Designing alloys for resource efficiency (DARE)- a manufacturing approach

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sheffield
Department Name: Materials Science and Engineering

Abstract

The manufacturing and processing of metals to form components is one of the largest industrial sectors and accounts for 46% of all manufactured value, with an economic value to the EEA of Euro 1.3 trillion annually. Material security concerns the access to raw materials to ensure military and economic sufficiency. We will face major future challenges as key elements will be increasingly in short supply with consequent price volatility ("the ticking time bomb"). Equally, many materials rely on strategic elements for which supply is not guaranteed, with rare earth elements being the prime example (central to the performance of magnesium alloys). Metals production consumes about 5% of global energy use and is responsible for an annual emission of over 2Gton of CO2, so efficiency in manufacture can produce significant reductions in environmental impact. The recent report "Material Security: Ensuring resource availability for the UK economy" from the TSB noted "the importance of material security has increased due to limited short-term availability of some raw materials, widespread large increases in raw material prices, oligopolistic industry structures and dependence on a limited number of sometimes politically unstable countries as sources of key materials". Furthermore, "The issue of sustainability has attained unprecedented prominence on both national and international agendas, occupying the minds of businesses and governments as never before... Resource efficiency has a key role to play in mitigating wider issues such as depletion of resources, environmental impact and materials security, and it also contributes significantly to the low-carbon economy."

Addressing resource efficiency in metals production and use requires that new metal alloys be developed specifically to reduce reliance on strategic and scarce elements, for recycling and for disruptive manufacturing technologies that minimise waste. The size of the problem is too large to be undertaken by the traditional matrix experiment. Rather, a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling, experimental and processing skills needs to be brought together to target resource efficiency in metallic systems. In the DARE approach we use basic science to come to an understanding of the role of strategically important elements, to design new alloys with greater resource efficiency and to optimise the processing route for the new alloys to give supply chain compression. Unique to the DARE approach is to bring manufacturing into the centre of the alloy design paradigm. The combined themes will tackle key metal alloys, including ultra-high strength, low alloy and nanostructured steel (e.g. for a resource efficient approach to vehicle light weighting to give reduced automotive emissions); titanium alloys and titanium aluminides (e.g. for aerospace applications) and Mg alloys (e.g. in automotive and military applications, for example, cast gear box casings). The research team and their ten industrial partners will deliver actual materials and implementation into industry, moving the resource efficiency agenda from the sphere of policy into the real economy. We will support the growth of the high-value UK speciality metals manufacturing industry by developing and exploiting the DARE approach to the design of alloys that improve the resource efficiency and flexibility with regard to fluctuating material availability of the UK manufacturing economy, addressing the EPSRC grand challenges in transitioning to a low-carbon society. This will help existing UK world-leading industries to expand and manufacture for the future.

Planned Impact

DARE has three main pathways to impact: (i) engaging key stakeholders; (ii) maximising research impact and (iii) delivering highly skilled people.
(i) Engaging key stakeholders:
The research team and their industrial partners will deliver actual materials and implementation into industry, moving the resource efficiency agenda from the sphere of policy into the real economy. The approach taken in this project will have generic applicability to most metal alloys and will therefore impact a wide range of industrial sectors, including manufacturing, transport, energy, healthcare technologies and defence. The grant is strongly supported by a wide range of industrial sponsors, namely Rolls-Royce, Firth Rixson, Messier-Bugatti-Dowty, TIMET, Magnesium Elektron, Siemens, Tata Steel, Sheffield Forgemasters and Arcelor Mittal. Members of these companies have agreed to join our Strategic Advisory Board, which will facilitate the exchange of knowledge from us to industry, but also allow us to receive insight into future challenges faced by industry. We will involve Fusion-IP at UoS and Imperial Innovations (LSE:IVO, Imperial's £285m technology commercialisation office) for exploitation of our research.
(ii) Maximising research impact
The topic of resource efficiency and sustainability will not be a short-term hype, but rather a subject that will have ever increasing importance. This project will greatly advance knowledge and we will seek to publicise EPSRC sponsorship of this critical topic within the wider political debate. We will go much further than publishing in high impact journals by organizing symposia at international conferences, and disseminate our knowledge through the dedicated website and specific workshops on focused topics aimed particularly at industry. In addition, we will address public engagement in a creative manner, e.g. through Headstart Summer Schools, Science and Engineering Taster Days for widening participation, the first Sheffield Festival of Sciene and Engineering (2013), the Cheltenham Science Festival etc. We will promote resource efficiency through our work with the media, for example, our bespoke videos of manufacturing. We will get involved in the Centres for Innovative Manufacturing Network events, work with the Catapult Centres (in particular the AMRC, AFRC and MTC, where we have existing collaborations) and already are working with our Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) on sustainability.
(iii) Delivering highly skilled people.
We have a long and proud track record in training the next generation scientists and engineers in metallurgy (including the Sheffield-Manchester Advanced Metallic Systems CDT) the demand for which continues to outstrip supply. At all levels, we will develop and broaden the skills-base of participants and equip them to be future leaders in the increasingly important and challenging field of resource efficiency and sustainability. We will also develop the skills of at least 6 PhD students committed to this project by the Universities and Industrial partners who will work alongside the PDRAs.

