Enabling Technologies for Sensory Feedback in Next-Generation Assistive Devices

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Sch of Engineering

Abstract

An artificial arm, or prosthesis, is an example of technology that can be used to help somebody perform essential activities of daily living after a serious injury that results in the loss of their arm. Such activities might include eating, washing, opening doors, or shaking hands with a friend. Many artificial arms on the market these days are highly sophisticated, offering individual finger movement, and even movement of segments within a finger, that resemble the natural arm and hand. These prosthetic arms are often controlled by sensing the contractions in the muscles of the remaining arm to which the prosthesis is attached, allowing the user to operate the arm by flexing their muscles. However, one key aspect of artificial arms that is currently missing is the sense of feedback. In other words, the user does not know where the arm is or how wide open the hand is without looking at it, and if a delicate object is picked up, there is no sense of how hard it is being gripped. This leads to slow and awkward use of the artificial arm and prevents its use from becoming truly natural.

The goal of this project is to develop technologies that will enable the next generation of assistive devices to provide truly natural control through enhanced sensory feedback. Our long-term vision is for artificial arms that provide the user with a sense of feedback that recreates the natural feedback associated with a real arm. To enable this level of feedback, we must meet two clear objectives: to generate artificial signals that mimic those of the natural arm and hand, and to provide a means of delivering those signals to the nervous system of a prosthesis user.

These objectives will be achieved by: building new fingertip sensors to give the prosthesis a realistic sense of touch, including pressure, shear and temperature; developing a 'virtual hand' that mimics the nerve impulses that would be produced by a real hand, giving the user a sense of position of an artificial hand; and designing electrodes and a stimulation system that can deliver the simulated nerve impulses directly to the individual's nervous system.

Building this level of feedback into prosthetic devices will enable much higher levels of function to be achieved than is currently possible. Device users would be able to naturally reach out and pick up a glass, for example, whilst maintaining eye contact in a conversation, or pick up an apple without bruising it. This will advance the field of prosthetics, provide enhanced function to prosthesis users and decrease the learning time involved when acquiring a new device.

Planned Impact

This work paves the way to restore natural sensation with the development of novel sensors and neuro-biomechanical models that can generate biomimetic sensory feedback signals and electronic systems and neural probes to deliver these signals to the peripheral nervous system.

Society: Nearly 6,000 cases are referred to UK Prosthetic Services every year. In addition to the loss of functionality that losing a limb causes, phantom pain and psychological distress can be severe. The challenge to provide effective prostheses is a recurrent feature of comments from users. It has been a key theme in national reports on prosthetic services in the UK [Chavasse report, 2014] particularly in relation to injured service personnel and survivors of major trauma. These issues are discussed regularly during meetings of the All-Party Parliamentary Limb Loss Group. Beyond prosthetics, loss of sensory integration is widely acknowledged as the major impairment in recovery from musculoskeletal and neurological conditions. In addition, sensory loss contributes to substantial secondary complications of disabling conditions and subsequent disability, such as pressure damage leading to ulcers. The cost to the health service of skin pressure damage is £2.1Bn per year. This is a direct result of people being unable to sense when their skin is at risk of breakdown and includes pressure sores from people inappropriately positioned in beds and chairs. Developing of assistive technologies that can provide sensory feedback to the user will enhance our ability to meet users' needs.

Economy: The results of this project will cement the UK's reputation as the leading location for prosthetic design and manufacture: 3 of 4 major manufacturers of upper- and lower-limb prosthetic limbs are UK-based. The market for advanced prostheses and bionics is growing rapidly. For example, Touch Bionics, UK had a 23% increase in revenues in 2013. Our project will provide significant know-how and novel technologies t help the UK's prosthetics industry stay competitive in a global market. In particular, the project has the potential to open a new era in neural interface manufacturing. In addition, the planned collaboration agreement between project members means that any commercial potential can be rapidly exploited. In addition, technologies that enable delivery of sensory feedback can greatly accelerate recovery and hence reduce NHS costs.

Knowledge: This project will inform the development of a wider range of assistive technology, e.g. smart orthotics and mobility device. For instance, the sensor system developed is the first part of the chain required to generate natural skin-like sensation. The mechanoelectrical transduction methods developed will be scientifically leading and address existing challenges in the filed such as multidirectional force sensing.

In addition, the development of high-resolution flexible microprobe arrays and at the bespoke electronic systems will be of interest of the wider UK neuroscience community. A low-profile implantable recording and stimulation setup will be an exciting alternative to the very expensive commercial systems already available (~£150k) elsewhere in US and Europe.

Currently, no neural interface models exist that: (a) can be used in the electrode array design & manufacturing process and (b) includes both electric and mechanical electrode-tissue interactions. Inclusion of mechanical factors will also allow the researchers to predict tissue damage and electrode migration patterns. This project will be the first to have these capabilities.

People: 11 researchers (6 PDRAs and 5 PhD students) will be trained in this truly multidisciplinary project. Working collaboratively and publishing jointly, they will gain knowledge and expertise through the process of solving challenging problems. Follow-up projects both directly and indirectly stemming from this interaction provide further capacity building opportunities

Publications

10 25 50
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Adhikari K (2016) A Quaternion Weighted Fourier Linear Combiner for Modeling Physiological Tremor. in IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering

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Blana D (2017) Real-time simulation of hand motion for prosthesis control. in Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering

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Brunton E (2018) Recovery of the Response of Sensory Fibers to the Second of a Pair of Peripheral Nerve Stimuli. in Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference

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Capllonch-Juan M (2017) Unidirectional ephaptic stimulation between two myelinated axons. in Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference

 
Title 3DMe: Dialogues about prosthetic extensions, perceptions and representations 
Description Performance in relation to project outputs 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact New products developed in connection with project outputs 
 
Title Hand that Sees Animation 
Description An animation describing how the hand that sees project works 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact It was used in a major press release and public engagement activity 
URL http://www.dailymail.co.uk/video/sciencetech/video-1457763/Bionic-hand-sees-objects-decide-best-grip...
 
