Flow Boiling and Condensation of Mixtures in Microscale

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Sch of Engineering

Abstract

This proposal is for a joint project between internationally-leading, UK heat transfer research groups at the Universities of Edinburgh, Brunel and Queen Mary, London in collaboration with four industrial partners (Thermacore, Oxford Nanosystems, Super Radiator Coils and Rainford Precision) in the areas of micro-fabrication and thermal management.

Advances in manufacturing processes and subsequent use of smaller scale electronic devices operating at increased power densities have resulted in a critical demand for thermal management systems to provide intensive localised cooling. To prevent failure of electronic components, the temperature at which all parts of any electronic device operates must be carefully controlled. This can lead to heat removal rate requirements averaging at least 2 MW/m2 across the complete device, with peak rates of up to 10-15 MW/m2 at local 'hot spots'. Direct air cooling is limited to about 0.5 MW/m2 and liquid cooling systems are only capable of 0.7 MW/m2. Other techniques have not yet achieved heat fluxes above 1 MW/m2.

Boiling in microchannels offers the best prospect of achieving such high heat fluxes with uniform surface temperature. In a closed system an equally compact and effective condenser is required for heat rejection to the environment. At high heat flux, evaporator dry-out poses a serious problem, leading to localised overheating of the surface and hence potentially to burn out of electronic components reliant on this evaporative cooling. Use of novel mixtures, termed 'self-rewetting fluids', whose surface tension properties lend themselves to improved wetting on hot surfaces, potentially offers scope for enhanced cooling technologies.

In this project, two different aqueous alcohol solutions (one of which is self-rewetting) will be studied to ascertain whether they can provide the necessary evaporative and condensation characteristics required for a closed-loop cooling system capable of more than 2 MW/m2.

Researchers at the University of Edinburgh will study the fundamentals of wetting and evaporation/condensation of the mixtures to establish the optimum mixture concentrations and heat transfer surface coating for both evaporation and condensation, using advanced imaging techniques. At Brunel University London, applications of the fluids in metallic single and multi microchannel evaporators will be investigated. Researchers at Queen Mary University London will carry out experimental and theoretical work on condensation of the mixtures in compact exchangers. The combined results will feed into the design of a complete microscale closed-loop evaporative cooling system.

