Feasibility of cognitive based Computer Aided Engineering Design (CAED)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Strathclyde
Department Name: Design Manufacture and Engineering Man

Abstract

Currently, both commercial and state-of-the-art Computer Aided Engineering Design (CAED) systems are limited in how intuitive and conducive they are to the engineering design process. They are continually advancing but in an incremental fashion and doing so by adapting to established design processes. This research aims to look at engineering design from a radically different perspective. The aim is to investigate the feasibility of brain controlled CAED through identifying critical areas of the brain that are active during ideation in engineering design, and evaluating the feasibility of technology development, and its use, in controlling CAED systems using a direct Brain-Controlled Interface (BCI); surpassing the traditional CAED approach of mouse and keyboard interaction. Achieving this requires knowledge of the patterns of neural activation within the brain during creative engineering design, capabilities for development of CAED systems to reflect a new way of working, and incorporating a direct interaction between the human brain and CAED system. It should be noted that creativity is a difficult term to define, having different implications in a variety of different fields. In this research project, creativity is defined in the context of engineering design and the creative tasks undertaken in the processes within design, in particular ideation.

In order to map the activity of the brain during cognitive design tasks both cognitive and cognitive neuroscience scientists and engineering design academics need to be involved in experiment design, implementation and analysis, and the subsequent exploration of the feasibility of the practical implementation of the findings. We first must define the cognitive design processes to be examined and then create appropriate experimental tasks in which the defined cognitive design processes are clearly demonstrated by experienced designers. The patterns of brain activation will be recorded when practising designers perform the defined tasks in order to identify the responding areas of the brain. Understanding and assessing the feasibility of cognitive controlled CAED will provide is with the foundation to test the use of Brain Controlled Interface (BCI) controlled CAED.

By performing this inter-disciplinary research a new field will be created that incorporates cognitive science, engineering design, neuroscience and BCI in order to change the way ideation design is both perceived and performed, and in the process will open up new avenues for future research. The feasibility of this could initiate studies in a multitude of combined engineering design, CAED and BCI studies as well as input to other BCI developments in general.

CAED applications could become accessible to the physically impaired, help people enter the work force, reducing care costs, and enhancing self-worth and perhaps also allowing the ageing population to work later in life. The ways in which brain control interfaces could be used may also impact on the way that the general public considers interacting with technology. An understanding of the areas of the brain activated during specific CAED tasks will contribute to brain mapping currently being built by research programmes worldwide. Designers interested in new ways of designing will be able to gain knowledge of BCI capabilities for CAED using outputs on the potential role of BCI in CAED. Designers and researchers will learn about the brain processes involved in design tasks and the capabilities and limitations of using neuroscience to enhance design activities. The underlining idea of the research is that in the future anyone could be a designer creating ideas within a CAD system, giving a new dimension to crowdsourcing and enabling people without specific design skills to embody their thoughts.

Planned Impact

What: Knowledge of brain activation patterns during CAED tasks.
Who: Academics (including early career) as well as BCI and CAED developers. The findings could initiate new research avenues and wider engagement of other engineering design researchers, academics and BCI/CAED developers. Further, other research disciplines such as signal processing, medical research, and neuroscience in general.
How: i) The fMRI scans will be uploaded to an open access server. ii) Planned events that demonstrate the patterns of brain activations during CAED tasks, describe the tasks used and the nature of CAED. Discussion forums for new control interfaces with opportunities in a variety of fields (e.g. gaming, mood/state monitors, application controllers, safety features, learning tools), opening up new product avenues for collaborations between academics and industry. iii) Open access journal and webpage publications as well as videos and interactive features.

What: Knowledge of BCI capabilities for CAED.
Who: Designers interested in new ways of designing.
How: i) From journal and webpage outputs containing information on the potential role of BCI in CAED. ii) Through design specific events for practising designers with the purpose of describing how BCI could be used in design. The events will allow exploration of the CAED tasks and to understand how these relate to aspects of their own work. Designers will learn about the capabilities and opportunities of using neuroscience to enhance design processes.