Title The Body Extended: Sculpture and Prosthetics 
Description Exhibition of artefacts 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Increased public awareness and media exposure to prosthetics 
 
Description -Development of a full-custom ASIC for combined 32-channel neural stimulation and recording. Ongoing integration into a hybrid implantable/wearable platform for chronic in-vivo investigation. This includes a NFC based power transfer, wireless bidirectional telemetry, packaging including electronic platform and implanted electrode array.
- Investigation to the recovery dynamics of HFAC block validated with concurrent EMG recordings. We have found that as the blocking signal amplitude and frequency are increased, the recovery time increases and the normalised EMG response after recovery decreases.
- Increasing the number of channels in a cuff electrode aids in the separation of neural signals only if implanted distally along the sciatic nerve - Successful development of fingertip sensor system that has shown to be capable of dynamically measuring multidirectional forces at fingertip/object interface. - A mechanotransduction model designed to convert the multi-axial mechanical loads at the fingertip-contact interface into neural-spike trains, i.e. the MultiAxial Stress Mechanotransduction (MASM) model, was developed.
- We have completed a reduced dynamic model of the hand (extrinsic muscles) that runs in real time and tested it with a robotic hand.
- We have integrated models of the muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organ into the hand model to generate simulated proprioceptive feedback signals in real time.
-Developed sharp hard and soft MEA's along with insertion tool and release methodologies for the soft electrodes, and have studied the effects of nanoscale roughening to reduce the surface impedance and alter the cell adhesion properties
Exploitation Route We have already paired up with a company to scope out future translation. An IP is generated and it is likely that it will be commercialised. In addition, we have started work with NHS to translate ideas into a mini clinical trial.
Sectors Electronics,Healthcare

 
Description The work has led to one patent and so many engagement activity. We hope that in the long term these will translate into commercialisation and increased interest in Engineering between teaenagers and public in general
Sector Electronics,Healthcare
Impact Types Cultural,Economic

 
Description Application Specific ICs for Neural Interfacing - Commercialisation and Market Evaluation
Amount £60,786 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 06/2019
 
Description EPSRC IAA Impact acceleration funding EP/K503836/1
Amount £4,700 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K503836/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 09/2015
 
Description Healthcare Technology Challenge Award
Amount £1,028,683 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R004242/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2023
 
Description MedTech and In vitro diagnostic Co-operative
Amount £1,359,000 (GBP)
Funding ID MIC-2016-022 
Organisation NIHR Diagnostic Evidence Co-operatve 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2023
 
Description Radio- Frequency Identification for Livestock Monitoring
Amount £15,014 (GBP)
Funding ID KT172076 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 01/2018
 
Description STARworks Proof of Concept Competition
Amount £47,790 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Department NIHR Devices for Dignity Healthcare Technology Co-Operative
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 03/2018
 
Description STARworks Proof of Concept Competition
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Department NIHR Devices for Dignity Healthcare Technology Co-Operative
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 12/2018
 
Description Translational Alliance Partnership
Amount £240,010 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N023080/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2016 
End 04/2019
 
Title A novel surgical technique for implantation of multi-channel cuff electrodes in rats 
Description Understanding how the peripheral nervous systems responds to electro-mechanical stimulation of the limb can inform the design of advanced prostheses that can, for example, offer sensory feedback or accelerate recovery from stroke. However, due to differences in experimental protocols, it is difficult, if not impossible, to make meaningful comparisons between different neural interfaces. Therefore, standardised experimental protocols and inexpensive hardware to enable systematic comparison of various neural interfaces are necessary. Here, we develop a low-cost, computer-controlled electronic system to standardise the mechanical stimulation of a rat's hind-paw. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This experimental platform will enable the development of further complementary studies towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of sensorimotor control at the neural and behavioural levels. In addition, it is an in-vivo test platform upon which the efficiency of other neurotechnological developments can be evaluated; 
 
Title Development of both hard shank and soft shank microelectrode arrays together with soft flexible interconnect and insertion tool 
Description The original aim was to realize a range of bespoke passive 1-d,2-d and 3-d microelectrode arrays (MEAs) in both hard (Si) and soft (polymeric) membranes (20-60um thick) which facilitate 16,32 and multiples thereof of channelized recording and / or stimulation sites, with electrode sizes ranging from 10-100um in diameter. For the soft layered MEA an insertion tool and post insertion release mechanism, together with a soft and flexible interconnect needed to be developed. The key development was a bespoke end to end hardware and recording tool for both acute and chronic applications. The large number of addressable contacts is considered to help with the 3R's by helping to generate a richer data set requiring fewer animals for the research into neuro-electronics or electrophysiology. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Still to be reported and related animal studies pending but several related publications are to be expected now that a firm technological base has been established 
 
Title pyEMG 
Description Python package for offline and real-time myoelectric control by using sEMG and IMU signals 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The impact is growing, as evidenced by new downloads 
URL https://github.com/agamemnonc/pyEMG
 
