Enabling Next Generation Additive Manufacturing

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract

Twenty-first century products demand a new toolset of manufacturing techniques and materials; next generation multifunctional Additive Manufacturing (AM) is one such key tool. As an enabler for new smart, cost-effective, functional 3D heterogeneous devices, products and advanced materials, it will be an essential instrument for future industrial applications and advanced research across a wide spectrum of disciplines and sectors. To accelerate next-generation AM, we have established a multi-institution, multidisciplinary team which spans both basic/applied sciences and engineering and involves collaborations with two leading international research groups and eight multinational industry partners. Our vision is to establish controlled next generation multifunctional AM and translate this to industry and researchers. Initially focussing on novel electronic and pharmaceutical/healthcare applications, we aim to move beyond single material AM by exploiting the potential to deposit multiple materials contemporaneously for the delivery of spatially resolved function and structure in three dimensions (3D).
Owing to potentially radical differences in physical state, chemistry and compatibility, our primary challenge is at the interface of the deposited materials. This programme will focus on overcoming the challenges of spatially controlled co-deposition of dissimilar materials in 3D and we will establish new understanding and methods of both modelling and controlling co-deposition. Exploitation of our findings will be undertaken through higher TRL schemes with our network of research and industrial partners and the wider innovation ecosystem through existing and future projects.

Planned Impact

Beneficiaries of the research will include:
- The Programme's researchers, academic's and industrial partners will benefit through participation in an internationally leading research effort. This will result in a marked increase in their understanding of multi-material coalescence/interaction for the four process families to be investigated and will unlock multidisciplinary potential for multi-material, multi-functional devices.
- The Programme will train PhDs and Post-Doctoral Researchers in the rich multidisciplinary environment of a world-class partnership of industry and academia. Coupled with the application foci, this will yield demonstrable real-world relevance and impact set against state-of-the-art fundamental research
- The wider academic community will garner value from the research programme through published articles in leading journals and conference presentations; disseminating the materials and process understanding will underpin the accelerated exploitation of the multifunctional AM capability across research disciplines.
- UK industry will benefit through new research that further enhances the UK's leading position in AM technology and exploitation. The research will impact existing products and new product conception and realisation, with corresponding economic, societal, healthcare and environmental benefits.
- The HVM Catapult (especially through our strong connection with the MTC) and its members will benefit by having a pipeline of research to exploit in future years, emanating from this lower TRL activity.
- Society will benefit through the expedited realisation of advanced multifunctional devices which will have multi-sectoral benefits from improved healthcare devices and treatment options to (e.g.) improved energy storage devices
- The healthcare system will benefit through the genuine advancement in technologies which have the capability to help deliver on the need for personalised healthcare and advanced pharmaceutical/medical devices, helping alleviate current, and the inevitable future, demands on healthcare services.
- Younger generations and the wider public will benefit through clear and well-developed engagement strategy in local schools and a programme of public engagement events

Collaboration and early adopter translation of the research outcomes (the understanding and dynamic control of dissimilar material deposition in 3-dimensions) will be a major mechanism to channel the impact of this Programme, delivering value to the stakeholders and the wider scientific and industrial community. Our focus will be driven through two key application areas and is built on both current and fresh alliances to global industrial partners (see attached letters of support):

The Pharmaceutical / Healthcare Sector: Through strategic partnering with AstraZeneca and Pfizer on this Programme, we have a wealth of global pharmaceutical research and development excellence to bear upon and engage in our research strategy. Our vision and ambitions are both endorsed and shared by an industry who are readily equipped to capitalise and exploit technological advances which can have substantial impact on society's health and wellbeing whilst bringing additional and significant economic benefits.

The Electronics sector: Embedded electronics within devices is a fundamental precept of functionality (often the function within a device). The ability to produce the "function" and "structure" within a single manufacturing process enables not only the reduced assembly and parts consolidation advantages of AM but also the freedom to design and create products not previously achievable. Our collaborators AWE, Canon-Oce, Texas Instruments and Rogers Corp provide a body of pioneering organisations who understand and anticipate the innumerable opportunities and applications that next generation AM capability will generate and want to be at the forefront of that technological innovation

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title EPSRC Science Photo Competition 2019 - 1st prize in the Innovation category for 'Wonder balls in a small world' by Joseph White and Qin Hu 
Description The winning image shows various polymeric micro-sized balls designed by Joseph White and fabricated by Dr Qin Hu by two-photon lithography-based 3D printing technology. The diameter of each ball is 40µm, roughly less than half of the diameter of human hair. 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact The competition and prize winners were covered by the Guardian newspaper, and the image has been shortlisted for inclusion in the Highfield Park Image Exhibition 2020 
URL https://www.theguardian.com/science/gallery/2019/jun/03/nano-robots-vr-for-refugees-epsrc-photograph...
 