Thermacore will provide micro-scale heat exchangers and Oxford Nanosystems will provide structured surface coatings. Sustainable Engine Systems, Super Radiator Coils and will provide advice and represent additional ways of taking developments originating from this research to the market. Rainford Precision will provide Brunel University micro tools and support on their use in micromachining.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Flow boiling in microchannels offers the best method for removing the high heat fluxes that prevail in electronic devices and form a bottle neck for further required increases in power densities. Use of novel mixtures, termed 'self-rewetting fluids', whose surface tension properties lend themselves to improved wetting on hot surfaces, potentially offers scope for enhanced performance at the evaporator and the required condenser for a fully integrated thermal management system.
The key findings of the project can be summarised below.
A comparison between ordinary mixtures (water-ethanol) and self-rewetting mixtures (water-butanol) was undertaken to elucidate fundamentals of Marangoni and solutal effects on the evaporation and wetting of mixtures inside a microchannel. Measurements of evaporation rates under variable applied power was carried out. The work has led to the quantification of the contribution of solutal capillary effects on the evaporation and wetting in ordinary mixtures as well as self-rewetting fluids.
The work on condensation quantified condensation rates in the ordinary mixtures (water-ethanol) as well as the self-rewetting fluids (water-butanol).The experiments have demonstrated the noticeable effect of the condensation/absorption of vapour on both a sessile and pendant drops. The most affected property was found to be dynamic wetting.
In flow condensation in microchannels, the experiments have not shown noticeable heat transfer enhancement through addition of small amount of ethanol and butanol (less than 1% by mass). In condensation on horizontal smooth tubes, the experiments have shown significantly high heat transfer enhancements - four times of steam-ethanol and ten times of steam-butanol mixtures (less than 1% by mass). This is thought to be attributable to the model of condensation prevailing in the confined space of microchannels.
In flow boiling, heat transfer was found to increase with the addition of small amount (5% v/v) of ethanol in water. This enhancement is found to depend on the applied heat flux. The first results with the addition of butanol indicated the possibility of a maximum enhancement at 2% v/v butanol in water by 130%. Increasing the butanol concentration further (4 and 6 %) resulted in heat transfer rates lower than that of pure water. We hope to be able to repeat these results verifying an optimum butanol concentration for maximum heat transfer enhancement. Also the mixture delayed the occurrences of dry-out, which can lead to low heat transfer rates and failure of a cooling system. The effect of surface coating provided by Oxford nanosystems were examined in an oxygen free copper multi microchannel heat exchanger and the results indicated up to 43% enhancement in the average heat transfer coefficient.
Exploitation Route The results of the project were published in 17 conference and journal papers by the academic partners and their teams. This topic was also covered in keynote lectures (e.g. 16th Int. Heat Transfer Convers, Beijing, 2018 and 15th Int. Conf. on Nanochannels, Microchannels and Minichannels, 10-13 June 2018, Dubrovnik, Croatia) as well as in presentations at an academia-industry workshop (Thermal Management Workshop, 31st May 2018, Brighton University)
Discussion with industrial partners for application are now well underway. A recent visit and presentation to Thermacore -Boyd Corporation in January 2020 initiated discussion on the possibility of further work. In particular, our industrial partners are interested in comparison trials between a water charged commercial heat pipe assembly and novel self-rewetting fluid assembly (ethanol or butanol water mixtures). The positive result on the effect of coatings on the flow boiling performance and the possible heat transfer enhancement was communicated to Oxford nanoSystems and was presented at TMD Technologies in January 2020. Representatives from the two companies have agreed to arrange to meet to discuss collaboration on cooling of electronic equipment with designs that include the coating provided by Oxford nanosystems. Thermacore will also consider coated surfaces for their ammonia systems. The academic team is supporting Oxford nanoSystems in developing their own testing facilities and providing data in the form of graphs to help them market their product.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Education,Energy

 
Description The results of the project were published in 17 conference and journal papers by the academic partners and their teams. This topic was also covered in keynote lectures (e.g. 16th Int. Heat Transfer Convers, Beijing, 2018 and 15th Int. Conf. on Nanochannels, Microchannels and Minichannels, 10-13 June 2018, Dubrovnik, Croatia) as well as in presentations at an academia-industry workshop (Thermal Management Workshop, 31st May 2018, Brighton University) Discussion with industrial partners for application are now well underway. A recent visit and presentation to Thermacore -Boyd Corporation in January 2020 initiated discussion on the possibility of further work. In particular, our industrial partners are interested in comparison trials between a water charged commercial heat pipe assembly and novel self-rewetting fluid assembly (ethanol or butanol water mixtures). The positive result on the effect of coatings on the flow boiling performance and the possible heat transfer enhancement was communicated to Oxford nanoSystems and was presented at TMD Technologies in January 2020. Representatives from the two companies have agreed to arrange to meet to discuss collaboration on cooling of electronic equipment with designs that include the coating provided by Oxford nanosystems. Thermacore will also consider coated surfaces for their ammonia systems. The academic team is supporting Oxford nanoSystems in developing their own testing facilities and providing data in the form of graphs to help them market their product. The work completed under this project formed the basis for an additional EPSRC funded project (Brunel, UoE and Imperial College) entitled Enhanced Multiscale Boiling Surfaces (EMBOSS): From Fundamentals to Design (EP/S0195202). In this work, our experimental and computational techniques, spanning the scales from molecular to millimetres, will inform the rational design, fabrication, and optimisation of operational prototypes of pool-boiling thermal management systems. Our industrial partners include Thermacore, TMD ltd and Oxford nanoSystems as in the project described here. Thermacore -Boyd Corporation (regular communication and visit in January 2020) Initiated discussion on the possibility of further work. In particular, Thermacore is interested in comparison trials between a water charged commercial heat pipe assembly and novel self-rewetting fluid assembly (ethanol or butanol water mixtures). Oxford nanosystems (coatings) The positive result on the effect of coatings on the flow boiling performance and the possible heat transfer enhancement was communicated to Oxford nanoSystems on a regular basis. The benefits of using coatings (heat transfer enhancement) was also presented at TMD Technologies in January 2020. The academics facilitated an introduction and representatives from the two companies have agreed to arrange to meet to discuss collaboration on cooling of electronic equipment with designs that may include the coating provided by Oxford nanoSystems. Thermacore will also consider further and discuss with the academic team and Oxford nanoSystems coated surfaces for their ammonia systems. The academic team continues to support Oxford nanoSystems in developing their own testing facilities and provide data in the form of graphs to help them market their product. A meeting to discuss this and further work is scheduled for March 2020.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Energy
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Enhanced Multiscale Boiling Surfaces (EMBOSS): From Fundamentals to Design
Amount £536,300 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S019588/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2019 
End 07/2022
 