Title ENG recordings in response to mechanical stimulation 
Description Electroneurogram signals recorded from 16-channel cuff electrodes placed on the sciatic nerve of Sprague Dawley rats. The recordings were made in response to three types of mechanical stimulation, namely, proprioception, touch and nociception. The data files include synchronisation comments and signals that indicate when a stimulus was applied and what the stimulus was. Proprioceptive responses were recorded in response to a servo motor moving the foot to one of 6 different angles. Touch responses were recorded in response to heel of the foot being touched with one of two Von Frey fibres, corresponding to a force of either 100 or 300 grams. Finally, Nociception responses were recorded in response to the foot being pinched using a pair of forceps either on the heel, or the outer toe. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Experiments with animals create large amount valuable data on which various algorithms can be applied. This is a first database of its kind which made available online. We hope it will help with the reduction of number of animals used in research. 
URL https://rdm.ncl.ac.uk/landing/pages/10.17634/141353-2
 
Title Newcastle Grasp Library 
Description 71 objects in four grasp classes are included in this database. We synchronised a Crayfish 55 turntable (Seabass, UK) with a Canon Kiss X4 DSLR camera (resolution 18 Megapixel, 3456×5184 pixels) to take 72 pictures from each object (at 5 degrees intervals) against a black background. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This database accompanies a paper published in Journal of Neural Engineering. 
URL https://rdm.ncl.ac.uk/landing/pages/10.17634/141353-1
 
Title fingertip sensors for healthy hand actions 
Description One healthy subject participated in the study and was asked to perform a single finger test protocol and a simple hand test protocol. The corresponding multidirectional loads at the fingertip/object interface were measured in real time using a pressure and shear sensor system. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The presented sensor system could be potentially used as a tool for measuring and evaluating hand function and could be incorporated into a prosthetic hand as a tactile feedback system. 
 
Title tactile sensors for fingertip actions 
Description as a case study, a 'press-drag-lift' based fingertip contact test was conducted by using a finger of a healthy subject. This was to provide an initial evaluation for real-life applications. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The results indicated that the developed sensor system is capable of measuring three-directional pressure and shear stresses simultaneously at the fingertip/surface interface. The results also show multidirectional forces generated at the touching interface between the finger and surface, during a simple daily action. 
 
Description Enabling Technologies for Sensory feedback in next generation assistive devices (SenseBack) 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working in conjunction with the partners of the Senseback project, a design specification has been established for which an optical mask has been designed and purchased (Compugraphics International Ltd.). The designs have been made with the intention of being used for neuroscience studies on rats at the Newcastle University. The current mask set, limits the electrodes to a one dimensional array of electrical contacts at the end of a planar needle. It contains a range of different electrode designs allowing investigations into different design parameters. In order to establish the initial development of the electrodes, current cleanroom fabrication methodologies have been adapted and modified to suit the requirements of the project with an increased focus on fabricating a needle structure. To aid the optimisation process, the project has been split into two parts; electrical and mechanical. In doing this, the fabrication financial and time costs of each test device is reduced as well as allowing a focus to be made on the respective parts. Additionally, for the electrical testing devices which are not in needle form, there is an improved structural rigidity making the devices easier to handle and evaluate. In optimising the mechanical silicon based dummy electrodes (no electrical elements), focus has been made on using different fabrication techniques to define a side wall profile for the needle which allows the needle to cut into the nerve bundle with minimal applied force and thus damage. Both wet and dry etching techniques have been scrutinised with regards to the fabrication process. These have since been tested by Newcastle University with the feedback being used for further modifications. As well as fabricating hard structures, soft polymer needles have been developed; utilising a photo-patternable polymer, SU8, needles with physical properties closer to biological tissue than for the silicon needles, have been produced with the intention of being applied to chronic applications, with a reduced foreign body response. However, with the reduced stiffness of the polymer electrode, implantation of the needle into and alongside the nerve becomes problematic, struggling to penetrate the nerve or maintaining its shape. This development is part of an ongoing study in this project. Studies on the electrical elements of the electrodes are conducted on glass coverslips, diced into chips. Initial studies have been made to establish methods for reducing the contact impedance of the electrodes. The accepted methodology is to increase the effective area of the contacts whilst keeping the geometric area constant, and indeed small, the targeted area eventually, is below 10micrometers in diameter. This has been studied in this work through nano-patterning (Raith electron beam lithography) and micro roughening of the host substrate. Further methods have also been studied such as different metal deposition methods and materials. Mounted on printed circuit boards (PCB), the electrochemical characteristics are scrutinised in-vitro using a poteniostat to perform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Presently, the research infrastructure and basic processes have been established, and we are in the process of bringing the hard silicon needles together with the electrodes, itself mounted onto a PCB for preliminary acute in-situ measurements. In conjunction with this development, a method for implanting soft chronic electrode into the nerves will be determined before progressing to the next stage of the project; to develop two and three dimensional arrays of electrical contacts for soft neural electrode studies.
Collaborator Contribution Research is still at an early stage but the wider collaborations and network is expected to lead to further contributions
Impact This collaboration is multidisciplinary as it involves biomechanics, computing, Electronics and Medicne
Start Year 2015
 
