Modelling sperm-mucus interactions across scales

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Dept of Mathematics

Abstract

The process of the sperm reaching the egg is the reason we are all here, but we often don't stop to think, why was it that particular sperm and not one of the billions of others? If we do, we usually assume that it was all up to chance and that the sperm that provided half of our genetic make up simply had about a one-in-a-billion shot of being the one. This, however, is not the complete story and, as experimental evidence shows, the female tract deploys a variety of biochemical and biophysical mechanisms to actively select the most viable sperm cells, allowing only this group the chance at fertilising the egg. Understanding the mechanisms at play is not only fundamental to our understanding of reproductive biology, but also crucial to effectively diagnosing and treating cases of infertility.

One key player in sperm selection is mucus: the complex fluid through which the sperm cells must swim. When we think of mucus, we often think of a slimy and gooey substance. The gooeyness is due to the fact that mucus in comprised of a network of elastic filaments suspended in water. Due to its small size, a sperm cell, rather than experiencing the gooeyness, instead experiences the network as a series of obstacles with which it must interact as it tries to swim. During fertile periods, the properties of the filament network change to allow healthy, viable sperm to pass, while filtering out the rest. It remains unclear, however, which network properties enable this remarkable differentiation between healthy and abnormal sperm cells. Developing a clear understanding of the underlying mechanics of sperm-filament network interactions could pave the way for the development of new diagnostics, based on synthetic artificial mucus environments, as well as new fertility treatments.

The goal of this project is to use mathematical modelling to quantify these sperm-network interactions and explore how they impact sperm selection. The models we develop will be able to examine how both the shape and swimming characteristics of individual sperm affect its ability to move through networks of different properties, as well as how the interactions affect the motion of multiple sperm and sperm populations at scales close to the female tract itself. To do this, we will develop two kinds of mathematical models. The first model will provide a microscopic description of the coupled motion of the sperm cells and filaments by resolving the details of the fluid flows generated by the swimming sperm, the bending and stretching of the network filaments, and the collisions between the sperm cells and network filaments. This model will allow us to explore in great detail how different network properties affect the motion of individual or small groups of sperm cells with different swimming characteristics and morphologies. The second model will describe the dynamics of sperm populations in the female tract at the longer time and larger length scales not accessible to the first model. This model will be derived using a rigorous coarse-graining methodology to systematically eliminate degrees of freedom from the more detailed model while still ensuring relevant effects are captured consistently. Using this model we can explore en masse sperm selection and link population-level differentiation with details of the sperm-mucus interactions.

We aim for these mathematical models to have the two-fold effect of pushing forward fields associated with applied mathematics such as scientific computing, fluid mechanics, non-linear partial differential equations, and multiscale analysis, but also providing important inroads of using mathematics to impact the biological sciences and medicine. A key aspect of our project is to interface with active fertility clinicians and reproductive biologists and explore with them how our models coupled with their laboratory techniques might be used in the future to enhance clinical data and provide better patient outcomes

Planned Impact

Impact vision: Mathematical models are used widely in weather prediction and to predict financial markets. We envision a future where the predictive power of mathematical models is also used in healthcare to help diagnose diseases and improve patient outcomes. Our project aims to make in roads towards this vision in the context of fertility healthcare.

Impact on society: Infertility treatments are expensive, invasive, and often used without identifying the exact cause of infertility. We aim to couple our mathematical models to existing fertility diagnostics with the aim of increasing diagnosis accuracy and improving patient outcomes. To do this, we will collaborate with Dr Matt Tomlinson, the head of an NHS fertility lab, and Prof William Holt, a world leader in fertility research. We view this aspect of the project as the prototyping phase of a virtual mucus simulator, a software tool that can be used by clinical fertility labs to enhance fertility diagnosis. We plan to explain our vision of using mathematics in healthcare to the public through the Imperial Festival, an annual event showcasing the institution's research activities to a general audience.

