PACTMAN: Trust, Privacy and Consent in Future Pervasive Environments

Lead Research Organisation: Lancaster University
Department Name: Computing & Communications

Abstract

We live in a world in which our ability to capture personal user data far exceeds our understanding of how to manage issues of trust, privacy and consent with potentially far-reaching consequences for both individuals and society. Without independent academic research in this space we run the risk of privacy and trust being sacrificed in the rush to commercially exploit these new sensing capabilities. In this project we will conduct pioneering interdisciplinary research to create the world's first comprehensive system for privacy and consent management in future pervasive environments, i.e. environments with a wide range of sensing capabilities. Our work is informed by two scenarios - human memory augmentation and personalised information presentation. Both applications have the potential to transform key areas of our society yet raise significant privacy and consent issues that are likely to inhibit their deployment. Our work involves multiple stakeholders including the NHS and the BBC that represent these application scenarios and that are committed to working closely with the project throughout its lifetime. The project will draw on expertise from computer science, design and psychology to deliver both new models for consent and privacy and, a detailed understanding of the cognitive vulnerabilities of users of future pervasive environments, resulting in a prototype platform for privacy and consent management. In addition to delivering significant near-term benefits to our stakeholders, if successful the project has the potential to position the UK as an international leader in privacy and consent in future pervasive environments and to help catalyse the emergence of this important area of the digital economy.

Planned Impact

The PACTMAN project has the potential for significant economic and societal impacts. The knowledge produced will include new understandings of user attitudes to privacy and consent, insights into new cognitive threats in pervasive environments, new architectures for managing these issues based on existing trust relationships, prototype software and briefing documents aimed at engaging beyond the project and traditional research communities.

Economic benefits have been identified by both our stakeholder groups. Representatives of the NHS (our first stakeholder group) are clear that pervasive environments (i.e. those that are rich in sensing and display capabilities) will have a key role to play in future health care - enabling applications such as augmented cognition and assisted living. They see a direct financial benefit from the development of privacy and consent management techniques that will help applications in this sector flourish. All three of our NHS partner organisations also see the potential for immediate significant benefits if the project is able to deliver new consent models that encourage more effective data sharing within the NHS. Such models could facilitate more efficient ways of working and better patient outcomes with direct and indirect benefits to society as a whole.

Our second stakeholder group are concerned with the delivery of high quality personalised content and associated media experiences. Content personalisation in pervasive environments is a potentially highly significant market - extending beyond digital signage to encompass a wide range of personalised media/content experiences. The results of our project will help provide companies operating in this sector with tools for better management of privacy and consent that we believe will help catalyse this important new market. Support from the BBC illustrates the scale of the challenges being faced and the need to maintain viewer trust while delivering new personalised services in pervasive environments.

Through our networking events that foster UK talent in the area we will also contribute to the long term economic potential of the country in this important area of the digital economy.

In addition to the health and economic benefits outlined about the project will also deliver benefit to society through stimulating societal debate on the issues of trust and privacy in pervasive environments and by contributing to the development of new approaches to consent and privacy within the NHS and beyond.
 
Title Personalised Media Experiences on Pervasive Display Networks 
Description Video submission to the workshop on reconfigurable television experiences at the DESIGNING INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS conference 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact enabled the attendance at the workshop, opened up opportunities for future collaborations with other partners 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m4H7_8f7lp8
 
Description PETRAS PRF Making the Invisible Visible - Secure, Trustworthy, IoT Displays and Sensors for Urban Environments in CityVerve
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation PETRAS 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 01/2019
 
