Ultra Efficient Engines and Fuels

Lead Research Organisation: University of Brighton
Department Name: Sch of Computing, Engineering & Maths

Abstract

This research seeks to address the knowledge gap with the internal combustion engine (ICE) and answer the question 'how far can you go?'. The research considers methods for reducing fuel consumption of the ICE from two directions: first by improving in-cylinder combustion processes and second through the use of designed fuels from sustainable sources, with the fuel chemistry matched to advanced high efficiency combustion systems. Three novel ICE concepts, aimed at achieving a step improvement of 20-33% reduction in fuel consumption from ICEs at near zero emissions will be investigated, with holistic integration of energy recovery (WP1). The concepts investigated are applicable to commercial vehicles, passenger cars and as electric vehicle range extenders. Novel designed fuels, will be investigated in WP2, including how the fuel molecule can be tailored to improve the ignition and combustion characteristics of the fuel in a novel ICE combustion system. The spray and ignition processes of the new fuels will be characterised through the application of optical diagnostic techniques. WP3 covers the simulation of the ICE combustion concepts and evaluation of current state of the art modelling methods when applied to such combustion systems and designed fuels, with potentially very different fluid characteristics to conventional diesel and petrol. Novel optical diagnostic techniques, including two line Planer Induced Fluorescence to track the vapour concentration and laser induced thermal grating spectroscopy to measure vapour temperature will be developed in WP4 and applied to the research in WP1 and WP2, providing validation for the modelling in WP3.

Planned Impact

The potential long term impact of this research is a cost effective reduction in CO2 emissions from the transportation sector through breakthroughs in combustion and fuel formulation, providing societal and economic benefit. In the medium term, improved ICE efficiency will reduce CO2 emissions from legacy fuels derived primarily from non-renewable sources. In the longer term, higher ICE efficiencies will reduce the transport sector's overall fuel demand, thereby reducing the land-use and renewable energy requirements associated with the production of next-generation bio fuels and synthetic fuels. Industry and policy makers will benefit from a clearer picture of the long term future of the ICE in a low carbon economy, promoting evidence based decision-making on policy and R&D and manufacturing infrastructure investment.
The UK has a vibrant ICE manufacturing base that earns significant export revenue. The project will support the UK's ICE manufacturing industry, in particular through our partners JLR, Ricardo and Delphi, thereby providing economic benefit to the UK economy. The consideration of designed fuels is a significant opportunity for the UK's energy companies, such as our project partner, BP, to develop new sustainable fuel products supporting their businesses transitioning into a low carbon economy.
The project will help develop the next generation of researchers in this important field. A significant number of researchers will be involved who are at an early stage of their careers (7 RAs, 4 PhDs). The highly collaborative nature of this project gives these individuals an excellent opportunity to develop their research careers either towards an academic path or into industry

The project will also deliver a unique data set of optical measurements on novel combustion systems and designed fuels. This data is highly valuable to simulation code developers, both in the academic and industrial communities. The project will make much of this data 'open access', significantly enhancing the value of the data to these groups, accelerating research and commercial development in this area.
Finally, the project will leave a significant equipment legacy in terms of the engines at Brighton and at Brunel and optical equipment at Oxford and Brunel. It is the intention of the partners to build a lasting partnership in ICE combustion and fuels research to continue exploiting these world leading facilities and provide ongoing support to the UK's OEMs, tier 1 and 2 suppliers and energy companies beyond the life of the project. The potential for a joint research centre and doctoral training centre, linking with the new Advanced Propulsion Centre, will be investigated.
 
Description The main objective of the Ultra project was to determine the ultimate efficiency of the internal combustion engine. An ambitious target of 25-33% improvement over engines in production was set. The split cycle engine research at Brighton University has demonstrated using a combination of experiments and modelling techniques a 40% improvement over typical commercial vehicles at the start of the project, or 30% over the best in class commercial of vehicles of 2018. A further objective of the project was to deliver the experimental techniques, facilities and modelling methodologies required to develop future high efficiency engines. The project has delivered a new portable laser based technique for the accurate measurement of temperature inside an engine. A portable Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) technique was developed at Oxford University and has been successfully used in a number of project partner laboratories, delivering precise measurement of temperature in very challenging environments.
Exploitation Route Commercial exploitation - Oxford are in discussion with a partner to commercialise the LIGS technique. The split cycle technology will be commercialised via a new spin out, Dolphin N2 set up by Ricardo. This new company has secured Innovate UK funding and is currently raising the matching capital to take the technology to market. Academic Exploitation - Oxford are in discussion with numerous parties to utilise the LIGS technique in applications outside the automotive industry.
Sectors Energy