Impact on people: The use of mathematical models in healthcare requires training junior mathematicians to work with clinical scientists. With this in mind, the PDRAs will work closely with Dr. Tomlinson and his team to couple the mathematical models with their lab data. This will become part of their larger training in numerics and data handling that will increase their job prospects. At the same time, the PRDAs will be encouraged to develop their own independent ideas. They will receive travel funds to attend conferences and develop international contacts. Throughout the project, they will receive careful guidance from EEK and PD and benefit from the Imperial College Postdoctoral Development Centre. We aim for training to also extend to postgraduates through courses we will teach as part of the multi-university TCC programme. We will also participate in the Imperial CDT in Fluid Mechanics across Scales and expose our own PhD students to the proposed research.

Impact on knowledge: Our project will provide new knowledge on the specific problem of sperm cell locomotion in filament networks, as well as the broader problem of modelling biological materials at various length- and time-scales. The new mathematical techniques that we plan to develop will find application in many other biological problems, including cancer cell motility in the extracellular matrix. Our project will provide new knowledge on using mathematical models in healthcare by working directly with clinicians and coupling our models with their data and lab techniques. We will publish our results in journals with strong interdisciplinary focus, as well as those in mathematical biology, applied mathematics, and fluid mechanics. We will also present our research at conferences serving these different communities. Additionally, we aim to bring together UK mathematicians and fertility researchers by leveraging funds to organise targeted workshops.

Impact on Economy: Coupling mathematical models with existing clinical techniques provides a clear path to new wealth creation. Dr Tomlinson is a co-founder of the start-up Pro-Creative Diagnostics which developed the computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) package Sperminator. The project will help bolster this UK-based start-up, through advertising its usage as part of an innovative project. Coupling our models with the data format provided by this software provides a direct route to their eventual usage as part of a bigger software package where simulations based on our models are run alongside video processing. We envision possible commercial activities to arise as a result of this project and plan on interfacing with Imperial Innovations which aids in the commercialisation of research emerging from Imperial.

Publications

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Aceves-Sánchez P (2019) Hydrodynamic limits for kinetic flocking models of Cucker-Smale type. in Mathematical biosciences and engineering : MBE

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Bao Y (2018) A fluctuating boundary integral method for Brownian suspensions in Journal of Computational Physics

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Blanchet A (2017) Kinetic Models for Topological Nearest-Neighbor Interactions. in Journal of statistical physics

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Chertock A (2019) Incompressible limit of a continuum model of tissue growth with segregation for two cell populations. in Mathematical biosciences and engineering : MBE

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Degond P (2019) Propagation of chaos for topological interactions in The Annals of Applied Probability

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Degond P (2018) Quaternions in Collective Dynamics in Multiscale Modeling & Simulation

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Degond P (2020) Nematic alignment of self-propelled particles: From particle to macroscopic dynamics in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences

 
Description EPSRC Capital Award for Core Equipment - Imperial College London
Amount £904,896 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/T024712/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 05/2021
 
Description Imperial European Partners Fund
Amount £3,300 (GBP)
Organisation Imperial College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 05/2019
 
Description Mathematical and In- silico modelisation of normal and malignant HSC in their niche and of their interactions with stromal cells.
Amount £160,000 (GBP)
Organisation Francis Crick Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2023
 
Description Coarse graining of an assembly of swimmers in a fluid 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Mathematics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The team of Eric Keaveny has produced a model for the collective motion of an assembly of swimmers in a fluid. The swimmers are described by a string of sphere subject to the constraint of staying contact with each other. The various swimmers interact through hydrodynamic interaction. We have started to develop a coarse-graining of this model into a fluid model for the assembly of swimmers.
Collaborator Contribution The team of Eric Keaveny has produced the microscopic model.
Impact No output so far. The project is just beginning
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collective dynamics of tethered obstacles interacting though hydrodynamic interaction 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Mathematics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sara Merino, Pedro Aceves-Sanchez and I developed a coarse grained model of an assembly of tethered obstacles embedded in a fluid and interacting though the fluid. We started from a draft written by the team of Eric Keaveny giving the microscopic description of this phenomenon and we have successively derived a kinetic model and then a fluid model.
Collaborator Contribution Eric Keaveny has provided the microscopic description of the phenomenon.
Impact So far, we have written a draft and we are aiming at developing numerical simulations of the model
Start Year 2017
 