What: Comprehensive spatial description of the areas of the brain activated during ideation tasks.
Who: Neuroscientists as well as non-expert neuroscientists and engineers wanting to gain knowledge about design and brain computer interfacing technologies. Researchers mapping brain activities (e.g. H2020's The Human Brain Project).
How: i) Through a series of public events designed so that people from a variety of disciplines and backgrounds can learn about the processes of design and the brain activation patterns associated with CAED tasks. ii) Through lay summaries of our findings published on webpages along will videos and interactive features. iii) Dissemination in international journals and conferences.

What: Knowledge of the skills and techniques required for the development of a new BCI technology.
Who: BCI developers, designers, and general public.
How: Through planned events and web-based materials, information about the skills and techniques needed to develop BCI technologies for the design industry will be shared. Broadcasted information may also impact on the general public and potentially instigate other application opportunities in other domains that rely on design achievements. The ways in which brain control interfaces could be used may also impact on the way that the general public thinks about interacting with technology.

What: A foundation of the inter-disciplinary requirements for developing BCI technologies.
Who: Grant funders, and design engineering policy makers.
How: Through dissemination of our inter-disciplinary collaboration and reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the process. We will present insights and make recommendations for the composition and functions of multidisciplinary groups wishing to work on the development of BCI engineering design technologies.

What: Overall findings and outcomes.
Who: Early career, UG, PG taught and PG researchers
How: The findings will be integrated into Strathclyde's UG course in Product Design Engineering as well as PG courses in CAED and Engineering Design to educate promising engineers to take the ideas into industrial practice, or provide early career researchers with potential avenues for developing the topic. The results will also open up and form the foundation for a host of PhD and research topics from not only Strathclyde but other UK and global institutions.

Publications

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Vuletic T (2021) A novel user-based gesture vocabulary for conceptual design in International Journal of Human-Computer Studies

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Hay L (2020) The future of design cognition analysis in Design Science

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Hay L (2019) A novel systematic approach for analysing exploratory design ideation in Journal of Engineering Design

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Hay L (2019) The Novelty Perspectives Framework: A New Conceptualisation of Novelty for Cognitive Design Studies in Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design

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Vuletic T (2019) Systematic literature review of hand gestures used in human computer interaction interfaces in International Journal of Human-Computer Studies

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Vuletic T (2018) The challenges in computer supported conceptual engineering design in Computers in Industry

 
Description Current Computer Aided Engineering Design (CAED) systems are continually advancing, but in an incremental fashion and by adapting to existing design processes. This research considered CAED from a radically different perspective. The aim was to investigate the feasibility of brain controlled CAED by: (i) identifying critical areas of the brain that are active during ideation in engineering design; and (ii) evaluating the feasibility of developing and using brain-computer interface (BCI) technology to directly control CAED systems via brain activity, surpassing the traditional mouse and keyboard approach.

With respect to (i), the cognitive processes and brain regions involved in creative design ideation were identified through a quantitative cognitive experiment and two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI). The cognitive experiment (sample of 100 undergraduate product design engineering students) revealed a complex picture of relationships between cognitive processes and measures of creativity and novelty. This study constitutes the first large scale quantitative study of its type in design engineering research, employing a novel approach based on cognitive psychology. fMRI study 1 (sample of 29 practicing product design engineers) found that compared to non-creative mental imagery manipulation, design ideation is associated with greater activity in the left cingulate gyrus. A preliminary association with activity in the right superior temporal gyrus was also observed. The results are consistent with existing fMRI work on generic creative ideation, suggesting that design ideation may share a number of similarities at the neural level. fMRI study 2 (sample of 30 practicing product design engineers) found that design ideation is associated with activations in the left pre-frontal brain regions (indicating an important role for executive functions), the left parahippocampal region (reflecting episodic memory processing) and the middle temporal gyrus (signifying semantic processing). Psychophysiological interactions analysis revealed functional connectivity between the precuneus (a key region of the default mode network) and several prefrontal regions. fMRI studies 1 and 2 are the first of such studies on creative ideation in practising design engineers, and fMRI study 2 contributes the first functional connectivity analysis of creative design ideation. Together, the results from the cognitive and fMRI studies provide the basis for future research in several areas: translating the novel fMRI methodology to the study of other design activities; neurocognitive modelling of design; and comparisons between designers and other groups.