Publications

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Andritsos E (2019) Effects of calcium on planar fault energies in ternary magnesium alloys in Physical Review Materials

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Coakley J (2015) Precipitation processes in the Beta-Titanium alloy Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr in Journal of Alloys and Compounds

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Coakley J (2017) Isothermal omega kinetics in beta-titanium alloys in Philosophical Magazine Letters

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Coakley J (2016) Effect of precipitation on mechanical properties in the ß-Ti alloy Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn in Materials Science and Engineering: A

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Coakley J (2016) Isothermal omega formation and evolution in the Beta-Ti alloy Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr in Philosophical Magazine Letters

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Coakley J (2015) Nanoprecipitation in a beta-titanium alloy in Journal of Alloys and Compounds

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García-Rodríguez S (2018) Wear Resistance of Stainless Steel Coatings on ZE41 Magnesium Alloy in Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

 
Description For magnesium alloys, we have established the limits of the various strengthening mechanisms (e.g. precipitation, solid solution hardening etc) on the strength of the alloy. This will allow us to design new alloy compositions.
We have invented a new magnesium alloy that shows both high strength and high ductility.
We have demonstrated the origin of the "Rare Earth" texture in a rare earth containing magnesium alloy.
We have invented a new high strength steel that is strengthened by nanoprecipitates.
We have designed a new "lean maraging steel" via computer calculations and have validated this alloy through making the material.
We have invented a new metastable beta alloy that shows both high yield strength and high work hardening rate.
We have produced atomistic calculations of defects in pure Mg alloys and will progress onto the effect of Ca additions.
Exploitation Route The work on magnesium alloys will be transferred to Magnesium Elektron
The work on steels will be used by Tata Steel Europe
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

URL http://www.darealloys.org
 
Description A new high strength steel has been invented, which is based on nanoprecipitation. This has been subject to a company patent. The laboratory based processing has been upscaled to plant trials and the product which is now a commercial product. New magnesium alloys developed by us are being trialed by Magnesium Elektron. Additive repair of gas turbine components has been developed at Sheffield and is being taken up by Rolls-Royce.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport
Impact Types Economic

 
Description MAPP
Amount £10,000,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P006566/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2023
 
Title Questaal 
Description Questaal (www.questaal.org) is a large-scale software project, supported by EPSRC to investigate materials properties, such as optical properties. This software is public domain. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The software has been a key tool in this project. It is written for a wide user base. We will hold a hands-on workshop in the spring of 2017, and engage in various kinds of public relations to encourage others to use it. 
URL http://www.questaal.org
 
Description ArcelorMittal 
Organisation ArcelorMittal
Country Luxembourg 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution A new method of measuring martensite transformation has been devised. This allows large samples to be measured and then their microstructure subsequently investigated.
Collaborator Contribution Sponsorship of the PhD project. Supply of steel materials for the project.
Impact A new dilatometer has been constructed.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Magnesium Elektron Ltd 
Organisation Magnesium Elektron
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are designing new Rare Earth free magnesium alloys which are being trialled by Magnesium Elektron.
Collaborator Contribution The partner has provided considerable intellectual property into the design of alloys. The partner has prepared trial alloys for the DARE partnership to investigate.
Impact Two publications have resulted from the collaboration with Magnesium Elektron.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Primetals 
Organisation Primetals technologies ltd
Country Unknown 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Development of new processing routes that could be applicable to plant builders.
Collaborator Contribution Contribution of intellectual property. Provision of materials.
Impact Publications in preparation.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Rolls-Royce 
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are developing new alloy variants that will be useable in gas turbine engines. We have an extensive programme in additive repair of alloys used in gas turbine engines. We have an extensive programme of additive layer manufacturing titanium and Ni base superalloy components. We are exploring new Co free stellite alloys for nuclear power based activities.
Collaborator Contribution The supply of considerable intellectual property to the project. A considerable cash contribution to the research. Supply of materials and powders.
Impact A significant number of publications have resulted. Full scale components have been manufactured and tested. Significant advances have been made in the understanding of process optimisation in additive manufacturing.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Tata Steel 
Organisation Tata Steel Europe
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Development of new high strength steels for light weighting in the automotive sector Development of thermomechanical process routes for steels New models of thermomechanical processing of steels
Collaborator Contribution Provision of expert knowledge Provision of trial steels in cast and wrought form Access to research facilities
Impact Introduction of new steels for automotive sector- a steel has been patented. New on-line process models
 