 
Description Informing on the future potential of internal combustion engines. A key objective of the project was identifying the potential and hence role of the internal combustion engine as a low carbon transport system probably dominated by vehicles electrified. The system level thinking core to this project, researching the interaction of an advanced thermally integrated powertrain operating on a sustainable fuel has contributed to a shift in thinking by the industry. It has become recognised that the use of 'simple' internal combustion engine will almost certainly decline and will be replaced by advanced 'Thermal Propulsion Systems' with integral energy recover operating on a manufactured, sustainable fuel. The results informed the update of the Auto Council UK technology roadmaps by the Advanced Propulsion in 2018. The roadmaking process involved a number of events including workshop at Brighton University on 31/7/2016, EPSRC ICE Road-mapping workshop at Brighton University on 23/12/2017, EPSRC - APC workshop at Bath University on 31/1/2017 and a APC - EPSRC R&D challenge workshop on the 12 December 2017 hosted by Loughborough. This process will continue through ongoing dialogue with APC by Dr Morgan, as spoke lead for the APC Internal Combustion Engine Thermal Efficiency spoke with APC and the ICE community. The research on the split cycle engine undertaken on this project has provided more supporting data increasing the credibility of the concept and in particular how Thermal Propulsion technology compares with low temperature fuel cells. The outcomes of the research has lead to a new spin out company, Dolphin N2 being set up by Ricardo and further funding by Innovate UK (Step C02). Development of Advanced Digital Tools The research also aimed to support the development of predictive models of engine combustion systems. The computational studies at UCL and Imperial have been divided into two main streams, flash-boiling sprays and supercritical injection. The first stream is being investigated by spray modelling using Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT) with fuels of different degrees of volatility, including iso-octane and n-pentane, under various conditions. A superheated evaporation model and 0-dimentional atomisation model have been implemented by user coding in the STAR-CD. The developed framework was able to predict the spray plume collapse and penetration length of the flashing sprays issued from multi-hole injectors for direct-injection spark-ignition engines with reasonable agreement to in-house experimental data. The coding methodology has been shared with the CFD group of Jaguar Land Rover for knowledge. The research on hydrogen - diesel combustion at Brighton has supported the assessment of a new combustion model in the Ricardo VECTIS CFD code. The research has assessed the capability of the code and demonstrated new approaches to using CFD to develop understanding of advanced combustion systems. Research on the compression ignition processes of hydrogen using CFD and kinetic modelling has shown the need for new models to accurately capture this process. This has informed the direction of the collaboration between Brighton, Oxford and UCL. Development of New Experimental Tools The final thread of the project is the development of diagnostic tools to aid the development of fundamental understanding of in cylinder processes and provide validation datasets for computational models. Temperature measurements using Laser Induced Grating Scattering, LIGS, in Brighton's high pressure spray facility have provided data on the temperature evolution for both the compression and expansion cycle at different inlet temperatures and pressures. A further development has improved the temporal resolution of the LIGS technique allowing measurements up to 10kHz (paper in preparation). The high-precision temperature measurements in the Brighton facility were carried out with a specially designed portable system for LIGS. The technology of this device has been licensed and is currently under development in association with Dantec Dynamics. It is planned to have a version commercially available in 2018. This instrument will provide the technology for high-precision thermometry in a wide range of applications in academic, government and industrial laboratories worldwide.
Sector Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Automotive Council UK Technology Roadmaps
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Cryogenic injector testing
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Ricardo UK Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 07/2017
 
Description Department of Energy Network Program
Amount £55,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department of Energy and Climate Change 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 01/2022
 
Description Institutional Support
Amount £205,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R512977/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Institutional Support for APC spoke
Amount £1,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description Step C02
Amount £4,838,000 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 10/2019
 
Title Cold Driven Shock Tube (CDST) facility 
Description Creation of World Class facility: Oxford Cold-Driven Shock Tube - brand new facility for fuel spray research and optical diagnostics, capable of generating gas conditions up to 150 bar and 1500 K for several milliseconds. Currently undergoing certification and sign off for CE marking before commissioning begins. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact No experiments performed yet. 
 