With respect to (ii) above, i.e. evaluating the feasibility of BCI technology for brain-controlled CAED, an electroencephalography (EEG) study was conducted. This investigated whether a machine learning classifier algorithm could be used to predict what 3D shape a participant was imagining based on their EEG (electrical brain activity) signals recorded via a BCI system. Five primitive 3D shapes (sphere, cone, pyramid, cylinder, and cube) were studied as a basis for exploring whether this kind of technology could feasibly be used to decode the contents of a designer's imagination directly from their brain activity (thereby negating the need for traditional keyboard/mouse-based interfaces for geometry creation in CAED). In total, EEG data was gathered from four samples ranging from 2 to 10 non-designer participants while they imagined the shapes. The methdology was continually refined at each round of empirical work to improve the accuracy with which the classifier algorithm could predict imagined shapes. The key findings of the study were: (1) a decoding accuracy (~30%) significantly higher than chance level (~20%) was achieved in offline experiments; and (2) decoding accuracy varied from 20-30% in online experiments . It can be concluded from these results that the use of EEG-based BCI technology is feasible for brain-controlled CAED systems; however, considerably more future research and technology development is required to improve the accuracy of mental imagery decoding to levels sufficient for a functional and commercially viable system.
Exploitation Route The project published 8 journal and 9 conference articles in a mixture of engineering design and cognitive avenues as well as fully delivering on all the proposed pathways to impact. A number of areas for future research and technology development spanning the areas of design cognition and neurocognition, the cognitive neuroscience of creativity, mental imagery decoding, and BCI-based CAED has been opened up.

Conducting further cognitive and neurological investigations on the similarities and differences between ideation in professional design engineers and other groups, such as industrial/product designers, artists, and the general public.

Based on the novel fMRI methodology developed in the project, addressing remaining challenges associated with the use of fMRI to study design. These include: constraints on physical behaviour during data collection; the temporal nature of design versus short data collection periods; the variability of creative processes versus the need for highly controlled experimental conditions; and the trade-offs between neuroimaging constraints and the ecological validity of design tasks studied.

Further studies on mental imagery decoding using EEG, but potentially also other neuroimaging methods (e.g. fMRI and functional near infrared spectroscopy), to improve the accuracy of imagery prediction towards the development of commercially viable technology. Additionally, further work will be required to link this technology with CAED systems and enable the representation of a designer's mental imagery in a virtual environment.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Creative Economy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