Description Coolboration with teh International Centre for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER) at Kyushu University, Japan 
Organisation Kyushu University
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The collaboration started in 2015 when Profesor K. Sefiane was awarded a Progress100 grant by Kyushu University to support collaboration between the two Universities. The initial grant was for 18 months. Professor Sefiane has been succesful in renewing this grant in 2018 for another 3 years.#The funding provided support to appoint a research assistant at Kyushu University and pay for travel expenses between Edinburgh and Kyushu for staff from the two groups.
Collaborator Contribution Two research awards: 2015-2016 2018-2021 The total amounts of these two awards was about 100,000 £.
Impact J Chen, YH; Askounis, A; Koutsos, V; Valluri, P; Takata, Y; Wilson, SK; Sefiane, K Chen, Yuhong; Askounis, Alexandros; Koutsos, Vasileios; Valluri, Prashant; Takata, Yasuyuki; Wilson, Stephen K.; Sefiane, Khellil On the Effect of Substrate Viscoelasticity on the Evaporation Kinetics and Deposition Patterns of Nanosuspension Drops LANGMUIR 0743-7463 JAN 14 2020 36 1 204 213 10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b02965 WOS:000507721200022 31860312 J Zhang, HC; Kita, Y; Zhang, DJ; Nagayama, G; Takata, Y; Sefiane, K; Askounis, A Zhang, Huacheng; Kita, Yutaku; Zhang, Dejian; Nagayama, Gyoko; Takata, Yasuyuki; Sefiane, Khellil; Askounis, Alexandros Drop Evaporation on Rough Hot-Spots: Effect of Wetting Modes HEAT TRANSFER ENGINEERING Kita, Yutaku/AAC-5533-2020; Askounis, Alexandros/O-9585-2014 Kita, Yutaku/0000-0003-4994-4689; Askounis, Alexandros/0000-0003-0813-7856; , nagayamakit/0000-0002-6836-9387 0145-7632 1521-0537 10.1080/01457632.2019.1640458 AUG 2019 WOS:000480615200001 J Wang, ZY; Orejon, D; Sefiane, K; Takata, Y Wang, Zhenying; Orejon, Daniel; Sefiane, Khellil; Takata, Yasuyuki Coupled thermal transport and mass diffusion during vapor absorption into hygroscopic liquid desiccant droplets INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER Orejon, Daniel/G-4468-2013 Orejon, Daniel/0000-0003-1037-5036; Wang, Zhenying/0000-0002-2651-1808 0017-9310 1879-2189 MAY 2019 134 1014 1023 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.01.084 WOS:000462418300086 J Wang, ZY; Orejon, D; Sefiane, K; Takata, Y Wang, Zhenying; Orejon, Daniel; Sefiane, Khellil; Takata, Yasuyuki Water vapor uptake into hygroscopic lithium bromide desiccant droplets: mechanisms of droplet growth and spreading PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Orejon, Daniel/G-4468-2013 Orejon, Daniel/0000-0003-1037-5036; Wang, Zhenying/0000-0002-2651-1808 1463-9076 1463-9084 JAN 21 2019 21 3 10.1039/c8cp04504f WOS:000456147000073 30320327 J Kita, Y; Dover, CM; Askounis, A; Takata, Y; Sefiane, K Kita, Yutaku; Dover, Coinneach Mackenzie; Askounis, Alexandros; Takata, Yasuyuki; Sefiane, Khellil Drop mobility on superhydrophobic microstructured surfaces with wettability contrasts SOFT MATTER Askounis, Alexandros/O-9585-2014; Kita, Yutaku/AAC-5533-2020 Askounis, Alexandros/0000-0003-0813-7856; Kita, Yutaku/0000-0003-4994-4689 1744-683X 1744-6848 DEC 14 2018 