Description Enabling Technologies for Sensory feedback in next generation assistive devices (SenseBack) 
Organisation Keele University
Department Physics and Astrophysics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working in conjunction with the partners of the Senseback project, a design specification has been established for which an optical mask has been designed and purchased (Compugraphics International Ltd.). The designs have been made with the intention of being used for neuroscience studies on rats at the Newcastle University. The current mask set, limits the electrodes to a one dimensional array of electrical contacts at the end of a planar needle. It contains a range of different electrode designs allowing investigations into different design parameters. In order to establish the initial development of the electrodes, current cleanroom fabrication methodologies have been adapted and modified to suit the requirements of the project with an increased focus on fabricating a needle structure. To aid the optimisation process, the project has been split into two parts; electrical and mechanical. In doing this, the fabrication financial and time costs of each test device is reduced as well as allowing a focus to be made on the respective parts. Additionally, for the electrical testing devices which are not in needle form, there is an improved structural rigidity making the devices easier to handle and evaluate. In optimising the mechanical silicon based dummy electrodes (no electrical elements), focus has been made on using different fabrication techniques to define a side wall profile for the needle which allows the needle to cut into the nerve bundle with minimal applied force and thus damage. Both wet and dry etching techniques have been scrutinised with regards to the fabrication process. These have since been tested by Newcastle University with the feedback being used for further modifications. As well as fabricating hard structures, soft polymer needles have been developed; utilising a photo-patternable polymer, SU8, needles with physical properties closer to biological tissue than for the silicon needles, have been produced with the intention of being applied to chronic applications, with a reduced foreign body response. However, with the reduced stiffness of the polymer electrode, implantation of the needle into and alongside the nerve becomes problematic, struggling to penetrate the nerve or maintaining its shape. This development is part of an ongoing study in this project. Studies on the electrical elements of the electrodes are conducted on glass coverslips, diced into chips. Initial studies have been made to establish methods for reducing the contact impedance of the electrodes. The accepted methodology is to increase the effective area of the contacts whilst keeping the geometric area constant, and indeed small, the targeted area eventually, is below 10micrometers in diameter. This has been studied in this work through nano-patterning (Raith electron beam lithography) and micro roughening of the host substrate. Further methods have also been studied such as different metal deposition methods and materials. Mounted on printed circuit boards (PCB), the electrochemical characteristics are scrutinised in-vitro using a poteniostat to perform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Presently, the research infrastructure and basic processes have been established, and we are in the process of bringing the hard silicon needles together with the electrodes, itself mounted onto a PCB for preliminary acute in-situ measurements. In conjunction with this development, a method for implanting soft chronic electrode into the nerves will be determined before progressing to the next stage of the project; to develop two and three dimensional arrays of electrical contacts for soft neural electrode studies.
Collaborator Contribution Research is still at an early stage but the wider collaborations and network is expected to lead to further contributions
Impact This collaboration is multidisciplinary as it involves biomechanics, computing, Electronics and Medicne
Start Year 2015
 
Description Enabling Technologies for Sensory feedback in next generation assistive devices (SenseBack) 
Organisation Newcastle University
Department Institute of Cellular Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working in conjunction with the partners of the Senseback project, a design specification has been established for which an optical mask has been designed and purchased (Compugraphics International Ltd.). The designs have been made with the intention of being used for neuroscience studies on rats at the Newcastle University. The current mask set, limits the electrodes to a one dimensional array of electrical contacts at the end of a planar needle. It contains a range of different electrode designs allowing investigations into different design parameters. In order to establish the initial development of the electrodes, current cleanroom fabrication methodologies have been adapted and modified to suit the requirements of the project with an increased focus on fabricating a needle structure. To aid the optimisation process, the project has been split into two parts; electrical and mechanical. In doing this, the fabrication financial and time costs of each test device is reduced as well as allowing a focus to be made on the respective parts. Additionally, for the electrical testing devices which are not in needle form, there is an improved structural rigidity making the devices easier to handle and evaluate. In optimising the mechanical silicon based dummy electrodes (no electrical elements), focus has been made on using different fabrication techniques to define a side wall profile for the needle which allows the needle to cut into the nerve bundle with minimal applied force and thus damage. Both wet and dry etching techniques have been scrutinised with regards to the fabrication process. These have since been tested by Newcastle University with the feedback being used for further modifications. As well as fabricating hard structures, soft polymer needles have been developed; utilising a photo-patternable polymer, SU8, needles with physical properties closer to biological tissue than for the silicon needles, have been produced with the intention of being applied to chronic applications, with a reduced foreign body response. However, with the reduced stiffness of the polymer electrode, implantation of the needle into and alongside the nerve becomes problematic, struggling to penetrate the nerve or maintaining its shape. This development is part of an ongoing study in this project. Studies on the electrical elements of the electrodes are conducted on glass coverslips, diced into chips. Initial studies have been made to establish methods for reducing the contact impedance of the electrodes. The accepted methodology is to increase the effective area of the contacts whilst keeping the geometric area constant, and indeed small, the targeted area eventually, is below 10micrometers in diameter. This has been studied in this work through nano-patterning (Raith electron beam lithography) and micro roughening of the host substrate. Further methods have also been studied such as different metal deposition methods and materials. Mounted on printed circuit boards (PCB), the electrochemical characteristics are scrutinised in-vitro using a poteniostat to perform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Presently, the research infrastructure and basic processes have been established, and we are in the process of bringing the hard silicon needles together with the electrodes, itself mounted onto a PCB for preliminary acute in-situ measurements. In conjunction with this development, a method for implanting soft chronic electrode into the nerves will be determined before progressing to the next stage of the project; to develop two and three dimensional arrays of electrical contacts for soft neural electrode studies.
Collaborator Contribution Research is still at an early stage but the wider collaborations and network is expected to lead to further contributions
Impact This collaboration is multidisciplinary as it involves biomechanics, computing, Electronics and Medicne
Start Year 2015
 