URL http://www.imagine-d.uk/
 
Title Quantitative and qualitative data from a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study of ideation in product design engineering 
Description STUDY AIM This study aimed to examine the brain regions activated during ideation in practising product design engineers, and to compare brain activation patterns for open-ended and constrained PDE ideation tasks. Brain activity was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY A total of 32 designers participated in the study. Three participants were excluded from the analysis due to poor quality fMRI data. This dataset contains the data for the 29 participants included in the analysis. Participants completed three types of task while undergoing fMRI scanning: creative (open-ended) ideation; innovative (constrained) ideation; and manipulate. In the ideation tasks, participants were asked to generate ideas for products to solve open-ended and constrained problems (up to three ideas per task, in a maximum of 85 seconds). In the manipulate tasks, they were asked to recall a known product from a given category, visualise it, and mentally rotate or resize a selected feature (up to three products per task, in a maximum of 30 seconds). Each participant completed 10 of each type of task (i.e. 30 tasks in total). In each task, participants indicated when they had generated an idea or formed an image by pushing a hand-held response button. Participants also completed twenty baseline tasks, where they responded each time a fixation cross presented on a black background changed from white to purple. The cross was presented for 30 seconds in total, and changed colour for 200 milliseconds at least three times. Colour changes were separated by intervals of 1 - 10 seconds. The open-source Matlab toolbox Cogent (http://www.vislab.ucl.ac.uk/cogent.php) was used to present task descriptions to participants in the scanner, and to collect data on their response times. A Siemens 3T MRI scanner with a standard head coil was used to record T1-weighted anatomical and echoplanar T2*-weighted image volumes with BOLD contrast from each participant while they completed the above tasks. After each ideation task, the participants were given 25 seconds to verbally summarise their ideas. After exiting the MRI scanner, they listened back to these recordings and produced a rough sketch of each idea they could recall. Each sketch was coded to identify what interpretation of the design problem the designer adopted (P-codes) and what type of solution they generated (S-codes). The P and S variables were then used to compute two measures of ideation performance: (i) breadth of exploration (BR); and (ii) solution novelty (SN). DATASET STRUCTURE The dataset is organised into folders and files as outlined below. Folder 1 - Participant data and tasks: "Task descriptions": a subfolder containing .txt files with descriptions of all creative and innovative design ideation tasks (DT; 'a' denotes creative and 'b' denotes innovative), manipulate tasks (MT), imagine tasks (IT), and the baseline task (B) used in the study. The task ID numbers are used to refer to the tasks throughout the other files. "Participant data": a .csv file containing the age, gender, and years of design experience for each of the 29 participants, and the ID number used to refer to them throughout the other files. Folder 2 - Scanning parameters and response data: "fMRI scanning parameters": a PDF file containing the MRI scanning parameters applied. "Response data": subfolder containing a .csv file for each participant that includes: (1) what tasks they completed in what order; and (2) response time data for each task. Each file is named with the participant ID. "Key to response data variables": a .csv file containing definitions of the variables included in each column of the "Response data" files for participants. Folders 3, 4, and 5 - fMRI data: Subfolders containing the raw fMRI data collected for each participant in DICOM format. Folders are named with the participant ID number. Folder 6 - Sketches: A set of .jpeg images of the sketches produced by each participant for each ideation task. Sketches are firstly organised into subfolders named with the participant ID number, and then further subfolders named with the ideation task order (i.e. Task 1, 2, 20). Each image file name follows this convention: CAAA-B-C, where AAA is the participant ID number (e.g. 001), B is the ideation task order, and C is the idea number (e.g. 1st, 2nd, or 3rd idea). Folder 7 - Sketch coding data: "Coding schemes": subfolder containing the schemes of P (problem) and S (solution) codes defined for sketches generated in each ideation task. Each set is in .csv format, and named with the ideation task ID number (DTXX) from the "Task descriptions" file. "Sketch coding": subfolder containing .csv files showing the P- and S-codes applied to each sketch produced by each participant for each ideation task. Separate .csv files are included for creative and innovative ideation tasks, and an additional file shows 'other' codes applied in cases where a sketch could not be coded with P and S. Throughout, sketches are denoted using the .jpeg file names from the "Sketches" folder above. "SN and BR scores": subfolder containing .csv files with the breadth of exploration (BR) and solution novelty (SN) scores for each sketch and/or participant. The variables (including definitions) and formulae used to calculate these scores are also included. There are separate .csv files for creative and innovative ideation task scores. Throughout, sketches are denoted using the .jpeg file names from the "Sketches" folder above. DATA ANONYMISATION AND CONSENT All participant data in this dataset has been fully anonymised. All participants gave written informed consent prior to participation. DATASET OWNERSHIP The dataset is owned by the University of Strathclyde. Data embargo until 01/10/19 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description International workshop on Advances in Cognitive Studies of Design 
Organisation City University of Hong Kong
Country Hong Kong 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Laura Hay (a Research Associate employed under the award) was an invited member of the programme committee and session chair for a workshop on 'Advances in Cognitive Studies of Design,' held at the 7th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition in Chicago, United States (June 2016). In this role, Dr Hay provided input into the organisation of the workshop, and was actively involved in its facilitation and delivery.
Collaborator Contribution As well as Dr Hay, the committee consisted of academics from four other institutions. All participants contributed in a similar way to Dr Hay though the Zhejiang University had two chairs who initiated and co-ordinated the programme and delivery.
Impact None.
Start Year 2016
 
Description International workshop on Advances in Cognitive Studies of Design 
Organisation Oregon State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Laura Hay (a Research Associate employed under the award) was an invited member of the programme committee and session chair for a workshop on 'Advances in Cognitive Studies of Design,' held at the 7th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition in Chicago, United States (June 2016). In this role, Dr Hay provided input into the organisation of the workshop, and was actively involved in its facilitation and delivery.
Collaborator Contribution As well as Dr Hay, the committee consisted of academics from four other institutions. All participants contributed in a similar way to Dr Hay though the Zhejiang University had two chairs who initiated and co-ordinated the programme and delivery.
Impact None.
Start Year 2016
 