14 46 9418 9424 10.1039/c8sm01762j WOS:000451843300013 30427033 J Kita, Y; Okauchi, Y; Fukatani, Y; Orejon, D; Kohno, M; Takata, Y; Sefiane, K Kita, Yutaku; Okauchi, Yuya; Fukatani, Yuki; Orejon, Daniel; Kohno, Masamichi; Takata, Yasuyuki; Sefiane, Khellil Quantifying vapor transfer into evaporating ethanol drops in a humid atmosphere PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Kita, Yutaku/AAC-5533-2020; Orejon, Daniel/G-4468-2013 Kita, Yutaku/0000-0003-4994-4689; Orejon, Daniel/0000-0003-1037-5036 1463-9076 1463-9084 AUG 7 2018 20 29 19430 19440 10.1039/c8cp02521e WOS:000448132600017 29993049 J Tomo, Y; Askounis, A; Ikuta, T; Takata, Y; Sefiane, K; Takahashi, K Tomo, Yoko; Askounis, Alexandros; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Takata, Yasuyuki; Sefiane, Khellil; Takahashi, Koji Superstable Ultrathin Water Film Confined in a Hydrophilized Carbon Nanotube NANO LETTERS Askounis, Alexandros/O-9585-2014 Askounis, Alexandros/0000-0003-0813-7856; Tomo, Yoko/0000-0001-6002-1506 1530-6984 1530-6992 MAR 2018 18 3 1869 1874 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b05169 WOS:000427910600043 29424547 J Barletta, A; Bejan, A; Briggs, A; Cavallini, A; Cotta, R; Garimella, S; Glicksman, L; Hewitt, G; Karayiannis, T; Manglik, R; Minkowycz, WJ; Sefiane, K; Takata, Y; Thome, J; Utaka, Y; Wang, HS; Yoshida, H Barletta, Antonio; Bejan, Adrian; Briggs, Adrian; Cavallini, Alberto; Cotta, Renato; Garimella, Srinivas; Glicksman, Leon; Hewitt, Geoffrey; Karayiannis, Tassos; Manglik, Raj; Minkowycz, W. J.; Sefiane, Khellil; Takata, Yas; Thome, John; Utaka, Yoshio; Wang, Huasheng; Yoshida, Hideo Professor John W. Rose BScEng PhD DScEng(Lond) CEng FIMechE FASME on his 80th birthday In Celebration INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER Barletta, Antonio/O-8888-2019; Cotta, Renato M/H-5336-2012; Bejan, Adrian/D-3909-2012; Utaka, Yoshio/Q-8596-2019 Cotta, Renato M/0000-0003-0965-0811; Bejan, Adrian/0000-0002-2419-2698; 0017-9310 1879-2189 SEP 2017 112 169 170 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.04.038 WOS:000404198600016 J Askounis, A; Kita, Y; Kohno, M; Takata, Y; Koutsos, V; Sefiane, K Askounis, Alexandros; Kita, Yutaku; Kohno, Masamichi; Takata, Yasuyuki; Koutsos, Vasileios; Sefiane, Khellil Influence of Local Heating on Marangoni Flows and Evaporation Kinetics of Pure Water Drops LANGMUIR Kita, Yutaku/AAC-5533-2020; Askounis, Alexandros/O-9585-2014; Koutsos, Vasileios/B-9651-2008 Kita, Yutaku/0000-0003-4994-4689; Askounis, Alexandros/0000-0003-0813-7856; Koutsos, Vasileios/0000-0002-2203-8179 0743-7463 JUN 13 2017 33 23 5666 5674 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b00957 WOS:000403530200008 28510453 J Yamada, Y; Askounis, A; Ikuta, T; Takahashi, K; Takata, Y; Sefiane, K Yamada, Yutaka; Askounis, Alexandros; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Koji; Takata, Yasuyuki; Sefiane, Khellil Thermal conductivity of liquid/carbon nanotube core-shell nanocomposites JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Askounis, Alexandros/O-9585-2014 Askounis, Alexandros/0000-0003-0813-7856 0021-8979 1089-7550 JAN 7 2017 121 1 015104 10.1063/1.4973488 WOS:000392839400041
Start Year 2015
 