Description Enabling Technologies for Sensory feedback in next generation assistive devices (SenseBack) 
Organisation University of Essex
Department School of Biological Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working in conjunction with the partners of the Senseback project, a design specification has been established for which an optical mask has been designed and purchased (Compugraphics International Ltd.). The designs have been made with the intention of being used for neuroscience studies on rats at the Newcastle University. The current mask set, limits the electrodes to a one dimensional array of electrical contacts at the end of a planar needle. It contains a range of different electrode designs allowing investigations into different design parameters. In order to establish the initial development of the electrodes, current cleanroom fabrication methodologies have been adapted and modified to suit the requirements of the project with an increased focus on fabricating a needle structure. To aid the optimisation process, the project has been split into two parts; electrical and mechanical. In doing this, the fabrication financial and time costs of each test device is reduced as well as allowing a focus to be made on the respective parts. Additionally, for the electrical testing devices which are not in needle form, there is an improved structural rigidity making the devices easier to handle and evaluate. In optimising the mechanical silicon based dummy electrodes (no electrical elements), focus has been made on using different fabrication techniques to define a side wall profile for the needle which allows the needle to cut into the nerve bundle with minimal applied force and thus damage. Both wet and dry etching techniques have been scrutinised with regards to the fabrication process. These have since been tested by Newcastle University with the feedback being used for further modifications. As well as fabricating hard structures, soft polymer needles have been developed; utilising a photo-patternable polymer, SU8, needles with physical properties closer to biological tissue than for the silicon needles, have been produced with the intention of being applied to chronic applications, with a reduced foreign body response. However, with the reduced stiffness of the polymer electrode, implantation of the needle into and alongside the nerve becomes problematic, struggling to penetrate the nerve or maintaining its shape. This development is part of an ongoing study in this project. Studies on the electrical elements of the electrodes are conducted on glass coverslips, diced into chips. Initial studies have been made to establish methods for reducing the contact impedance of the electrodes. The accepted methodology is to increase the effective area of the contacts whilst keeping the geometric area constant, and indeed small, the targeted area eventually, is below 10micrometers in diameter. This has been studied in this work through nano-patterning (Raith electron beam lithography) and micro roughening of the host substrate. Further methods have also been studied such as different metal deposition methods and materials. Mounted on printed circuit boards (PCB), the electrochemical characteristics are scrutinised in-vitro using a poteniostat to perform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Presently, the research infrastructure and basic processes have been established, and we are in the process of bringing the hard silicon needles together with the electrodes, itself mounted onto a PCB for preliminary acute in-situ measurements. In conjunction with this development, a method for implanting soft chronic electrode into the nerves will be determined before progressing to the next stage of the project; to develop two and three dimensional arrays of electrical contacts for soft neural electrode studies.
Collaborator Contribution Research is still at an early stage but the wider collaborations and network is expected to lead to further contributions
Impact This collaboration is multidisciplinary as it involves biomechanics, computing, Electronics and Medicne
Start Year 2015
 
Description Enabling Technologies for Sensory feedback in next generation assistive devices (SenseBack) 
Organisation University of Southampton
Department Faculty of Engineering and the Environment
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working in conjunction with the partners of the Senseback project, a design specification has been established for which an optical mask has been designed and purchased (Compugraphics International Ltd.). The designs have been made with the intention of being used for neuroscience studies on rats at the Newcastle University. The current mask set, limits the electrodes to a one dimensional array of electrical contacts at the end of a planar needle. It contains a range of different electrode designs allowing investigations into different design parameters. In order to establish the initial development of the electrodes, current cleanroom fabrication methodologies have been adapted and modified to suit the requirements of the project with an increased focus on fabricating a needle structure. To aid the optimisation process, the project has been split into two parts; electrical and mechanical. In doing this, the fabrication financial and time costs of each test device is reduced as well as allowing a focus to be made on the respective parts. Additionally, for the electrical testing devices which are not in needle form, there is an improved structural rigidity making the devices easier to handle and evaluate. In optimising the mechanical silicon based dummy electrodes (no electrical elements), focus has been made on using different fabrication techniques to define a side wall profile for the needle which allows the needle to cut into the nerve bundle with minimal applied force and thus damage. Both wet and dry etching techniques have been scrutinised with regards to the fabrication process. These have since been tested by Newcastle University with the feedback being used for further modifications. As well as fabricating hard structures, soft polymer needles have been developed; utilising a photo-patternable polymer, SU8, needles with physical properties closer to biological tissue than for the silicon needles, have been produced with the intention of being applied to chronic applications, with a reduced foreign body response. However, with the reduced stiffness of the polymer electrode, implantation of the needle into and alongside the nerve becomes problematic, struggling to penetrate the nerve or maintaining its shape. This development is part of an ongoing study in this project. Studies on the electrical elements of the electrodes are conducted on glass coverslips, diced into chips. Initial studies have been made to establish methods for reducing the contact impedance of the electrodes. The accepted methodology is to increase the effective area of the contacts whilst keeping the geometric area constant, and indeed small, the targeted area eventually, is below 10micrometers in diameter. This has been studied in this work through nano-patterning (Raith electron beam lithography) and micro roughening of the host substrate. Further methods have also been studied such as different metal deposition methods and materials. Mounted on printed circuit boards (PCB), the electrochemical characteristics are scrutinised in-vitro using a poteniostat to perform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Presently, the research infrastructure and basic processes have been established, and we are in the process of bringing the hard silicon needles together with the electrodes, itself mounted onto a PCB for preliminary acute in-situ measurements. In conjunction with this development, a method for implanting soft chronic electrode into the nerves will be determined before progressing to the next stage of the project; to develop two and three dimensional arrays of electrical contacts for soft neural electrode studies.
Collaborator Contribution Research is still at an early stage but the wider collaborations and network is expected to lead to further contributions
Impact This collaboration is multidisciplinary as it involves biomechanics, computing, Electronics and Medicne
Start Year 2015
 