Description International workshop on Advances in Cognitive Studies of Design 
Organisation Polytechnic University of Milan
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Laura Hay (a Research Associate employed under the award) was an invited member of the programme committee and session chair for a workshop on 'Advances in Cognitive Studies of Design,' held at the 7th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition in Chicago, United States (June 2016). In this role, Dr Hay provided input into the organisation of the workshop, and was actively involved in its facilitation and delivery.
Collaborator Contribution As well as Dr Hay, the committee consisted of academics from four other institutions. All participants contributed in a similar way to Dr Hay though the Zhejiang University had two chairs who initiated and co-ordinated the programme and delivery.
Impact None.
Start Year 2016
 
Description International workshop on Advances in Cognitive Studies of Design 
Organisation Zhejiang University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Laura Hay (a Research Associate employed under the award) was an invited member of the programme committee and session chair for a workshop on 'Advances in Cognitive Studies of Design,' held at the 7th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition in Chicago, United States (June 2016). In this role, Dr Hay provided input into the organisation of the workshop, and was actively involved in its facilitation and delivery.
Collaborator Contribution As well as Dr Hay, the committee consisted of academics from four other institutions. All participants contributed in a similar way to Dr Hay though the Zhejiang University had two chairs who initiated and co-ordinated the programme and delivery.
Impact None.
Start Year 2016
 