Description Tata steel - DARE 
Organisation Tata Steel Europe
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Development of TWIP steels for plate mill processing
Collaborator Contribution Trial TWIP steel processing (2016), at 60kg scale.
Impact Steel plate for blast testing and verification of scale-up
Start Year 2015
 
Description Timet UK Ltd 
Organisation Timet UK Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Development of variants of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) Designing new metastable beta titanium alloys with high yield stregth and high work hardening rate. Developing understanding of TRIP and TWIP effects in beta titanium alloys
Collaborator Contribution Provision of material Intellectual property
Impact Publications have been produced. Upscaling of experimental materials will take place.
Start Year 2014
 
Description WEIR Group Research Programme into Bulk Metallic Glasses 
Organisation Weir Pumps Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are designing novel low cost Alloys for WEIR based on crystallised metallic glasses. We perform the calculations and experiments they have the problem space that we are seeking to work in. etc.
Collaborator Contribution Presently the research is fully funded by WEIR and an RA is associated with the project and DARE. The interaction is driving development of novel alloys and processes for manufacture of highly wear resistant but low cost materials for mining, milling and other aggressive environments
Impact none yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description 3D Printing & Additive Manufacturing Conference Nottingham 2016 - Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Iain Todd gave the talk: "AM in Sheffield" One of the worlds leading knowledge transfer events focused solely on the production of end-use components using additive 'layer-based' technologies. The event was attended by over 300 delegates from around the globe and attracted world-class academic and industrial speakers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.3dprinting.lighting/event/additive-manufacturing-conference-nottingham-2016/
 
Description Alloy Design - A Resource Efficient Approach 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact DARE one day symposium to explain how the programme aims to contribute towards alloy design, specifically looking at how alloy design can be accomplished with a view to resource-efficiency and the low-carbon economy. Speakers commented that they received a good level of feedback and questions at the end of their presentations; feedback included that the day included an interesting selection of presentations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://darealloys.org/category/events/
 
Description Alloys for Additive Manufacturing Workshop - Keynote 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Iain Todd gave the keynote: "Manipulating metastability: a route to novel alloys for AM". In this workshop, the focus was on materials, in particular metals, alloys and metal-based composites for AM, i.e. materials that are optimised for use in AM processes, and on materials by AM, i.e. materials that can be synthesised only or only cost-effectively by AM. The entire process chain from alloy design and powder making to processing and post-processing was addressed. Both academic as well as industrial researchers participated in the workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.mpie.de/3549192/AAM-conferences
 
Description Annual Symoposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Annual conference presenting the achievements of DARE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.darealloys.org
 
Description BBC World Service "Steel" Programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Mark Rainforth participated in the BBC world service 'Forum' programme, with the discussion topic of steels (www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p030mb9q). This was broadcast via the BBC World Service worldwide and is still available on the BBC website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p030mb9q
 
Description Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A workshop that featured keynote speakers on the topic of resource efficiency in metals manufacturing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.darealloys.org
 
Description Cutting edge alloys for resource efficiency 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An introductory press release to provide a short overview of the Project and its aims and to promote the Project's Inaugural Workshop in September 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.darealloys.org/news
 
Description DARE Creativity@Home Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A one day workshop for members of the DARE research group to review the project's research themes, key milestones and end goals to identify new research opportunities; to further develop and demonstrate collaborative working between PI's and early career researchers; to develop innovative ideas around Impact and Advocacy. At the end of the day the group had developed an outline action plan and a set of new ideas; the research group will cerate working parties to further develop these ideas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description DARE Creativity@home - Roadmapping workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Members of the DARE management team met at Lancaster University to discuss project outcomes to date, future direction of DARE and potential future research projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description DARE Creativity@home - PDRA Training 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A bespoke training day developed and provided by Blueberry Training for PDRAs within DARE was held at Lancaster University; this involved training in outreach and public engagement plus exercises based on presenting research ideas and drafting proposals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description DARE Newsletters 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The newsletters update the target audience of the DARE programme's research activities, any successful outcomes and events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL http://darealloys.org/category/nltr/
 