Description Advisor / Discussant with colleagues at University of Hertfordshire 
Organisation University of Hertfordshire
Department Department of Psychology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Two-day visit to discuss work on PACTMAN (and earlier EU-funded RECALL project). Discussants with expert scientists at University of Hertfordshire, UK and University of Grenoble, France. Discussion of application of PACTMAN memory ideas to individuals living with early onset Alzheimers.
Collaborator Contribution Discussion of a series of experiments and advised on draft funding application to use wearable technology to improve older adult memory
Impact Two day meeting
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with the University of Lugano 
Organisation University of Italian Switzerland
PI Contribution RAs (Mateusz Mikusz and Peter Shaw) spent effort on creating Tacita iOS client and Tacita Cloud Services, enabled USI to utilise the existing applications to deploy a similar display personalisation system
Collaborator Contribution Expertise and guidance
Impact Publications and dissemination of research outputs to the community.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Heathfield Residential Care Home 
Organisation Heathfield Ladies Residential Home
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are collaborating on the use of new pervasive technology in the context of a residential care home. We have conducted a multi-month display deployment and a series of interviews and focus groups.
Collaborator Contribution The partner helped us recruit 14 participants for our studies including adult children of residents and care home staff.
Impact The interviews have been audio recorded and fully transcribed and we are in the process of analyzing them.
Start Year 2017
 
Description University of Lugano Sabbatical/Placement 
Organisation University of Lugano
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution RA and academic effort contributing to the writing of two publications submitted to PerDis.
Collaborator Contribution Academic effort and office resources.
Impact Two joint papers with the University of Lugano based on PETRAS work on smart displays as part of the DiSCC project. This was enabled through two on-site visits.
Start Year 2016
 
Title Tacita Cloud Services 
Description cloud service to enable public display personalisation and other location-aware services in the context of DiSSC and PACTMAN 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact research outputs (papers and presentations), press releases (Reuters), collaborations (University of Lugano, Singapore) 
 
Title Tacita iLancaster Integration 
Description Integration of the Tacita display personalisation system into iLancaster (student app available to students, staff and visitors at Lancaster University) 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact enabled us to roll out the display personalisation software to a wider audience at Lancaster 
 
Title Tacita iOS Client 
Description The Tacita iOS client is a mobile application that allows users to subscribe to content that will be shown on pervasive displays in the space as they walk by - yet still protecting user privacy. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact This software is in daily use across the university campus at Lancaster and two partner institutions (University of Surrey and Università della Svizzera italiana in Lugano, Switzerland). A number of conference publications are planned that build on top of this iOS client. 
 
Description After Money Geocoin workshop - 21 Nov 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This workshop will introduce new developments such as blockchain and smart contracting technologies to participants in a tangible and experiential way. The aim is to foster and support creative explorations of potential future visions of value exchange in an increasingly 'smart city'.

After an initial introduction, the workshop will comprise of a hands-on exploration of GeoCoin and a creative smart contracting activity. GeoCoin is a web app developed by the Design Informatics Team to explore digital currencies and value in the city. Based on the smart contracting platform Ethereum and in association with your phone's GPS data, it will challenge your understanding of data sharing, value exchange, and economic transactions in the city in an experiential way. We will then further dive into the understanding and use of smart contracts through an 'If This Then What' design exercise to envision and imagine new narratives and potential applications.

Overall, this workshop aims to foster discussion and understanding of potential issues, concerns and opportunities arising from these new technological developments for society, business and people alike. No prior knowledge of the technologies is required to join the workshop, nor is it necesary to own a smartphone. However, bringing a smartphone along will allow you to get the most out of the experience.

Both workshops are part of the After Money Symposium which heralds the end of Design Informatics' research project After Money in collaboration with the Royal Bank of Scotland and the New Economics Foundation, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. The event is hosted by New Media Scotland as part of their 48 hours programme.

The symposium events are separately ticketed - please book sessions you would like to attend separately.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://aftermoney.design/429-2/
 
Description After Money symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This two-day symposium, organised by the Centre for Design Informatics, aims to better understand the implications that FinTech, Cryptocurrency and Smart Contract developments are having on how industry, publics and governments understand money. The fast pace and shifting developments of cryptocurrencies and their underlying technologies have raised significant questions not only about new forms of currency but the economic, social and political constructs that surround them. Challenging current norms of value representation in society and culture, this symposium aims to investigate different perspectives of how financial technologies may influence our lives. The symposium comprised three sessions, each with a unique focus on FinTech Near Futures, Policy, Value and New Economics as well as Cultures of Commodification. The day is intended to bring together a variety of people from academia, industry and culture to understand the broader, cross-cutting implications of these new forms of banking, programmable money and representations of value and its wide-ranging repercussions.