Title Heavy duty research engine 
Description New single cylinder deisel research engine with variable compression ratio and variable swril with 3000 bar fuel injection pressure and 250bar maximum firing pressure capability 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact New uneque capability in the UK. Testing of novel hydrogen - diesel combustion system 
 
Title High Speed Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy 
Description High speed LIGS 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact First demonstration of high speed LIGS enabling application of technique to transient phenomena 
 
Title Turbulent Flow Chamber for Spray and Combustion Optical Diagnostics 
Description A new constant volume vessel has been designed and manufactured to allow studies of spray formation and combustion under controlled levels of ambient turbulence and at high-pressure high-temperature conditions, including supercritical points. This is a unique new UK facility to accommodate such conditions and with extensive optical access. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Being commissioned. 
 
Title Database for Analysis of Mixture Formation Process in a 2-Stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) engine 
Description The data used in the following paper is archived here: Wang, X., Ma, J., and Zhao, H., "Analysis of Mixture Formation Process in a 2-Stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) engine". International Journal of Engine Research. 2017. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The impact of different fuel injection strategies on the in-cylinder flow motions and mixture formation in the BUSDIG engine was clarified. 
URL https://doi.org/10.17633/rd.brunel.5414059.v1
 
Title Database for Analysis of Scavenge Port Designs and Exhaust Valve Profiles on the In-cylinder Flow and Scavenging Performance in a 2-Stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine 
Description The data used in the following paper is archived here: Wang, X., Ma, J., and Zhao, H., "Analysis of Scavenge Port Designs and Exhaust Valve Profiles on the In-cylinder Flow and Scavenging Performance in a 2-Stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine". International Journal of Engine Research. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The effects of the scavenge ports and exhaust valve profiles on the scavenging process of the BUSDIG engine were identified. 
URL https://doi.org/10.17633/rd.brunel.5195731.v1
 
Title Database for Analysis of the Effect of the Bore/Stroke (B/S) Ratio and Scavenge Port Angles on the Scavenging Process in a 2-Stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine 
Description The data used in the following paper is archived here: Wang, X., Ma, J., and Zhao, H., "Analysis of the Effect of the Bore/Stroke (B/S) Ratio and Scavenge Port Angles on the Scavenging Process in a 2-Stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine". Proc. IMechE, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering.2017. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The impact of the bore/stroke ratio and scavenge port design of the BUSDIG engine was clarified. 
URL https://doi.org/10.17633/rd.brunel.5383951.v1
 
Title Database for Analysis of the effect of intake plenum design on the scavenging process in a 2-Stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine 
Description The data used in the following paper is archived here: Wang, X., Ma, J., and Zhao, H., "Analysis of the effect of intake plenum design on the scavenging process in a 2-Stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine" SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1031. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The design and evaluation of the intake plenum of the BUSDIG engine were clarified. 
URL https://doi.org/10.17633/rd.brunel.4565158.v1
 
Title Database for Analysis of the impact of exhaust valve profile on the scavenging and combustion process in a 2-stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Gasoline (BUSDIG) engine 
Description The data used in the following paper is archived here: Wang, X., Ma, J., and Zhao, H., "Analysis of the impact of exhaust valve profile on the scavenging and combustion process in a 2-stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Gasoline (BUSDIG) engine". IMechE Internal Combustion Engines 2017 conference. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The effect of the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy on controlling the scavenging and combustion process in BUSDIG engine was clarified. 
URL https://doi.org/10.17633/rd.brunel.5371525.v1
 
Title Database for Evaluations of Scavenge Port Designs for a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine by 3D CFD Simulations 
Description The data used in the following paper is archived: Wang, X., Ma, J., and Zhao, H., "Evaluations of Scavenge Port Designs for a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine by 3D CFD Simulations," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1049, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1049. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The design and impact of the scavenge ports of BUSDIG engine were clarified by CFD simulations. 
URL https://doi.org/10.17633/rd.brunel.3116560.v1
 
Title Database for Numerical Simulation of the Gasoline Spray with an Outward-Opening Piezoelectric Injector: A Comparative Study of Different Breakup Models 
Description The data used in the following paper is archived here: Wang, X. and Zhao, H., "Numerical Simulation of the Gasoline Spray with an Outward-Opening Piezoelectric Injector: A Comparative Study of Different Breakup Models". SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0272. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The effect of different breakup models on the modelling of an outward-opening piezoelectric injector was clarified. 
URL https://doi.org/10.17633/rd.brunel.5830677.v1
 