Description SenseBack (Newcastle/Leeds/Keele/Essex/Southampton) 
Organisation Keele University
Department Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Integrated Circuit Design
Collaborator Contribution Newcastle - Experimental Neuroscience Leeds - Microfabrication/Electrodes Southampton - Artificial Skin/Tactile sensing Keele - Biomechanics Modelling Essex - Neuroscience/Experimental Validation
Impact N/A
Start Year 2015
 
Description SenseBack (Newcastle/Leeds/Keele/Essex/Southampton) 
Organisation Newcastle University
Department School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Integrated Circuit Design
Collaborator Contribution Newcastle - Experimental Neuroscience Leeds - Microfabrication/Electrodes Southampton - Artificial Skin/Tactile sensing Keele - Biomechanics Modelling Essex - Neuroscience/Experimental Validation
Impact N/A
Start Year 2015
 
Description SenseBack (Newcastle/Leeds/Keele/Essex/Southampton) 
Organisation University of Essex
Department School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Integrated Circuit Design
Collaborator Contribution Newcastle - Experimental Neuroscience Leeds - Microfabrication/Electrodes Southampton - Artificial Skin/Tactile sensing Keele - Biomechanics Modelling Essex - Neuroscience/Experimental Validation
Impact N/A
Start Year 2015
 
Description SenseBack (Newcastle/Leeds/Keele/Essex/Southampton) 
Organisation University of Leeds
Department Faculty of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Integrated Circuit Design
Collaborator Contribution Newcastle - Experimental Neuroscience Leeds - Microfabrication/Electrodes Southampton - Artificial Skin/Tactile sensing Keele - Biomechanics Modelling Essex - Neuroscience/Experimental Validation
Impact N/A
Start Year 2015
 
Description SenseBack (Newcastle/Leeds/Keele/Essex/Southampton) 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Integrated Circuit Design
Collaborator Contribution Newcastle - Experimental Neuroscience Leeds - Microfabrication/Electrodes Southampton - Artificial Skin/Tactile sensing Keele - Biomechanics Modelling Essex - Neuroscience/Experimental Validation
Impact N/A
Start Year 2015
 
Description senseback 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Faculty of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution fingertip sensors development
Collaborator Contribution develop other components of the project--Enabling Technologies for Sensory Feedback in Next-Generation Assistive Devices
Impact none
Start Year 2015
 
Description senseback 
Organisation Keele University
Department Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution fingertip sensors development
Collaborator Contribution develop other components of the project--Enabling Technologies for Sensory Feedback in Next-Generation Assistive Devices
Impact none
Start Year 2015
 
Description senseback 
Organisation Newcastle University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution fingertip sensors development
Collaborator Contribution develop other components of the project--Enabling Technologies for Sensory Feedback in Next-Generation Assistive Devices
Impact none
Start Year 2015
 
Description senseback 
Organisation University of Essex
Department School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution fingertip sensors development
Collaborator Contribution develop other components of the project--Enabling Technologies for Sensory Feedback in Next-Generation Assistive Devices
Impact none
Start Year 2015
 
Description senseback 
Organisation University of Leeds
Department School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution fingertip sensors development
Collaborator Contribution develop other components of the project--Enabling Technologies for Sensory Feedback in Next-Generation Assistive Devices
Impact none
Start Year 2015
 
Description A talk or presentation - A talk or presentation - Presentation of the work at Trent International Prosthetics Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of paper
A. Krasoulis, I. Kyranou, M. S. Erden, K. Nazarpour, and S. Vijayakumar, "Improved myoelectric classification via using inertial measurement units," In: ISPO Trent International Prosthetic Symposium (TIPS). 2016, Glasgow: International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ispo.org.uk/events_meetings-V.html
 
Description A talk or presentation - Presentation of the work at Trent International Prosthetics Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of research work at Trent International Prosthetics Symposium (combined with the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics), a multidisciplinary conference attracting not just academics but industry, users and practitioners.

M. Dyson and K. Nazarpour "Pre-clinical application of abstract muscle synergies for myoelectric control," In: ISPO Trent International Prosthetic Symposium (TIPS). 2016, Glasgow: International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ispo.org.uk/events_meetings-V.html
 
Description "Neural Interfaces & Microsystems: from State-of-the-Art to the Next Generation", CNRS Workshop on Bioelectronics (Paris, France), 20 June 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker at workshop in the CNRS headquarters in Paris, France on Bioelectronics. I gave a talk to an audience of approximately 100 professionals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.cnrs.fr/insis/recherche/evenements/workshop-electronique-vivant.htm
 
Description 2016 TIPS conference, entitled "A preliminary study on characterisation of finger interface kinetics using a pressure and shear sensor system" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An oral presentation entitled "A preliminary study on characterisation of finger interface kinetics using a pressure and shear sensor system" was presented to audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ispo.org.uk/events_meetings-V.html
 
Description A talk at the BioNow conference (Newcastle) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An event to bring together medical engineering research at Newcastle University and medical and biotechnology industry in North East England.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2016
URL https://twitter.com/search?q=%23biofocus
 