Speakers include Sarah Meiklejohn (UCL), Gavin Littlejohn (FDATA), Dug Campbell (Fankletastic Limited), Philip Godsiff (University of Surrey), Alexandre Polvora (European Commission), Doreen Grove (Scottish Government), Pip Thornton (Royal Holloway, University of London), Max Dovey (Artist & Researcher) and Dominic Smith (Independent). The audience was drawn from the Fintech community, policymakers, artists and academics. Those who spoke had already had involvement with Design Informatics, which demonstrated the continual collaboration and impact of past work by Design Informatics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://aftermoney.design/427-2/
 
Description Attendance at DIS workshop on Designing Reconfigurable Televisual Experiences 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Attendance at the workshop on Designing Reconfigurable TV Experiences introducing participants (experts in the field) to the latest smart campus (DiSSC) research on personalisable public displays.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.designingthefuture.tv
 
Description BBC World Service Click interview. Polite Robots That Make Way for People 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact BBC World Service Click interview. Polite Robots That Make Way for People
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/w3cstxkx 10th September 2017. Last figures showed this had 12130 views worldwide since 5th September - Discussion and demonstration of the BitBarista prototype which makes supply chains transparent to consumers and demonstrates the potential of autonomous economic agents.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/w3cstxkx
 
Description Demonstration, BitBarista: Crypto Payments and Making Data-Driven Choices Visible, National Cyber Security Visit, Informatics Forum, 5th September 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Demonstration, BitBarista: Crypto Payments and Making Data-Driven Choices Visible, National Cyber Security Visit, Informatics Forum, 5th September 2017. Discussion and demonstration of the BitBarista prototype which makes supply chains transparent to consumers and demonstrates the potential of autonomous economic agents.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ECR Event: Building a Community of UK TIPS Researchers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Approximately 35 PhD students and early career researchers attended a two-day event organised by Dr. Bran Knowles and Dr. Sarah Clinch for networking activities, research presentations and interactive workshops. A further 11 academics and other experts were also in attendance. Participants were encouraged to develop new research partnerships, e.g. one workship has directly led to collaboration in cybernetics between Manchester and Edinburgh.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://pactman.uk/building-a-community-of-uk-tips-researchers/
 
Description IoTUK and PETRAS Video Case Study. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact IoTUK and PETRAS Video Case Study. Bitbarista is a bitcoin powered coffee machine https://iotuk.org.uk/bitbarista/ October 2017 . Discussion and demonstration of the BitBarista prototype which makes supply chains transparent to consumers and demonstrates the potential of autonomous economic agents. The video can be used as an educational tool for a variety of technical and non technical audiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://iotuk.org.uk/bitbarista/
 
Description Nissen, Speed, Oosthuizen: Geocoin workshop, Tesco Bank, 3/11/17 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Nissen, Speed, Oosthuizen: Geocoin workshop, Tesco Bank, 3/11/17. GeoCoin is an explorative platform for geofenced digital currencies. This platform aims to make bitcoin and blockchain technologies accessible in a playful and experiential manner to a wider audience. We have used this platform as bodystorming tool in workshops to explore new models and aspects of geofencing digital currencies.
The platform was developed on the distributed smart contracting platform Ethereum with actual underlying blockchain technology and the cryptocurrency Ether which allows this software to be further adapted for real life use cases and scenarios. There are currently 4 different types of GeoCoin which allow users to collect coins which may add or subtract from their current balance. Simulating potential tax, toll and earning scenarios, this speculative software allows users to experience and explore the potential of digital currencies in a 'Smart City' environment. The workshop was held as part of the Tesco Mercury consultancy programme to open up an understanding of smart contracting outside of the realm of finance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://geocoin.site
 