Title Nover Framework in DoE/RANS approach with coefficient tabulation for predictive engine simulations 
Description To address the problem of unreliable tuning for in-cylinder simulations, a comprehensive approach based on tabulation of the constants which paves the way for automation in in-cylinder CFD and use of machine learning techniques in the future is developed. Starting from the conditions of a simplified environment of constant volume experiments (ECN Spray A) , coefficient matrices that correspond to individual operating points were derived. Then these coefficient matrices were used to extract a mapping between the trend in the value change of these coefficients and the underlying physical conditions. The next step was an inversion of the mapping process where areas of different physics were identified in progressively more complex configurations (Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) and Engine). A self-adjusted set of coefficients based on tabulation is introduced to correspond better to the changing conditions in the cylinder as the piston moves. The work is published already in various conferences (*) and one more journal paper has been submitted at Fuel in 2019 (**). (*) 1. D. Nsikane, K. Vogiatzaki, R. E. Morgan "Predictive Engine Simulations based on a novel DoE/RANS approach with coefficient tabulation", IMechE, Fuel Systems-Engines, 2018, London, UK 2. D. M. Nsikane, K. Vogiatzaki, R. E. Morgan, M. Heikal: Assessment of the performance of conventional spray models under high pressure and high temperature conditions using a "Design of Experiments" approach, at 14th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems ICLASS 2018 (**) 1. D. M. Nsikane,2, K. Vogiatzaki, R. E. Morgan, M. Heikal, K. Mustafa, A. Ward, N. Winder Novel approach for adaptive coefficient tuning for the simulation of evaporating high-speed sprays injected into a high temperature and pressure environment, Under submission, Fuel, 2019 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The model paves the way for very fast and fully predictive engine simulations. This work is also in direct collaboration with industry and the model has been implemented in VECTIS (Ricardo's software). 
URL https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330926665_Predictive_Engine_Simulations_based_on_a_novel_Do...
 
Description APC funded project through Preparing for the Grand Challenge: "Fast Next Generation Coriolis (NGC)" 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Designed and sourced the high pressure diesel components, including injector, for the experiments to be carried out under this collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration with a current APC funded project through Preparing for the Grand Challenge: "Fast Next Generation Coriolis (NGC)", for novel high pressure coriolis flow measurement of diesel injection flow rate. This collaboration provides a system for high pressure diesel delivery to the shock tube experiment and improved measurements for use as more accurate boundary conditions for diesel combustion modellers. The APC project has also paid for a Injector Driver system to be shared, which will allow control of the collaborative experiments.
Impact Experiments not yet performed.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Advanced Propulsion Centre Internal Combustion Engine Thermal Efficiency Spoke 
Organisation Advanced Propulsion Centre
Country Unknown 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The APC spoke position was recently awarded. As such, no significant contribution has been made at this time
Collaborator Contribution The APC spoke position was recently awarded. As such, no significant contribution has been made at this time
Impact No specific outcomes at this stage
Start Year 2015
 