Description DARE Project X - 1st Panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact PDRAs within DARE have been given the opportunity to apply for money from the grant for consumables, travel and other eligible expenses to manage and carry out a mini research project linked to the aims and objectives of DARE. There were 5 participants who presented their research ideas to the first panel of management team and strategic advisory board members; following feedback from the panel the PDRAs then submitted a 2 page proposal for review and approval from the panel. The first mini projects will start late March/early April.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description DARE videos and YouTube channel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Two short videos explaining the research being carried out by the DARE programme; the channel was created to host these and future outreach videos.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCcVvNraszzh7L6FSL5OikKA
 
Description DARE website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This is a professional facing website focusing on dissemination of the different research themes within the project Designing Alloys for Resource Efficiency - DARE and the results obtained from our research. The website is/will also be used for the following:

- to advertise events the Project has organised/participated in or which are linked to the research themes of the project and may be of interest to followers;
- disseminate information about the Project partners, researchers and industry partners;
- as a tool to share knowledge between partners and Advisory Board members;
- disseminate media articles etc. related to our research.

We are monitoring the number of visitors to the website which, are steadily increasing each month, and are about the level we would expect at this stage of the Project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.darealloys.org
 
Description Development and evaluation of first prototype of an app linked to resource efficiency(RE) and life cycle assessment (LCA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Collaboration between EPSRC funded projects DARE & SUbST and the Advanced Resource Efficiency Centre, University of Sheffield, to adapt some of the techniques from SCEnAT and disseminate LCA knowledge to a wider audience as part of our outreach activities. The first prototype of an app has been developed to apply the LCA methodology to three everyday objects incorporating some of the research data from two of the DARE work streams: "High strength steels for lighter road vehicles" and "Magnesium alloys
that are less dependent on rare earths". Members of the general public are being asked to evaluate the first prototype through the use of ipads before further development of the app which will be available to schools and the general public via certain websites.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.darealloys.org
 
Description International Conference on Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing - Keynote 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Iain Todd gave the keynote: "Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing: Can we rewrite the rule book". The conference aimed to discuss specific challenges and opportunities offered by the electron beam. It brought together researchers and industrial users to accomplish improvements in this technology. The conference included topics on powder manufacturing and recovery, process observation and control, processing and properties of all kind of metallic or intermetallic alloys, and secondary and finishing operations as well as modelling and simulation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://additivemanufacturing.com/2016/01/13/ebam-2016-1st-international-conference-on-electron-beam-...
 
Description Interview on Radio Sheffield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviewed by Radio Sheffield about resource efficient manufacturing of steel
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Manchester workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A workshop to tell the community of the equipment already received in the Henry Royce Institute and to obtain feedback from the community on the strategy going forward.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Market research with schools and colleges 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Market Research was carried out with schools in the form of an online survey regarding the app that DARE is co-developing around LCA; this enabled us to develop a mailing list of schools willing to try out the final product before it's official launch, details of how the subject is taught in schools to help with the final design and the tools used to teach this subject.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Materials Life Cycle Analysis Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This event was co-hosted by DARE and focused on the current and future trends of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), particularly in the materials supply chain. The presentations were followed by a breakout session; the feedback from this session introduced some exciting new ideas and concepts, and delegates agreed that future events should take pace to move forward with some of the ideas which arose.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://darealloys.org/category/pr/
 
Description Materials Research Exchange 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attendance at a two day event to promote research activities within the programme and to evaluate the first stage of an outreach tool/app based around Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Resource Efficiency. Information from this was used to develop the next stage of the app for the Pint of Science Festival. In addition to meeting potential new collaborators we also met other academics interested in LCA who may find the tool useful as part of their teaching or who gave details of potential content for the app.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Pint of Science Festival 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Testing and evaluation of the second pilot stage of an outreach tool to disseminate LCA knowledge to a wider audience; the audience included professional trainers and members from industry who provided valuable feedback around the content to be included in the final development stages of the app.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description STEM for Britain Poster Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Sam Tammas-Williams, an early-career researcher in Additive Layer Manufacturing with the DARE programme was selected to present a poster at the recently held final of the STEM for Britain competition, Westminster; he presented and discussed his research to parliamentarians and members of EPSRC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Widening Participation Open Day session 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 32 students on the Unviersity of Sheffield's Widening Participation schemes were invited into the department on the 3rd March 2016, and shown various aspects of materials science and engineering by Dr Russell Goodall and colleagues. One of these activities used the mechanical properties of chocolate to describe some of the challenges associated with alloy desgn.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016