Description Two Phase Flow and Heat Transfer at the Microscale, University of Valenciennes, France 
Organisation University of Valenciennes and Hainaut-Cambresis
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration has led to University of Velenciennes contributing to fund half of a PhD studentship to work on this project.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners in Valenciennes funded partly a PhD student who did a joint PhD degree between Edinburgh and Valenciennes.
Impact Korniliou, S; Mackenzie-Dover, C; Harmand, S; Duursma, G; Christy, JRE; Terry, JG; Walton, AJ; Sefiane, K Korniliou, S.; Mackenzie-Dover, C.; Harmand, S.; Duursma, G.; Christy, J. R. E.; Terry, J. G.; Walton, A. J.; Sefiane, K. Local wall temperature mapping during flow boiling in a transparent microchannel INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCES 1290-0729 1778-4166 JAN 2019 135 344 361 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2018.09.028 WOS:000466262700028 J Parsa, M; Harmand, S; Sefiane, K Parsa, Maryam; Harmand, Souad; Sefiane, Khellil Mechanisms of pattern formation from dried sessile drops ADVANCES IN COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE Parsa, Maryam/E-4565-2015 Parsa, Maryam/0000-0001-6390-710X 0001-8686 1873-3727 APR 2018 254 22 47 10.1016/j.cis.2018.03.007 WOS:000432101400002 29628116 J Parsa, M; Harmand, S; Sefiane, K; Bigerelle, M; Deltombe, R Parsa, Maryam; Harmand, Souad; Sefiane, Khellil; Bigerelle, Maxence; Deltombe, Raphael Effect of Substrate Temperature on Pattern Formation of Bidispersed Particles from Volatile Drops JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Parsa, Maryam/E-4565-2015; Bigerelle, Maxence/V-4132-2019 Parsa, Maryam/0000-0001-6390-710X; 1520-6106 DEC 7 2017 121 48 11002 11017 10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b09700 WOS:000417672200026 29135258 J Benselama, AM; Harmand, S; Sefiane, K Benselama, Adel M.; Harmand, Souad; Sefiane, Khellil Thermocapillary effects on steadily evaporating contact line: A perturbative local analysis (vol 24, 072105, 2012) PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 1070-6631 1089-7666 NOV 2017 29 11 119901 10.1063/1.5006992 WOS:000416067400049 J Parsa, M; Boubaker, R; Harmand, S; Sefiane, K; Bigerelle, M; Deltombe, R Parsa, Maryam; Boubaker, Riadh; Harmand, Souad; Sefiane, Khellil; Bigerelle, Maxence; Deltombe, Raphael Patterns from dried water-butanol binary-based nanofluid drops JOURNAL OF NANOPARTICLE RESEARCH Bigerelle, Maxence/V-4132-2019; Parsa, Maryam/E-4565-2015 Parsa, Maryam/0000-0001-6390-710X 1388-0764 1572-896X JUL 28 2017 19 8 268 10.1007/s11051-017-3951-2 WOS:000410841300001 J Duursma, G; Sefiane, K; Dehaene, A; Harmand, S; Wang, Y Duursma, Gail; Sefiane, Khellil; Dehaene, Alexandre; Harmand, Souad; Wang, Yuan Flow and Heat Transfer of Single-and Two-Phase Boiling of Nanofluids in Microchannels HEAT TRANSFER ENGINEERING 13th UK Heat Transfer Conference SEP 02-03, 2013 Imperial Coll London, London, ENGLAND Energy Futures Lab Imperial Coll London 0145-7632 1521-0537 SEP 22 2015 36 14-15 SI 1252 1265 10.1080/01457632.2014.994990 WOS:000352344100009 J Parsa, M; Harmand, S; Sefiane, K; Bigerelle, M; Deltombe, R