Learning from Earthquakes: Building Resilient Communities Through Earthquake Reconnaissance, Response and Recovery

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Sch of Engineering

Abstract

Earthquake reconnaissance plays an invaluable role in earthquake engineering, as it enables the collection of perishable data on building performance that are otherwise unobtainable. Such data can be used to prepare damage statistics, calibrate and validate engineering models and crucially, to decide what design and/or construction deficiencies lead to inadequate structural performance. This research goes beyond the immediate needs of engineers as it can provide the evidence base for the development of new disaster risk reduction policies and mitigation practices worldwide.
In the UK, earthquake field investigations have been conducted by EEFIT since 1982, reporting on the damage observed and inspiring research into building standards for earthquake resistant design and assessment. This research will use the experience gained in EP/I01778X/1 to continue and expand important work in reducing and eventually eradicating the risk of significant death, damage to the economy, and social upheaval resulting from earthquakes. This grant will enable UK based academics to continue to participate in earthquake field investigations conducted by EEFIT and to improve coordination with international equivalents in the USA, Australia and New Zealand, and Europe. grow UK earthquake risk reduction activities, improve the dissemination of EEFIT Mission findings and further increase their impact. Not only will this research continue to collect valuable information in the aftermath of a disaster, but it will also develop new methods of collecting and interpreting this data as well and further develop standard international disaster data collection protocols. This data will be housed in a unique future proof repository that will allow researchers and other stakeholders to easily access and use the information This is important as not only will it enable the UK to stay at the forefront of earthquake engineering research, but it will assist donor countries and other organizations to more accurately access the severity of the disaster and therefore to better target the correct amount of resource for relief and rebuilding efforts.

Planned Impact

The ultimate long-term impact that this grant aims to achieve is the reduction of deaths, economic damage and social upheaval resulting from earthquakes. The field missions and research proposed will provide an invaluable contribution to the understanding of earthquake impacts, disaster response and different approaches to earthquake recovery, which form the foundations to the development of new research, technologies, building codes and policies for disaster risk reduction. Hence, communities and industry at risk from earthquakes are the main long-term beneficiaries of this proposal and all the work that it underpins. However, the findings of this research are also of interest to governmental institutions, non-governmental agencies, and donors in the field of international development. In the short to mid-term however, the proposal provides a platform for UK engineers to learn about practical aspects of earthquake engineering design, how these affect the damage susceptibility of a community and learn of the efficacy of different recovery strategies In the UK, there is an excellent and active earthquake engineering community, predominantly with roles in academia, civil engineering consultancies, the nuclear and insurance industries. However, it can be difficult for young researchers and engineers to gain practical experience in this important discipline. If funded, this proposal will provide opportunities for these engineers to further their knowledge of infrastructure damage assessment, structural strengthening, geotechnical assessments, remedial works and other aspects of earthquake engineering and disaster recovery. This will benefit this engineering community and maintain the UK's strong international reputation for earthquake engineering expertise. The importance of EEFIT missions is recognised across UK industry and academia, as demonstrated by their strong support of this proposal (see letters of support) and participation in EEFIT missions over the last 5 years (i.e. 6 UK academic institutions and 8 companies).

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description In addition to the impacts reported for EP/P025641/1, the project is working on the development of an Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for the storage and display of field reconnaissance data of different types. A thorough review of past data captured during field missions has been conducted. A survey has also been concluded, where past participants in EEFIT missions have expressed their aspirations and needs for the SDI. This information has been used in order to design the SDI structure and capabilities. The SDI prototype has been developed and is being tested on data collected during the recent 2018 Sulawesi, Indonesia reconnaissance mission.
An immediacy reconnaissance mission has been launched to Indonesia following the 28 September 2018 earthquake and tsunami. An EEFIT Team led by Prof. Tiziana Rossetto deployed to Indonesia in November 2018. The EEFIT Team conducted the field reconnaissance in partnership with the Tsunami and Disaster Management research Centre, Banda Aceh. Whilst in the field the EEFIT Team engaged with the Shelter Cluster (led by International Federation of Red Cross), providing some basic hazards advice relating to where to put camps. The team conducted a meeting with Ministry of Public Works to discuss with them the link between their irrigation channel and the triggering of landslides seen in Palu. EEFIT also focussed on school assessments and general building damage observations, communicating these to Save the Children who are undertaking school rebuilding assistance. Observations from this mission have already been presented to the engineering community in the UK, through a talk organised by the Institution of Structural Engineers and held at the auditorium of the Willis Towers Watson Building in London on 17th December 2018. The observations have also been disseminated to the international academic community through presentation at a special session at the American Geophysical Union Conference. Currently, the observations and related research is being published as an EEFIT Report and through a number of conference papers.