Description Speed, Cooke, Turner, Oosthuizen, Alcala: BitBaritsta Demonstration at FinTech Scotland conference, Dynamic Earth, 27 & 28 September 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Demonstration of Design Informatics prototypes - BitBarista and Kash cups at launch of Fintech Scotland conference. Competition between participants to understand the possibilities of blockchain and cryptocurrencies outside of the Fintech focus. Audience was influential business people and demonstrated Edinburgh University's pioneering research in this area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.fintech2017.co.uk/
 
Description Speed: Chairing of Conference: Research Through Design, National Museum of Scotland, 22-24/03/17 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Speed: Chairing of Conference: Research Through Design, National Museum of Scotland, 22-24/03/17 The third edition of the conference was chaired by Chris Speed and Ian Lambert and was held at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh, UK, 22-24 March 2017. The museum context provided an exciting venue for exploring new and emerging disciplines of making, and a unique opportunity for RTD conference exhibits to be juxtaposed with curated NMS artefacts and collections, challenging contemporary and future notions of value and expertise.
Through the theme 'New Disciplines of Making - Shared Knowledge in Doing', the 2017 chairs continued a discussion and debate exploring how the artefacts and processes of practice-based research can become tangible outcomes. The conference programme explored ideas around the nature of knowledge 'in doing', and how we 'unpick' tacit forms of knowledge arising from processes that are often intuitive and impulsive, and sometimes recognised only on reflection - when the process has ended.
33 out of 233 submissions were included in the final programme, after being peer-reviewed by members of the Programme Committee and reviewers in the growing RTD community.
The RTD 2017 incorporated a number of Provocations alongside presentations and discussions of exhibited work. Invited speakers at RTD included Prof. Elisa Giaccardi of TU Delft, and Azusa Murakami and Alexander Groves of Studio Swine. As the conference was hosted by NMS, there was rich opportunity to hold two panel discussions that brought museum curators into conversation with design researchers and practitioners about relationships between artefacts, research, and museum spaces.
A new addition to the format for RTD 2017 was a day of workshops, which created the opportunity for researcher-practitioners to be 'hands-on' in making and experimenting and new materials, engaging multiple areas of exploration including printmaking, sandcasting and mapping. More information on the workshops is here. Outputs from experimental making at each workshop were presented back to delegates during the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.researchthroughdesign.org/news/rtd-2017-new-disciplines-of-making-shared-knowledge-in-do...
 
Description Talk - GeoAid - Exploring Smart Contracting for Humanitarian Aid Distribution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at RGS-IBG 2017 exploring Smart Contracting for Aid Distribution, 30 August. RGS IBG is a prestigious conference and demonstrated Edinburgh's pioneering research to an international audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Tallyn: Demonstration, BitBarista - Instantiation of Distributed Autonomous System, in Power 2.0: New Digital Geographies at RGS-IBG 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Tallyn: Demonstration, BitBarista - Instantiation of Distributed Autonomous System, in Power 2.0: New Digital Geographies at RGS-IBG 2017. RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2017. The 2017 Annual International Conference, held at the Royal Geographical Society in London, from Wednesday 30 August to Friday 1 September 2017. Discussion and demonstration of the BitBarista prototype which makes supply chains transparent to consumers and demonstrates the potential of autonomous economic agents.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Tallyn: Invited talk, "Bitbarista: Bitcoin powered coffee machine" at the Scottish Blockchain MeetUp 25/5/17 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ella Tallyn is a UX designer and research associate in the Design Informatics team at Edinburgh University. Ella's talk explored data transactions and smart contracts and how these might manifest in developing IoT technologies. Ella demonstrated the BitBarista coffee machine, a Bitcoin powered coffee machine that explores perceptions of value transactions. The audience was made up of industry professionals and the interested general public and helped to introduce the audience to novel and innovative techniques in designing with data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.meetup.com/Scottish-Blockchain-Meetup/events/239690439/
 
Description focus groups 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We conducted a series of focus groups (4 in total) with 13 older adults to understand attitudes to personalisation. Insights gleaned from this will form the basis of a forthcoming publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017