Parsa, Maryam; Harmand, Souad; Sefiane, Khellil; Bigerelle, Maxence; Deltombe, Raphael Effect of Substrate Temperature on Pattern Formation of Nanoparticles from Volatile Drops LANGMUIR Bigerelle, Maxence/V-4132-2019; Parsa, Maryam/E-4565-2015 Parsa, Maryam/0000-0001-6390-710X; Maxence, Bigerelle/0000-0002-4144-245X 0743-7463 MAR 24 2015 31 11 3354 3367 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b00362 WOS:000351792800009 25742508 J Wang, Y; Sefiane, K; Wang, ZG; Harmand, S Wang, Yuan; Sefiane, Khellil; Wang, Zhen-guo; Harmand, Souad Analysis of two-phase pressure drop fluctuations during micro-channel flow boiling INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER 0017-9310 1879-2189 MAR 2014 70 353 362 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.11.012 WOS:000330814800036 J Benselama, AM; Harmand, S; Sefiane, K Benselama, Adel M.; Harmand, Souad; Sefiane, Khellil Thermocapillary effects on steadily evaporating contact line: A perturbative local analysis PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 1070-6631 1089-7666 JUL 2012 24 7 072105 10.1063/1.4732151 WOS:000308406000006 J Wang, Y; Sefiane, K; Harmand, S Wang, Yuan; Sefiane, Khellil; Harmand, Souad Flow boiling in high-aspect ratio mini- and micro-channels with FC-72 and ethanol: Experimental results and heat transfer correlation assessments EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE 0894-1777 1879-2286 JAN 2012 36 93 106 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2011.09.001 WOS:000298124000011 J Benselama, AM; Harmand, S; Sefiane, K Benselama, Adel M.; Harmand, Souad; Sefiane, Khellil Equilibrium profile of extended isothermal meniscus with gravity inclination effect COLLOIDS AND SURFACES A-PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING ASPECTS 18th International Symposium on Surfactants in Solution (SIS) NOV 14-19, 2010 Melbourne, AUSTRALIA 0927-7757 1873-4359 NOV 5 2011 391 1-3 SI 158 169 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2011.03.068 WOS:000299068100023 J Benselama, AM; Harmand, S; Sefiane, K Benselama, Adel M.; Harmand, Souad; Sefiane, Khellil A perturbation method for solving the micro-region heat transfer problem PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 1070-6631 OCT 2011 23 10 102103 10.1063/1.3643265 WOS:000296528000013 J Harmand, S; Sefiane, K; Lancial, N; Benselama, AM Harmand, S.; Sefiane, K.; Lancial, N.; Benselama, A. M. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the evaporation and stability of a meniscus in a flat micro-channel INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCES 1290-0729 OCT 2011 50 10 1845 1852 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2011.02.009 WOS:000293801500005 S Harmand, S; Sefiane, K; Bennacer, R; Lancial, N Ochsner, A; Murch, GE; Delgado, JMP Harmand, Souad; Sefiane, Khellil; Bennacer, Rachid; Lancial, Nicolas Experimental Investigation of the Evaporation and Stability of a Meniscus in a Flat Microchannel DIFFUSION IN SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS VI, PTS 1 AND 2 Defect and Diffusion Forum 6th International Conference on Diffusion in Solids and Liquids JUL 05-07, 2010 Paris, FRANCE 1012-0386 2011 312-315 1,2 1178 + 10.4028/www.scientific.net/DDF.312-315.1178 WOS:000297606300199
Start Year 2012