Description Computational models for suspensions of active and Brownian particles 
Organisation Institute of Fluid Mechanics of Toulouse
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided computational models based on the force-coupling method to include effects such as active motion due to swimming and Brownian motion due to thermal fluctuations in the surrounding fluid in the suspension codes used at IMFT.
Collaborator Contribution The researchers and PhD students at IMFT performed the computations using the models.
Impact 1. B Delmotte, EE Keaveny, F Plouraboue and E Climent, 'Large-scale simulation of steady and timedependent active suspensions with the force-coupling method,' J. Comput. Phys., vol. 203, p. 524-547 (2015) 2. B Delmotte and EE Keaveny, 'Simulating Brownian suspensions with fluctuating hydrodynamics,' J. Chem. Phys, vol. 143, 244109 (2015) 3. B Delmotte, EE Keaveny, E Climent, and F Plouraboue, 'Simulations of Brownian tracers in squirmer suspensions,' to appear (2018).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Conditionning of numerical models of interacting swimmers 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Mathematics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The team of Eric Keaveny has developed a code modelling swimmers as a string of spheres moving under the constraint that they stay together. The constraint leads to a still numerical problem that generates strong stability constraints and poor conditionning. Using its experience on the handling of constrained optimization, the team of P. Degond has started to develop a new numerical algorithm which will hopefully help solving the conditionning problem.
Collaborator Contribution The Team of Eric Keaveny has provided the code modelling the swimmers.
Impact No output yet. The collaboration has just started.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Flocking through body attitude coordination 
Organisation Paris Dauphine University
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We study new models for multi-agent dynamics where each agent is described by its position and body attitude: agents travel at a constant speed in a given direction and their body can rotate around it adopting different configurations. Agents try to coordinate their body attitudes with those of their neighbours. We introduce the Individual Based Model for this dynamics and derive its corresponding kinetic and macroscopic equations. This is a new model where collective motion is reached through body attitude coordination, which has never been considered.
Collaborator Contribution All partners contributed equally to this research
Impact A paper is going to appear : P. Degond, A. Frouvelle, S. Merino-Aceituno, A new flocking model through body attitude coordination. To appear in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences. Manuscript on arXiv. Another paper has been submitted: P. Degond, A. Frouvelle, S. Merino-Aceituno, A. Trescases, Quaternions in collective dynamics. Submitted. Manuscript on arXiv.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Flocking through body attitude coordination 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Department of Zoology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We study new models for multi-agent dynamics where each agent is described by its position and body attitude: agents travel at a constant speed in a given direction and their body can rotate around it adopting different configurations. Agents try to coordinate their body attitudes with those of their neighbours. We introduce the Individual Based Model for this dynamics and derive its corresponding kinetic and macroscopic equations. This is a new model where collective motion is reached through body attitude coordination, which has never been considered.
Collaborator Contribution All partners contributed equally to this research
Impact A paper is going to appear : P. Degond, A. Frouvelle, S. Merino-Aceituno, A new flocking model through body attitude coordination. To appear in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences. Manuscript on arXiv. Another paper has been submitted: P. Degond, A. Frouvelle, S. Merino-Aceituno, A. Trescases, Quaternions in collective dynamics. Submitted. Manuscript on arXiv.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Force-coupling method for fluid-structure interactions in complex fluids 
Organisation University of Naples
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As part of this project, we are performing the force-coupling method computations and analyzing the scheme to yield a method to effectively couple the motion of microscopic flexible structures with a viscoelastic fluid.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators at the University of Naples are performing highly resolved numerical computations to compare with our results obtained by the force-coupling method.
Impact We have initiated exchanges between our groups and have identified a range of test problems to be explored. The work is ongoing.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Kinetic theory of particle interactions mediated by dynamical networks. 
Organisation University of Orleans
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We develop a multiscale analysis of a system of particles interacting through a dynamical network of links. Starting from a microscopic model, via the mean field limit, we derive coupled kinetic equations for the particle and link densities, Assuming that the process of remodelling the network is very fast, we simplify the description to a macroscopic model taking the form of single aggregation-diffusion equation for the density of particles. We analyze qualitatively this equation, addressing the stability of a homogeneous distribution of particles for a general potential. For the Hookean potential we obtain a precise condition for the phase transition, and, using the central manifold reduction, we characterize the type of bifurcation at the instability onset.
Collaborator Contribution All partners contributed equally to this research
Impact Two papers have been sumbitted: J. Barré, P. Degond, E. Zatorska, Kinetic theory of particle interactions mediated by dynamical networks. Submitted. Manuscript on arXiv and J. Barré, J. A. Carrillo de la Plata, P. Degond, D. Peurichard, E. Zatorska, Particle interactions mediated by dynamical networks: assessment of macroscopic descriptions, Submitted. Manuscript on arXiv Further studies are ongoing.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Kinetic theory of particle interactions mediated by dynamical networks. 
Organisation University of Vienna
Department Faculty of Mathematics
Country Austria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We develop a multiscale analysis of a system of particles interacting through a dynamical network of links. Starting from a microscopic model, via the mean field limit, we derive coupled kinetic equations for the particle and link densities, Assuming that the process of remodelling the network is very fast, we simplify the description to a macroscopic model taking the form of single aggregation-diffusion equation for the density of particles. We analyze qualitatively this equation, addressing the stability of a homogeneous distribution of particles for a general potential. For the Hookean potential we obtain a precise condition for the phase transition, and, using the central manifold reduction, we characterize the type of bifurcation at the instability onset.
Collaborator Contribution All partners contributed equally to this research
Impact Two papers have been sumbitted: J. Barré, P. Degond, E. Zatorska, Kinetic theory of particle interactions mediated by dynamical networks. Submitted. Manuscript on arXiv and J. Barré, J. A. Carrillo de la Plata, P. Degond, D. Peurichard, E. Zatorska, Particle interactions mediated by dynamical networks: assessment of macroscopic descriptions, Submitted. Manuscript on arXiv Further studies are ongoing.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Methods for Brownian particles 
Organisation New York University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided theoretical results for the development of a fluctuating boundary integral method for highly accurate simulations of Brownian particles in Stokes flow.
Collaborator Contribution Provided further theoretical results and a numerical implementation of the method. Performed numerical computations based on the method.
Impact Y Bao, M Rachh, EE Keaveny, L Greengard, and A Donev, 'A fluctuating boundary integral method for Brownian suspensions,' submitted, (2017)
Start Year 2016
 