Description Development of Fuels Challenge Network database 
Organisation Advanced Propulsion Centre
Country Unknown 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Initial scoping discussion on fuels challenge network approach during summer 2017, attendance of APC hosting fuels challenge network scoping workshop, contributing specific expertise on future fuels combustion and emissions characteristics for completion of fuels database.
Collaborator Contribution Project leadership by University of Brighton, developing industry contacts and perspectives, lead of Challenge Networks application. Financial support from the UK Advanced Propulsion Centre in developing the Fuels Challenge Network and funding the development of the fuels database.
Impact The project has so far has resulted in multiple conference and seminar presentations outlining the approach being taken, including events at the Low Carbon Vehicle show, Royal Institute and Future Powertrains Conference.The project is multidisciplinary, including mechanical engineers, chemical and engineers and process engineers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Development of Fuels Challenge Network database 
Organisation University of Brighton
Department Advanced Engineering Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Initial scoping discussion on fuels challenge network approach during summer 2017, attendance of APC hosting fuels challenge network scoping workshop, contributing specific expertise on future fuels combustion and emissions characteristics for completion of fuels database.
Collaborator Contribution Project leadership by University of Brighton, developing industry contacts and perspectives, lead of Challenge Networks application. Financial support from the UK Advanced Propulsion Centre in developing the Fuels Challenge Network and funding the development of the fuels database.
Impact The project has so far has resulted in multiple conference and seminar presentations outlining the approach being taken, including events at the Low Carbon Vehicle show, Royal Institute and Future Powertrains Conference.The project is multidisciplinary, including mechanical engineers, chemical and engineers and process engineers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Hosting of visiting academic in specialising in internal combustion engine research 
Organisation Inha Technical College
PI Contribution Detailed discussions and planning of joint activities with visiting academic on mutually of interest exhaust after-treatment research, use of specialist experimental facilities and provision of desk space at UCL
Collaborator Contribution Review and feedback on PhD student preliminary results, characterisation of research engine lean burn operating limits and design of experiments to be undertaken in collaboration with my research team, under my supervision, towards a joint publication.
Impact Detailed design of joint experimental study to be completed in the coming months, expected publication of a jointly authored paper.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Jaguar Land Rover "Spray Centre" 
Organisation Jaguar Land Rover
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Cold Driven Shock Tube facility developed as part of this project forms part of JLR's "Spray centre" concept for internal combustion engine research, intended to generate data for future diesel combustion systems. The companion EPSRC CASE studentship in Diesel CFD modelling of high pressure/high temperature diesel sprays is in conjunction with JLR's Powertrain CFD team, including regular conference calls and bi-monthly reviews, with member of JLR Powertrain Research and Powertrain CFD teams.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of EPSRC CASE studentship. Access to fortnightly CFD team meetings (conference call) and feedback from the engineers on this team. Provision of software licences (StarCD and StarCCM+) to run internal combustion engine simulations, and provision of JLR code to post-process CFD results.
Impact No publications or specific deliverables to JLR as yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Renewal of the Jaguar Land Rover Centre of Excellence in Spark-Ignition Engine Research at Imperial 
Organisation Jaguar Land Rover
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Jaguar Land Rover Centre of Excellence in Spark-Ignition Engine Research was established in 2014 for 3 years initially and run up to the end of 2016, i.e. overlapped with this grant for 2 years. The Centre of Excellence was renewed for another 5 years in January 2017 till the end of 2021 at Imperial College. Contributions include extensive experimental and modelling work on future engine combustion systems and fuels using state-of-the-art research engines and advanced simulations. The collaboration with JLR was strengthened by the development of the turbulent spray chamber that is part of this EPSRC grant and also forms part of a 'Spray Centre' subsidiary activity with JLR, Imperial and Oxford. There are regular biweekly teleconferences and bimonthly meetings where there is knowledge transfer with modellers and experimentalists within JLR.
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration involves meetings with partners, particularly the University of Oxford that holds the equivalent JLR Centre of Excellence in compression-ignition engines. This activity has included a large meeting at the APC in Warwick where new knowledge was shared over a full day event between the two Universities and the Powertrain research team of JLR in November 2016. Contributions by the other University partners also comes via knowledge transfer through workshops, e.g. a dedicated workshop meeting on fuels in June 2016 (with Imperial, UCL, Brighton, Brunel).
Impact Publications have already emerged particularly on the modelling part of the work related to this grant for spray formation at extreme conditions.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Sandia National Laboratories 
Organisation Sandia Laboratories
Department Combustion Research Facility
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Expertise in high-resolution microscopic imaging under extreme operating conditions.
Collaborator Contribution Access to constant volume spray chamber and optical equipment.
Impact Award: - "Research prize - Tanasawa Award (2017)" Publications: - http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/ILASS2017.2017.5065 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.06.091 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2016.05.032 - http://www.ilass.org/2/conferencepapers/93_2015.pdf - http://ilasseurope.org/publications/proceedings/
Start Year 2014
 
Company Name DOLPHIN N2 LIMITED 
Description Dolphin N2 is a spin out from Ricardo set up to comercialise the recuperated split cycle engine 
Year Established 2017 
Impact Company has just been set up and is raising funds
 