Description International workshop on Measuring design cognition 
Organisation Carnegie Mellon University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Hay and Prof. Duffy are co-chairs of an international workshop on Measuring design cognition, to be held at the 8th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition July 2018 in Milan, Italy. They have initiated, proposed, planned and are organising all aspects of the workshop, and have invited academics from partner institutions to form a programme committee.
Collaborator Contribution Co-chair from DTU provided comments and input to proposal.
Impact None as yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description International workshop on Measuring design cognition 
Organisation Delft University of Technology (TU Delft)
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Hay and Prof. Duffy are co-chairs of an international workshop on Measuring design cognition, to be held at the 8th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition July 2018 in Milan, Italy. They have initiated, proposed, planned and are organising all aspects of the workshop, and have invited academics from partner institutions to form a programme committee.
Collaborator Contribution Co-chair from DTU provided comments and input to proposal.
Impact None as yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description International workshop on Measuring design cognition 
Organisation Iowa State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Hay and Prof. Duffy are co-chairs of an international workshop on Measuring design cognition, to be held at the 8th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition July 2018 in Milan, Italy. They have initiated, proposed, planned and are organising all aspects of the workshop, and have invited academics from partner institutions to form a programme committee.
Collaborator Contribution Co-chair from DTU provided comments and input to proposal.
Impact None as yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description International workshop on Measuring design cognition 
Organisation Japan Advanced Institute for Science and Technology
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Dr Hay and Prof. Duffy are co-chairs of an international workshop on Measuring design cognition, to be held at the 8th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition July 2018 in Milan, Italy. They have initiated, proposed, planned and are organising all aspects of the workshop, and have invited academics from partner institutions to form a programme committee.
Collaborator Contribution Co-chair from DTU provided comments and input to proposal.
Impact None as yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description International workshop on Measuring design cognition 
Organisation Technical University of Denmark
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Hay and Prof. Duffy are co-chairs of an international workshop on Measuring design cognition, to be held at the 8th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition July 2018 in Milan, Italy. They have initiated, proposed, planned and are organising all aspects of the workshop, and have invited academics from partner institutions to form a programme committee.
Collaborator Contribution Co-chair from DTU provided comments and input to proposal.
Impact None as yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description International workshop on Measuring design cognition 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Hay and Prof. Duffy are co-chairs of an international workshop on Measuring design cognition, to be held at the 8th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition July 2018 in Milan, Italy. They have initiated, proposed, planned and are organising all aspects of the workshop, and have invited academics from partner institutions to form a programme committee.
Collaborator Contribution Co-chair from DTU provided comments and input to proposal.
Impact None as yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Neurological studies of design ideation and mental imagery 
Organisation Ulster University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Prof. Duffy and his research team provide engineering design and cognitive science expertise, as well as intellectual input, to support the design and execution of EEG studies on mental imagery. Draft articles are also provided for comments, additions and development, as well as the Strathclyde team reciprocating. This involves 6-monthly review meetings where the team contributes to the development, evaluation, and refinement of research questions and experimental protocols.
Collaborator Contribution The research team at our partner institution, led by Prof. Damien Coyle at Ulster University, provides neuroimaging expertise and intellectual input to support the design and execution of fMRI studies on design ideation. Along with Dr Sam Gilbert, from UCL, the team contributes to the development, evaluation, and refinement of experimental protocols and data analysis strategies at the above mentioned 6-monthly review meetings. They also provide direct comments, additions and development of articles.
Impact The collaboration has resulted in joint publications: First Named Author (surname and initials) Hay L, Duffy A, Gilbert S, Lyall L, Campbell G, Coyle D, Grealy M: March 2019: The Neural Underpinnings of Creative Design, Cognitive Neuroscience Society 26th Annual Meeting 2019. Korik, A., Hay, L., Choo, P.L., Gilbert, S.J., Grealy, M., Duffy, A. and Coyle, D., 2018, May. Primitive shape imagery classification from electroencephalography. In 7th International BCI Meeting. Pidgeon, L.M., Grealy, M., Duffy, A.H.B., Hay, L., McTeague, C., Vuletic, T., Coyle, D., & Gilbert, S.J., 2016. Functional neuroimaging of visual creativity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain & Behavior, 6 (10), pp.1-26. The collaboration is multi-disciplinary, involving the fields of engineering design, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Neurological studies of design ideation and mental imagery 
Organisation University College London
Department Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Prof. Duffy and his research team provide engineering design and cognitive science expertise, as well as intellectual input, to support the design and execution of EEG studies on mental imagery. Draft articles are also provided for comments, additions and development, as well as the Strathclyde team reciprocating. This involves 6-monthly review meetings where the team contributes to the development, evaluation, and refinement of research questions and experimental protocols.
Collaborator Contribution The research team at our partner institution, led by Prof. Damien Coyle at Ulster University, provides neuroimaging expertise and intellectual input to support the design and execution of fMRI studies on design ideation. Along with Dr Sam Gilbert, from UCL, the team contributes to the development, evaluation, and refinement of experimental protocols and data analysis strategies at the above mentioned 6-monthly review meetings. They also provide direct comments, additions and development of articles.
Impact The collaboration has resulted in joint publications: First Named Author (surname and initials) Hay L, Duffy A, Gilbert S, Lyall L, Campbell G, Coyle D, Grealy M: March 2019: The Neural Underpinnings of Creative Design, Cognitive Neuroscience Society 26th Annual Meeting 2019. Korik, A., Hay, L., Choo, P.L., Gilbert, S.J., Grealy, M., Duffy, A. and Coyle, D., 2018, May. Primitive shape imagery classification from electroencephalography. In 7th International BCI Meeting. Pidgeon, L.M., Grealy, M., Duffy, A.H.B., Hay, L., McTeague, C., Vuletic, T., Coyle, D., & Gilbert, S.J., 2016. Functional neuroimaging of visual creativity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain & Behavior, 6 (10), pp.1-26. The collaboration is multi-disciplinary, involving the fields of engineering design, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Special Issue The future of design cognition analysis 
Organisation Iowa State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Laura Hay (previously researcher on the project and now project manager) is the lead Guest Editor of a Special Issue on the above for the journal of Design Science (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/design-science) in collaboration with Dr Philip Cash, Denmark, and Dr Seda McKilligan, USA. Dr Hay led the creation, engagement of Guest Editors and publishers, as well as developing and managing the call.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborators have edited the call, provided input to discussions, and helped solicit article submissions.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Special Issue The future of design cognition analysis 
Organisation Technical University of Denmark
Department Department of Management and Engineering
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Laura Hay (previously researcher on the project and now project manager) is the lead Guest Editor of a Special Issue on the above for the journal of Design Science (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/design-science) in collaboration with Dr Philip Cash, Denmark, and Dr Seda McKilligan, USA. Dr Hay led the creation, engagement of Guest Editors and publishers, as well as developing and managing the call.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborators have edited the call, provided input to discussions, and helped solicit article submissions.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description 7th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition (DCC'16) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of conference Advisory Board.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 7th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Madeleine Grealy - participated in conference activities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 7th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition (DCC'16) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Laura Hay - Presenter of full paper.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 7th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition (DCC'16) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of programme committee for workshop, "Advances in Cognitive Studies of Design."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 7th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition (DCC'16) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-chair of workshop session focused on "Advances in Cognitive Studies of Design."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 8th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-Chairs of workshop on 'Measuring design cognition' involving 16 international researchers who mapped the current state of the art, the research challenges, and future vision of the field. The results will be reported as part of an editorial of a special issue on the topic. Overall resulting in plans for developing activities in the area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://dccconferences.org/dcc18/workshops-meas-cog.html
 