Description Models for self-propelled disks interacting through alignment and volume exclusion 
Organisation University of Strasbourg
Department Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We study individual-based models describing disk-like self-propelled particles. The disk directions of motion follow alignment rules and volume exclusion interactions with their neighbors. We formally derive a macroscopic model based on self-organized hydrodynamic (SOH) models describing the transport of mass and evolution of mean direction of motion of the disks. Numerical comparisons between the individual-based and macroscopic models are carried out. These models could be applicable, for instance, to describe sperm-cell collective dynamics.
Collaborator Contribution All partners contributed equally to this research
Impact A paper has appeared: P. Degond, L. Navoret, A multi-layer model for self-propelled disks interacting through alignment and volume exclusion, Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, 25 (2015), 2439-2475 (open access). A second one is being written.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Numerial algorithms for packing. 
Organisation Arizona State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We consider algorithms that, from an arbitrarily sampling of N spheres (possibly overlapping), find a close packed configuration without overlapping. These problems can be formulated as minimization problems with non-convex constraints. For such packing problems, we observe that the classical algorithms do not converge. We derive a novel algorithm and compare this algorithm with classical algorithms. We provide an analysis of the convergence of these algorithms. We investigate the behaviour of our algorithm when the number of spheres is large in two and three spatial dimensions
Collaborator Contribution Each partner contributed equally to this research
Impact A research paper has appeared: P. Degond, M. A. Ferreira, S. Motsch, Damped Arrow-Hurwicz algorithm for sphere packing. Journal of Computational Physics, 332 (2017), pp. 47-65 (open access). A second paper is being written and future works are in preparation.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Symmetry-breaking phase-transitions in highly concentrated semen 
Organisation French National Institute of Agricultural Research
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The project is about producing an automated assessment process of semen fertility, based on the massal motility as a fertility indicator. Depositing fresh semen sample in an annular shaped microfluidic chip leads to a spontaneous vortex state of the fluid at sufficiently large sperm concentration. The rotation occurs unpredictably clockwise or counterclockwise and is robust and stable. The rotation speed gives an objective measurement of mass motility. Our team proposed the design of the experiment, conceived the model and did the numerical simulations.
Collaborator Contribution They realized the experiments and the measurements.
Impact A paper has appeared: A. Creppy, F. Plouraboué, O. Praud, X. Druart, S. Cazin, H. Yu, P. Degond, Symmetry-breaking phase-transitions in highly concentrated semen, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 13 (2016), 20160575. A European patent has been filed. This collaboration is multidisciplinary: it involves mathematicians (our team), physicists (the team from IMFT) and biologists (the team from INRA).
Start Year 2011
 