Description A talk or presentation - Imperial College Surgical Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A talk about body integrated prosthetic devices, surgical challenges and skills required

For the link, please refer to the tweets on Jan 15
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://twitter.com/ICSMSurgicalSoc
 
Description A talk presented at Sheffiled University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The CATCH Network learned about machine learning in the control of prosthetic hands and Patient and Public Involvement. We were delighted to be joined by not one, not two, but three exciting speakers at the June 2016 CATCH Networking Lunch.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.catch.org.uk/news-articles/6th-networking-lunch/
 
Description Assistive Technologies for Dimentia Workshop, Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Representation of Leeds Work (Drs Steenson & Russell) re SenseBack and Microfluidics on a number of planned sessions to groups of patients, carers and professionals working in dementia towards education and follow-on funding applications and collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Be Curious Festival, Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Chris Russell (Post Doc on SenseBack) presented a poster to the general public on the work that the Leeds group (DRs Steenson and Russell) are doing in relation to the SenseBack project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Blog post explaining the research to a lay audience 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I wrote a short blog post describing the modelling aspect of the research for a lay audience. This was intended to explain the rationale for the research as well as give a very simplified overview of the methods. The goal of this blog is to explain why and how we carry out our research to inform members of the public how the publicly funded research is carried out.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://medium.com/movement-mechanics/can-someone-give-me-a-hand-2a0a3527cfa0
 
Description Enabling Technologies for Neuroscience Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The aims of this workshop, held at the University of Leeds on 22nd September 2015, were to:
• Bring together colleagues, both within the University and external partners, interested in developing tools and technologies for use in preclinical and clinical studies in neuroscience and neurology.
• Initiate interdisciplinary discussions in applied neuroscience research
• Facilitate the formation of interdisciplinary research partnerships, with the intention that these lead, in the future, to the submission of funding bids to external agencies.

The workshop was attended by 35 delegates who collectively had interests which spanned the discipline: 11 Biological Scientists (all UoL); 10 Engineers/Physicists (8 UoL, 3 Ext); 7 Clinically-related (5 UoL, 2 Ext); Research and Innovation Support (4 UoL, 1 Ext).

Delegates were engaged with research goals and needs of different research groupings or fields through short presentations by Chakrabarty (FBS: Basic Neurophysiology), Alix (Univ of Sheffield, Clinical Neurophysiology), Steenson (Eng, Neuroengineering) and Williams (RIS, Medical Innovation). These were followed by the keynote lecture entitled "Monitoring Biochemical Parameters- Diagnostics, wearables and implants" delivered by Prof Dermot Diamond (National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City Univ).

Following a panel discussion sessions in which presenters responded to questions from the audience, delegates were allocated to three multi-disciplinary/multi-interest groups, each led by a facilitator, to explore the current and future research questions of neuroscientists and clinicians, the technological barriers they face in undertaking this research, and the tools and technologies that exist or could be developed by engineers or physical scientists to overcome these barriers.

The outcome led to a Network + collaboration bid which was not funded but dialogue continues with some of those involved re a further responsive mode bid.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Fourth Industrial Revolution Breakfast Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Approximately 70 business leaders and CEO's attended from the North Midlands region, to hear about Keele's involvement with translational research broadly fitting the "4th Industrial Revolution" agenda. The work presented followed the theme of "fusing the physical, digital and biological worlds": the EPSRC-funded Senseback project is an excellent case study of work in this area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.keele.ac.uk/istm/newsandevents/istmnews2017/istmedchadwickrehabilitationresearch21march2...
 
Description Friends of Imperial College "Behind the Scenes" tour at NGNI Labs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Next Generation Neural Interfaces (NGNI) lab hosted a "Behind the Scenes" event for Friends of Imperial College on the evening of 25th January 2017. This event included a welcome and seminar on neural interfaces, lab tours and research demonstrations, and an interactive poster session with the entire group. For photos and further details see the "Behind the Scenes @ NGNI" Event page- see link below.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/neural-interfaces/news-and-events/friendsofic/
 
Description Future prosthetic: towards the bionic human 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Kia Nazarpour gave an interview to The Engineer Magazine about the science-fiction vision of robotic prosthetic limbs that can be controlled by the brain and provide sensory feedback, which in his opinion is coming closer to reality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.theengineer.co.uk/future-prosthetic/
 
Description History of Medicine Lecture series (Thackray Medical Museum) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 100 people from diverse backgrounds attended a lecture on the history and future of prosthetics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International Press Release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release about the UNESCO award received by the hand that sees project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.ncl.ac.uk/press/articles/latest/2018/02/handthatseesunesco/
 
Description International Press Release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Press Release on the Hand that Sees Project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-tyne-39797011
 
Description Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave an interview to The Engineer on the science-fiction vision of robotic prosthetic limbs that can be controlled by the brain and provide sensory feedback is coming closer.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.theengineer.co.uk/future-prosthetic/
 
Description Interview with Dazed 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview about "How AI could increase art world accessibility for disabled artists"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.dazeddigital.com/art-photography/article/41334/1/how-ai-could-increase-art-world-accessi...
 