Description An exploration of design synthesis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation accompanying the paper 'An exploration of design synthesis ' presented at ICED 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description An overview of DMEM's Design Research Group and the Designapse project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered presentations on: (i) key activities and collaborators of DMEM's Design Research Group; and (ii) the Designapse project on design cognition currently under way within DMEM. Both presentations were open to the general public, University of Strathclyde students, and academics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Cognition and brain activity in creative product design 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Industrial workshop forming part of Engage with Strathclyde 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Exhibition stand at 22nd International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 2019) 'Marketplace' event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Team members Alex Duffy and Laura Hay presented an interactive exhibition stand as part of a conference 'research marketplace' networking event. The stand disseminated key findings from the project cognitive, neuroscience, and gestures work to the international design community, resulting in requests for further information and new professional networking relationships. Practicing designers in particular expressed considerable interest in the vision for a cognitive-based CAED system.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.imagine-d.uk/uncategorized/iced-19-marketplace-and-conference-paper/
 
Description Exhibition stand at Curiosity Live event in the Glasgow Science Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Team members organised and presented an interactive exhibition stand at the 4 day Curiosity Live public engagement event held in Glasgow Science Centre in November 2019. The event was targeted primarily at school children and their families, and a number of attendees noted that it had highlighted new potential career paths to them in design and cognitive science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.glasgowsciencecentre.org/discover/family-events/curiosity-live
 
Description Insights into design concept similarity judgements 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation accompanying the paper "Insights into design concept similarity judgements" at DESIGN Conference 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Natural and intuitive gesture interaction for 3D object manipulation in conceptual design 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Natural and intuitive gesture interaction for 3D object manipulation in conceptual design. Gesture interaction with three-dimensional (3D) representations is increasingly explored, however there is little research present on the nature of the gestures used. A study was conducted in order to explore gestures designers perform naturally and intuitively while interacting with 3D objects during conceptual design. The findings demonstrate that different designers perform similar gestures for the same activities, and that their interaction with a 3D representation on a 2D screen is consistent with that which would be expected if a physical object were suspended in air in front of them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participation in the 22nd International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Two members of the project team (Alex Duffy and Laura Hay) attended the conference to present a paper and exhibition stand on the project findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Participation in the 30th Anniversary Heron Island Conference on Computational and Cognitive Models of Creativity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Team member Laura Hay presented a paper and participated in discussion sessions at the conference, raising the profile of the project research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://dccconferences.org/hi19/index.html
 
Description Presentation at "Imaging @ Strathclyde" SINAPSE networking event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on the methodology and findings from an fMRI study of product design engineering practitioners. The presentation disseminated the work to colleagues from other university departments and multiple disciplines, leading to new professional relationships.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at 22nd International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project team member Laura Hay presented a paper on a new framework for conceptualising design novelty, developed as part of the project research. The paper was discussed afterwards, leading to requests for further information and new professional networking relationships.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at 30th Anniversary Heron Island Conference on Computational and Cognitive Models of Creativity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Team member Laura Hay presented a position paper on the vision for a cognitive-based CAED system. The paper sparked discussion and debate afterwards, with audience members noting that it had given them new ideas about the future possibilities for design tools in light of the latest advances in brain imaging and interfacing technologies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/70466/
 
Description Project twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A twitter account disseminating project news, events, findings, participation opportunities, and publications has been live and continuously updated since September 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019,2020
URL https://twitter.com/UOSImagineD
 
Description Public facing project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A website disseminating project news, events, findings, participation opportunities, and publications to the general public was designed and has been live and continuously updated since year 1 of the grant (2015).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020
URL http://www.imagine-d.uk/