Description Symmetry-breaking phase-transitions in highly concentrated semen 
Organisation National Center for Scientific Research (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS)
Department UMR 5502 Institute of Fluid Mechanics of Toulouse
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The project is about producing an automated assessment process of semen fertility, based on the massal motility as a fertility indicator. Depositing fresh semen sample in an annular shaped microfluidic chip leads to a spontaneous vortex state of the fluid at sufficiently large sperm concentration. The rotation occurs unpredictably clockwise or counterclockwise and is robust and stable. The rotation speed gives an objective measurement of mass motility. Our team proposed the design of the experiment, conceived the model and did the numerical simulations.
Collaborator Contribution They realized the experiments and the measurements.
Impact A paper has appeared: A. Creppy, F. Plouraboué, O. Praud, X. Druart, S. Cazin, H. Yu, P. Degond, Symmetry-breaking phase-transitions in highly concentrated semen, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 13 (2016), 20160575. A European patent has been filed. This collaboration is multidisciplinary: it involves mathematicians (our team), physicists (the team from IMFT) and biologists (the team from INRA).
Start Year 2011
 
Description Topological interactions in a Boltzmann-type framework 
Organisation University of Toulouse
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We consider a model for particles interacting through topological interactions. This means that the interaction probability of a particle with another one is a function of the proximity rank of the latter with respect to the former, and not of the metric distance between them. Topological interactions have been shown to rule many natural phenomena, such as the interactions between birds in a flock. We study the limit of a system size going to infinity and show that the limit model is ruled by an equation of the Boltzmann type. This is the first time that a Boltzmann type equation is obtained for topological interactions
Collaborator Contribution All partners have contributed equally at all stages of this partnership.
Impact A publication has appeared: A. Blanchet, P. Degond, Topological interactions in a Boltzmann-type framework, Journal of Statistical Physics, 163 (2016), pp. 41-60 (open access). Another publication will soon be finalized
Start Year 2015
 