Description Interview with Verdict 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was an interview about how AI is exploding into healthcare
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.verdict.co.uk/ai-healthcare-growth-apps/
 
Description Micro-fluidic and microelectrode fabrication & application - controlled localised drug delivery at a Net Market fluidics sectoral (EU) workshop (02/02/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation to a regional EU group of professionals working on similar (mili and microfluidic) fields. Aim was to communicate progress and technology advances with a view to possible collaboration. Other outcome was to hear from professionals in area re commercialisation of Microfluidics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.netmarketfluidics.eu/
 
Description Newcastle High School for Girls Loves STEM event - A School Visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Showcasing bionics research in an STEM event in a local girls only school
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at IMechE event: Engineering the Upper Limb 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of Senseback work to international audience at Engineering the Upper Limb conference, attended by Industry representatives, clinicians and academic engineers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://events.imeche.org/ViewEvent?code=con6414
 
Description Presentation of the work at Trent International Prosthetics Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of research work at Trent International Prosthetics Symposium (combined with the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics), a multidisciplinary conference attracting not just academics but industry, users and practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ispo.org.uk/events_meetings-V.html
 
Description Press Release (BBC, ITV, etc) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This press release received international coverage, from USA to Australia
We received 100's emails following this press released from other media, prosthesis users, hospital consultants, etc who wanted to work with us.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-tyne-31593352
 
Description RAREFest18 - Cambridge Rare Disease Network Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We created an exhibit on our research using computer modelling to help improve the control of prosthetic hands for the Cambridge Rare Disease Network annual science festival. This event attracts several hundred visitors with an interest in finding out more about rare diseases and ways to treat them. We were invited to this event as a result of our attendance at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition. We have interactive stands where people could explore a VR-style representation of our computer model of the hand, and discuss ways it could be used to improve the control of artifical hands.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://camraredisease.org/rarefest/
 
Description Research seminar to a multidisciplinary audience 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research seminar delivered for a university department other than my own (Computing) but with attendees from Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.keele.ac.uk/scm/events/seminars/
 
Description Royal Society Exhibition Blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We have been selected by the Royal Society to exhibit our work at their Summer Science FEstival, attracting around 14000 visitors. This won't take place until July but we have set up a website to chart our progress towards the Exhibit, and this has already had ~300 unique visitors with ~800 article reads.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://medium.com/the-quest-for-a-life-like-prosthetic-hand
 
Description Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition: "Progressive Prosthetics". 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact More than 11000 people attended the Exhibition this year. The Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition is one of the most prestigious science festivals in the UK, and perhaps internationally as well. We were one of ~20 universities invited to create an exhibit for this year's show. The goal of our stand was to highlight our research into 'making artificial hands behave and feel more lifelike'. We designed a number of hands-on activities for visitors, as well as providing information and raising awareness of the current state of the art in prosthetics research to visitors of all ages. The total number of visitors was recorded as 11694 over 7 days, and more than 90% of visitors rated their experience excellent or good, with 88% of school pupils finding they had gained new scientific knowledge.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2018/summer-science-exhibition/exhibits/progres...
 
Description School Visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presenting control of myoelectric hands in a local girls only school
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.intellsensing.com/outreach-we-love-stem/
 
Description Speaking at IET Annual Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented challenges of myoelectric control in a public event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.theiet.org/events/local/250075.cfm
 
Description Stoking Curiosity - a festival of ideas 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stoking Curiosity was a festival of arts and science organised in Stoke-on-Trent to raise awareness of creative activity in the region among the general public, and to spark conversations between academics, charities, industry, artists and the general public. Approx 2000 people attended the event spread over two days. We were on of about 15 exhibits at the festival, and had conversations with members of the public, local business representatives, undergraduate and postgraduate students, and school children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.keele.ac.uk/discover/artskeele/stokingcuriosity/
 
Description Talk at Sutton Trust Summer School (6th form students with interest in EEE) entitled: \Microchips and Brain Implants", 4 August 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 12 students enrolled on the "Sutton Trust" scheme attended a week long event at Imperial College EEE Department which involved various activities such as talks, lab sessions, tours, etc- which I gave a talk entitles "Microchips and Brain Implants".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.suttontrust.com/programmes/summer-schools/
 
Description The Future of Surgery 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Kia Nazarpour has given evidence to the Commission on the Future of Surgery, formed by Royal College of Surgeons. The purpose of the hearing was to set out a compelling and credible vision of the future advances in medicine and technology, including prosthetics, and how those developments will affect the delivery of surgical care in the United Kingdom. In particular, the Commission considers what the future of surgery is likely to look like for patients in five years, could look like in ten years, and might be in 15 to 20 years.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://futureofsurgery.rcseng.ac.uk/report
 
Description Transhumanism 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was an interview by The Guardian about the future of Humans and how AI and bionics can create transhumans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/may/06/no-death-and-an-enhanced-life-is-the-future-trans...
 
Description UK-Turkey Researchers Links Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Dr C Russell on behalf or the Leeds group (Drs Steenson and Russell) and in relation to the Senseback and Microfluidics Work streams at Leeds attended the workshop with a view of forming alliances and follow-on funding applications for joint UK / Turkey collaborations. Status: on going.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description talk at IEEE World Haptics 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact An oral presentation was given, entitled: 'A Comprehensive Mechanotransduction Model for Tactile Feedback based on Multi-Axial Stresses at the Fingertip-Contact Interface' and an invited talk for the 'Recent Advances in Modelling Skin Mechanics and Tactical Afferent Responses Workshop' , both at IEEE World Haptics 2017, held on the 6th-9th June in Munich, Germany. The research shows a comprehensive Mechanotransduction model that was developed by inputting normal and tangential force obtained from the fingertip/object interface during daily grasping activities. It is envisaged that the model could be potentially used as an input for the future development of neuro-prosthetic hand.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017