion, two or more motor-controlled thermo-extrusion heads and printing-on-deign control software. The system can produce tubular constructs, such as scaffolds, stents and implants with controlled diameter and wall thickness, in particular thin-wall, as well as coherent high stiffness and high compliance at low cost. More application development is on-going. 
IP Reference  
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed No
Impact A novel 3D rotational bioprinting system provides more capacity of manufacturing tubular thin-walled constructs, which are not achievable using conventional 3D printer including fused deposition modelling (FDM), molten polymer deposition (MPD), stereolithography and selective laser sintering (SLS) etc.
 
Title 3D Rotational Printer 
Description a novel 3D rotational bioprinting system (3Dr-bioprinter) has been developed, consisting of a microprocessor, X and Z motor controlled motion, one rotational motion, two or more motor-controlled thermo-extrusion heads and printing-on-deign control software. The system can produce tubular constructs, such as scaffolds, stents and implants with controlled diameter and wall thickness, in particular thin-wall, as well as coherent high stiffness and high compliance at low cost, which are not achievable using conventional 3D printer including fused deposition modelling (FDM), molten polymer deposition (MPD), stereolithography and selective laser sintering (SLS) etc 
Type Of Technology Systems, Materials & Instrumental Engineering 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact We are in the final stage of full characterisation and validation of the 3Dr bioprinter, which will be reported for publication in the near future. It will be expected a long term impacts in the field of medical implants and tissue regeneration, in particular reconstruction of tubular organs. 
 
Title Renishaw 3D bioprinter 
Description In collaboration with Renishaw, a 3D bioprinter developed by Renishaw has been further improved with two printing nozzles and capable of printing bioinks with a wider range of viscosity at higher resolution. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact The further development and demonstration of medical application would be crucial for Renishaw 3D bioprinter for future market. 
 
Description 10th World Biomaterials Congress, 2016, Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This is the largest international conference in biomaterials. It was an excellent place to disseminate our latest progress on the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 3D Printing Biodegradable Polyurethane Nanocomposite Scaffold for Heart Valve Regeneration, the 28th European Society for Biomaterials, 2017 (ESB2017) Conference, Athens, Greece, 4-8 September 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Promote the new knowledge, materials and techniques for making synthetic scaffolds for organ reconstruction by 3D TIPS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interview by Tom Tlalim, Artist and Writer 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Artist Tom Tlalim discussed his artistic residency at the V&A and his upcoming project 'Tonotopia: Co-designing sound art' with users of digital hearing implants. In the wake of recent developments in sensory prosthetic technologies he asks, how can artistic listening experiences be shared by different ears?Co-designing sound art' with users of digital hearing implants. He met our research team and laboratory, and is very interested in latest research development in the artificial smart implants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.tonotopia.org/58-2/
 
Description Invited talk at 2nd International Conference on 3D Printing Technology and Innovation, 2018, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk to promote the new technology and science of 3D printing for medical application developed from the project at an international conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.haptic.ro/event/2nd-international-conference-3d-printing-technology-innovations/
 
Description Invited talk on KTN HiPerNano2017: 3D printing polymeric nanocomposites for soft human implants. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented the advancement of 3D printing nanocomposites for medical applications to industries and policymakers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://materialschemistry.org.uk/events/hipernano-2017/
 
Description Invited talk presented at: International Conference on Direct Digital Manufacturing and Polymers, 2015, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented our latest progress on 3D printing human organ at the international conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited talk to Live Meeting across GSK global laboratories and premises 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The talk was invited by GSK, the major global pharmaceutical industry. A BBSRC-GSK industrial CASE studentship has been awarded later on.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposite for bioresponsive smart implants, 4th Annual World Congress of Smart Materials-2018, Osaka, Japan, Mar 6-8, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Promote the new knowledge, materials and techniques developed from the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participation of Transplant and Life Exhibition at the Hunterian Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We printed human organ models which were displayed in the Transplant and Life Exhibition at the Hunterian Museum for 6 months between 22 November 2016 - 20 May 2017. This exhibition gave voice to the patient experience and raised awareness of the importance of transplantation and the challenges surrounding it. Every day around three people who could have benefited from a transplant die because there aren't enough organ donors. Our 3D printed human organ models show emerging technology of bespoke implants and potential regenerative synthetic organs. The exhibition was funded by Hunterian Museum Trustees, Organ Recovery Systems, Bridge to Life, PharmaPal, Mr Nick Lane, Oxford CommSciCom and NHS Blood and Transplant
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.rcseng.ac.uk/museums-and-archives/hunterian-museum/past-exhibitions/transplant-and-life/
 
Description Presentation at the 28th European Society for Biomaterials, 2017 (ESB2017) Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation at the international conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presented at: XXII AISAL Symposium, Innovation in Laboratory Animal Science, The Future is Now, 2015, Italy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk about 3D printing tissue engineering for the scientific community in the area of animal science at this International conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description TERMIS 2016 - the European Chapter Meeting of the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicin International Society. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Present our latest progress on 3D printing scaffold for tissue engineering in the international conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016