Description APC / EPSRC Ultra High Efficiency Powertrain Workshop , Brighton, 21/12/2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The APC / EPSRC Ultra High Efficiency Powertrain Workshop was one of the two workshops described in the impact plan for the project. The workshop aimed to debate the make-up of the far right hand end of the automotive council roadmap, ultimately aimed at identifying the grand challenges and role of thermal propulsion technology in a low carbon transport system. The output of the workshop has been fed into the 2017 road-mapping exercise organised by the APC.
- Importance of sustainable fuels
- The importance of split cycle technology in delivering a very high efficiency thermal propulsion system
- A research gap in the understanding of future consumer behaviour in a connected economy and the impact on the requirements of the vehicle propulsion system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description APC Spoke Network - panel discussion at the 2016 low carbon vehicle show 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Panel discussion by the APC spoke leads on their respective technology areas, role of different technologies in the future. The event lead to a number of discussions after the event on ultra efficient ICE, such as those the subject of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Children's University Graduation Taster Session 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A taster lecture on fuel design for cleaner IC engines given to primary school children and their parents during a visit to UCL, and awarding of graduation certificates during subsequent ceremony.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description December UNICEG meeting - Ultra High Efficiency Powertrain 20/12/2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The event was one of the three annual UnICEG conferences, focused on Ultra High Efficiency Powertrain. Speakers from the battery, fuel cell, ICE and fuels communities were invited which triggered a lively and productive debate, fostering better engagement between the ICE community and other transport research communities. In particular the role of solid oxide fuel cells and sustainable low carbon fuels were reported of particular interest from the UnICEG membership.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Demonstration of engines research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The facility and equipment have used in the delivery of postgraduate teaching and demonstration to undergraduate students. They have been shown to visitors from industry and research organisations from UK and overseas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description End of Project Dissemination Event for ULTRA project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a one day conference to disseminate the results of the ULTRA project. The event included presentations of key findings from researchers and a key note from an industrial partner. Many posters were included from students associated with the project. The event gave a very helpful overview of what the project had achieved and promoted discussions on what the next steps should be
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Talk - Numerical Modelling of Injection Processes with various Fuels at Extreme Conditions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Dissemination of new predictive/modelling capability of fuel spray formation under challenging thermodynamic conditions related to advanced high-efficiency engines. Modelling capability delivered to industrial sponsor for direct impact on their engine design processes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited Talk - Superheated and Supercritical Injection, Spray Formation Experiments and Modelling Challenges 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Engagement with the inaugural meeting/workshop of the Special Interest Group (SIG) on Sprays in Engineering Applications supported by the UK Fluids Network (EPSRC). Multi-disciplinary audience which sparked questions and discussion. Plans for future related activities and new research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.brighton.ac.uk/advanced-engineering/research-projects/sprays-in-engineering-applications...
 
Description Invited presentation at 6th International Symposium of Jet Propulsion and Power Engineering at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics 'Effects of alkylbenzene methyl branch addition on compression ignition combustion and emissions' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation at 6th International Symposium of Jet Propulsion and Power Engineering at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics on the impacts of fuel design from lignocellulosic biomass on diesel combustion and emissions. Audience included a range of international academics with interests in combustion and thermal propulsion, further informal discussions on took places as a smaller select group of specially invited presenters during a private dinner following the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited talk - Future fuels for road transport: How can future fuels for IC engines contribute to sustainable road transport? - UnICEG 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited talk to academic and industry members of UnICEG (Universities Internal Combustion Engine Group) at a special meeting on technologies for the future of IC engines, hosted by University of Brighton, UK Advanced Propulsion Centre (APC) spoke for internal combustion engine thermal efficiency.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.brighton.ac.uk/advanced-engineering/events/index.aspx
 
Description Invited technical presentation and visit at Tianjin Unversity China, National Key Laboratory of Engines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited presentation to Tianjin presentation on 'Effects of alkylbenzene methyl branch addition on compression ignition combustion and emissions'. This visit was a follow-up to a similar invited talk in 2015 to strengthen and continue contacts made during this visit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at the UK Consortium on Turbulent Reacting Flows (UKCTRF) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The latest developments and results on in-nozzle-out fuel spray modelling under flash-boiling conditions and also supercritical fuel injection modelling were presented at the annual meeting of the UK Consortium on Turbulent Reacting Flows (UKCTRF). The ULTRA project members from Imperial College London joined the aforementioned consortium and will be able to use services provided by ARCHER, the UK national high performance computing facility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ukctrf.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/PROGRAMME_FINAL_PDF_3.pdf
 