Description continuum model for nematic alignment of self-propelled particles 
Organisation University of Vienna
Country Austria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution A continuum model for a population of self-propelled particles interacting through nematic alignment is derived from an individual-based model. The methodology consists of introducing a hydrodynamic scaling of the corresponding mean-field kinetic equation. The resulting perturbation problem is solved thanks to the concept of generalized collision invariants. It yields a hyperbolic but non-conservative system of equations for the nematic mean direction of the flow and the densities of particles flowing parallel or anti-parallel to this mean direction. Diffusive terms are introduced under a weakly non-local interaction assumption and the diffusion coefficient is proven to be positive. An application to the modeling of myxobacteria is outlined.
Collaborator Contribution All partners have contributed equally at all stages of this research.
Impact A paper has appeared: P. Degond, A. Manhart, H. Yu, A continuum model for nematic alignment of self-propelled particles, Discrete and Continuum Dynamical Systems Series B, 22 (2017), pp. 1295-1327 (open access). Another one has been submitted: P. Degond, A. Manhart, H. Yu, An age-structured continuum model for myxobacteria, submitted. Manuscript on arXiv.
Start Year 2015
 
Title Filament model software 
Description This is a Matlab implementation of the filament models that we have developed to simulate our sperm-mucin network interactions. The can be found: https://github.com/ekeaveny/filaments . 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2019 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact n/a to date 
 
Description (In preparation) Oberwolfach snapshot (article for broad audience) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Article in the "Oberwolfach snapshot" explaining for a broad audience the applications of kinetic theory to biology. This article is in preparation and it started at a workshop in Oberwolfach in December 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Applied Mathematics Seminar at the University of Wisconsin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The results from the project were presented to leading researchers on the mathematical modelling of fluid-structure interations in biology and their PhD students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Applied and Interdisciplinary Mathematics Seminar, University of Michigan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Results from the project were presented during the Applied and Interdisciplinary Mathematics seminar at the University of Michigan. In the audience were leading experts in fluid dynamics applied to biological systems, as well as other problems in biomathematics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description British Society of Rheology Midwinter Meeting, Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The results from the project were presented to leading researchers in rheology and the mathematical modelling of fluid-structure interactions and their PhD students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Computational Science and Engineering Seminar -- University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a research seminar aimed at promoting and explaining the methodology developed as part of this project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description DAMTP Fluids Seminar at the University of Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a research seminar at the University of Cambridge during which results of the project were presented and questions on them were taken.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics Seminar at Northwestern University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Results were presented to an audience of researchers in Applied Mathematics, included several with expertise in mathematical biology (neural networks and biofilm growth) and fluid mechanics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Fluid Dynamics Seminar -- University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented research related to the project to other researchers in Fluid Dynamics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description GCSE Maths In Action 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Speaker at regional schools engagement event to talk about the project and the role of mathematics in food and human biology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Imperial Lates 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The results from the project were presented to the general public in an open event at Imperial College, which sparked discussions and questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Jerudong International School, Brunei 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Visit to international school to talk about the project and the role of mathematics in food and human biology, and to take part in a panel on careers in science and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Mathematical Biology Seminar at the University of Minnesota 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Results from the project were presented to leading researchers in mathematical biology and the mechanics of cells.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Max Planck Institute Winter School Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented an overview of the fluid mechanics of microscale propulsion to PhD students. It was a 2 lecture series.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Public lecture at ICMS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture at the occasion of the workshop 'Collective dynamics and self-organization in biological sciences', International Cente for Mathematical Sciences (ICMS), Edinburgh, May 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public lecture at UFF, Brasil 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Public lecture for mathematics undergraduate students at Instituto de Matema´tica e Estati´stica (IME) da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus do Gragoata´, Nitero´i, Brasil, August 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description SIAM Conference on Computational Science and Engineering 2019, Spokane 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The results from the project were presented to leading researchers on the mathematical modelling of fluid-structure interactions in biology and their PhD students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019