KEY FINDINGS:
To date we have identified the needs of users for field reconnaissance data storage and display, which have been incorporated into the bespoke Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and we are in the process of testing this with new field data.
In the case of the 28 September 2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami, we have conducted a reconnaissance mission that has provided data for an improved understanding of the earthquake, tsunami and lanslides hazard characteristics of the event. This event provides an exemplar of multi-hazard impact on a community and is the current subject of study by the reconnaissance team. A particular finding is the relationship between the observed massive landslides and the presence of a man-made irrigation channel, that saturated the ground making it more susceptible to landsliding. We have also collected data that is helping us to understand the impact of these hazards on local school infrastructure and on coastal buildings.
Exploitation Route The SDI that is being developed to hold the earthquake reconnaissance data will be used in future earthquake missions and will be a portal for the dissemination and download of reconnaissance data.
The observations made during the 2018 Sulawesi event will inform future research studies on the hazard and resilience of Palu, Indonesia. Furthermore, observations on the built environment performance will feed into current risk models developed by insurers and civil engineering companies.
Sectors Construction

 
Description In addition to the impacts reported for EP/P025641/1, the project is working on the development of an Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for the storage and display of field reconnaissance data of different types. A thorough review of past data captured during field missions has been conducted. A survey has also been concluded, where past participants in EEFIT missions have expressed their aspirations and needs for the SDI. This information has been used in order to design the SDI structure and capabilities. The SDI prototype has been developed and is being tested on data collected during the recent 2018 Sulawesi, Indonesia reconnaissance mission. An immediacy reconnaissance mission has been launched to Indonesia following the 28 September 2018 earthquake and tsunami. An EEFIT Team led by Prof. Tiziana Rossetto deployed to Indonesia in November 2018. The EEFIT Team conducted the field reconnaissance in partnership with the Tsunami and Disaster Management research Centre, Banda Aceh. Whilst in the field the EEFIT Team engaged with the Shelter Cluster (led by International Federation of Red Cross), providing some basic hazards advice relating to where to put camps. The team conducted a meeting with Ministry of Public Works to discuss with them the link between their irrigation channel and the triggering of landslides seen in Palu. EEFIT also focussed on school assessments and general building damage observations, communicating these to Save the Children who are undertaking school rebuilding assistance. Observations from this mission have already been presented to the engineering community in the UK, through a talk organised by the Institution of Structural Engineers and held at the auditorium of the Willis Towers Watson Building in London on 17th December 2018. The observations have also been disseminated to the international academic community through presentation at a special session at the American Geophysical Union Conference. Currently, the observations and related research is being published as an EEFIT Report and through a number of conference papers.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Construction
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description 11 ncee special session on earthquake reconnaissance 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop on future directions for earthquake reconnaissance was held as part of the 11 national conference on earthquake engineering. The workshop was attended by practicing engineers, academics and post-grad students and was aimed at setting the agenda for this discipline
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description EEFIT Management Committee Meeting B 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Steering Committee Meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description EEFIT management commitee meeting A 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Steering group meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description EEFIT management committee meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact EEFIT management committee is the governing structure for the Earthquake Engineering Filed Investigation Team and is responsible for helping to organize all uk based earthquake reconnaissance efforts. There are 4 of these each year and this entry covers all 4 meetings
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2018
 
Description Earthquake Reconnaissance planning mission Mexico A 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A meeting to discuss sending an Earthquake Reconnaissance mission to Mexico
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Earthquake Reconnaissance planning mission Mexico B 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact second Earthquake Reconnaissance planning mission Mexico
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description MS Amlin academic advisory panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact MS Amlin (a large insurance company) has set up an academic advisory panel to help them better understand risk and methods to assess it, This was the inaugural meeting. It was attended by a wide range of academics, insurers and insurance analysts and a wide range of risk based research activities and challenges was discussed. It is hoped that this will lead to better collaboration between insurance industry and academic research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Pint of Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a public presentation on how earthquakes affect communities. It was attended by approx 50 people who were very lively in the question sessions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Risk Reduction and Recovery meeting to discuss GRADE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A meeting with Dr Rashmin Gunasekera from the World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Risk Reduction and Recovery on 6th November 2018 to talk the project and our draft guidelines for earthquake data collection
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2018
 
Description school visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A school visit to Archibald First school to demonstrate how earthquakes occur and how they affect buildings, with demonstration of a shaking table. A second demonstration was requested due to the response of the children and teachers responded very positively to the activity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018