Description Presentation on split cycle low emissions technology at future powertrain conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of the results from the split cycle engine. A lively debate followed, on the role of engine technology in a future 'electrified' world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation to SIG in Combustion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a meeting of the SIG in combustion that included representatives from RC UK (including EPSRC) to look at the future challenges and cross sector opportunities in combustion research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to Special Interest Group in Combustion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an invited talk to the Special Interests Group in Combustion titled Future Challenges in Internal Combustion Engines. The aim of the talk was to bring together applied research in engines and in particular the results of the 2017 APC roadmaping exercise with the fluids - fundamental combustion research community. The presentation triggered a lively debate on the future R&D challenges and requirements for zero emissions combustion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Rest In Peace - ICE at the Royal Institution, 14/11/2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The event was jointly arranged by the Advanced Propulsion Centre and EPSRC, to debate the future of the internal combustion engine. Results from the ULTRA project were included in the presentation by Dr Robert Morgan. The event was well attended by industry, academics, policy makers, general public and undergraduate and postgraduate students. The event has led to numerous engagements with industrial and academic parties on the topic and has in part become a reference point to the wider debate of the future role of high efficiency engines in a low carbon transport system.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SAE Powertrains Fuels and Lubricants 2017 Beijing technical presentation - 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of technical paper detailing experimental study of novels fuels from lignocellulosic biomass tested in a research engine at SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants 2017 conference in Beijing, China, to an international audience of academics specialising in this area and global industry experts from fuels companies (for example Shell, Saudi Aramco) and vehicle manufacturers (for example Ford, General Motors, Toyota).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://saeevents.org/events/sae-2017-international-powertrain-fuels-lubricants-meeting
 
Description Science show at the London Shell Eco-Marathon 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The team from UCL - Dr. Paul Hellier, Dr. Midhat Talibi, Dr. Aaron Eveleigh and 2 PhD students, Ms. Aydek Erman and Mr. Viktor Karcher - demonstrated the sooting tendency and energy content of future fuels from sustainable sources. The fuels were burned in an open flame and soot collected on a filter paper. The flame was also used to drive a Stirling engine, with the engine speed demonstrating the calorific value of the fuel.The aim was to educate the students regarding potential fuels of the future which would be low-polluting but have similar energy content as fossil fuels.

The show was well appreciated and kept the audience engaged. A paper for the Journal of Chemical Education is being planned based on this activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.shell.com/energy-and-innovation/shell-ecomarathon/europe/news-and-highlights.html
 
Description Special Interests Group (SIG) Research Workshop: Numerical Simulation of the Gasoline Spray with an Outward-Opening Piezoelectric Injector 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An invited presentation on the modelling of the Gasoline Spray with an Outward-Opening Piezoelectric Injector was given on the Special Interests Group (SIG) workshop on Sprays in engineering applications: modelling and experimental studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.brighton.ac.uk/advanced-engineering/events/index.aspx
 
Description The future of the car. Cheltham Science Festival. 10/6/2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The event was a panel discussion to discuss the future of personal transport in a low carbon network. The aim of the event was to promote discussion on the changing role of the car and the technologies that will play a role in transitioning the transport system to a sustainable low carbon footing. The debate was lively and informative and lead to a number of contacts with the public after the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Thermal Propulsion R&D Challenge Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The automotive council technology roadmaps were refreshed this year and published at the
Low Carbon Vehicle show in September (http://www.apcuk.co.uk/resourcelibrary/
propulsion-roadmaps/). In addition to the roadmaps, a comprehensive of set of R&D
challenges have been developed which will be released in December. A workshop was organised , hosted by
Loughborough University aimed at developing project to address the medium and long-term
R&D challenges. The scope of the workshop will be to:
• Identify the 'grand challenges' arising from the Thermal Propulsion Roadmap to address
the identified R&D challenges, common themes that address multiple areas and cross
disciplinary research themes
• Prioritize the challenge areas
• Develop project and consortium to address the identified grand challenges
• Identify possible funning routes and an action plan to develop a set of high quality
research proposals
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description University of Brighton Open Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I participate regularly at the Open Days of our University with interactive talks relevant to Flight Simulators. I do equipment demonstration allowing the students to try our simulators (Plane and Flying Oculus platform) while I explain them the basic Fluid and Programming knowledge they need in order to build such simulators. I also discuss with them the basics of aeronautical gas turbines and how our research in sprays can help manufacturers improve fuel efficiency and safety. This gives me the opportunity to reach a wide audience and promote the understanding of parents and future students regarding the subject area of aeronautical engineering from the perspective of multiphase flows.

The feedback we got after these Open Days was that the students seemed very enthusiastic learning about the research activities of my group (as well as other groups)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018