Description FAPESP funding (G F Trindade) - 3D Printing of Micro-Patterned Gaseous Detectors: A route for sensor adaptability and optimisation. Joint with the University of Sao Paulo
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 2019/07426-0 
Organisation São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) 
Sector Public
Country Brazil
Start 10/2019 
End 10/2021
 
Description Imaging Mechanical Strength in Advanced Materials (Equipment grant opportunity for ERC)
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 03/2020
 
Description Intelligent Structures for Low Noise Environments
Amount £1,703,189 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S03661X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 11/2023
 
Description MSk MEC and UKRMP Smart Materials Hub Sandpit competition- Development of a fatigue detection device to prevent musculoskeletal injuries in football (LRC)
Amount £14,900 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 06/2020
 
Description MSk MEC and UKRMP Smart Materials Hub Sandpit competition: Mechano-chemical integration at the osteochondral interface (LR)
Amount £14,900 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 06/2020
 
Description UNICAS Sandpit Award. Tea for two photon polymerisation: functional microdevice fabrication using a novel 3D printing approach for safe and controlled drug delivery. Elizabeth Clark, Qin Hu, Lea Santu and Graham Rance
Amount £12,133 (GBP)
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 07/2019
 
Title Method for Producing a Polycarbonate Article 
Description A method for producing a polycarbonate article comprises printing a droplet onto a target location in a build area to obtain a printed droplet, wherein the droplet comprises a precursor solution comprising a precursor composition, a catalyst, and a solvent; removing at least a portion of the solvent from the printed droplet to obtain a bead comprising a precursor precipitate, wherein the precursor precipitate comprises the precursor composition and the catalyst; repeating the printing step and the removing step adjacent to or on the bead to obtain a plurality of adjacent beads comprising precursor precipitates; and polymerizing the precursor precipitates to obtain the polycarbonate article 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This work helped building understanding of the complexity of reactive inkjet printing for step growth polymers, including handling of the condensates and getting sufficient conversion on the surface, after being jetted. A range of derivative IPs could be potentially generated from this fundamental work, including but not limited to the composite materials, modified polycarbonate with alternative curing mechanisms, post-processing development and QA etc. 
URL https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&II=0&ND=3&adjacent=true&locale=e...
 
Description AWE contribution to metaljet and jetting aspects 
Organisation Atomic Weapons Establishment
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provide technical expertise and access to facilities
Collaborator Contribution AWE will contribute £270,000 towards metaljetting and jetting aspects of the Programme's work and a contract has not yet been signed.
Impact There are no outputs as yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Astra Zeneca 
Organisation AstraZeneca
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Supervision, project design, training, access to laboratories and facilities in the University of Nottingham Faculty of Engineering and School of Pharmacy
Collaborator Contribution Funding for two PhD studentships each at £32,550.00 = £65,100.00 total, some supervision, and access to their pharmaceutical expertise and experimental facilities.
Impact No outcomes yet. Multidisciplinary collaboration.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Canon Production Printing (MetalJet) 
Organisation Canon
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Centre for Additive Manufacturing developed 3D printing applications for the novel high temperature jetting print heads owned by Canon Production Printing. Two printing platforms were designed and engineered to print a number of materials including tin, silver and copper in 3D.
Collaborator Contribution Loan of their MetalJet system and provided advice on jetting.
Impact It is a multidisciplinary collaboration which has resulted in the following outputs: 1. Publication: Towards digital metal additive manufacturing via high-temperature drop-on-demand jetting, Simonelli et al, Additive Manufacturing 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2019.100930 2. AWE research grant worth £600,000 3. Various conference papers
Start Year 2017
 
Description Dstl studentships 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Project design and supervision of a PhD studentship, access to laboratory faculties.
Collaborator Contribution Funding and supervision of two PhD studentships (£130,000) which will start in October 2019. A representative of Dstl sits on the Programme's Advisory Board and provides links to the wider defence community.
Impact The studentships will commence in October 2019 and an agreement will be signed once the students have been recruited. Useful contributions have been made by the Dstl colleague who sits on the Programme's Advisory Board.
Start Year 2018
 
Description JFE steel corporation, Japan 
Organisation JFE Steel Corporation
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Centre for Additive Manufacturing at UoN will produce a demonstrator made of tin on a copper substrate using the droplet-on-demand technology Metaljet. The demonstrator is to be fabricated from Sn will be the JFE steel corporation logo. This logo will be printed on a 50*40 mm2 substrate. The research team will produce a report detailing the experimental conditions and results (droplet, velocity, etc). Photos (observation result of droplet collision behaviour) will be included.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborator provides the financial support for the study by taking responsibility for all the expenses for the experiments.
Impact The output from this study will be the demonstrator that will be provided to the sponsor.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Karlsruhe Institute of Technology 
Organisation Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborate via joint workshops, exchange of know-how and PhD student exchanges.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborate via joint workshops, exchange of know-how and PhD student exchanges.
Impact No outputs as yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) 
Organisation Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Share advances in mutli-material fabrication and collaborate on the further development of the two-photon process and modelling simulation of liquid metals. A material transfer agreement is being prepared.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborate on the further development of the two-photon process and modelling simulation of liquid metals. This will involve hosting students, post-docs and staff at LLNL, frequent visits and exchanges and possible access to their capability either through LLNL staff or direct utilisation.
Impact No outcomes as yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Metaljet with Canon Oce 
Organisation Océ Holding
Country Netherlands 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have established an exclusive relationship with Canon Oce in the Netherlands to be their research partner in turning their proprietary metaljetting technology in to a Additive Manufacturing system.
Collaborator Contribution Supply of their proprietary metaljet technology
Impact Award of EPSRC funds for "Eight Great Technologies" for specialist metaljetting equipment
Start Year 2013
 
Description NPL 
Organisation National Physical Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Share research advances regarding the Programme's Research Challenge 1
Collaborator Contribution Share their expertise and allow access for a fee to their 3DNanoSIMS equipment.
Impact A collaborative paper has been published in the journal 'ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces'.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Texas Instruments Inc 
Organisation Texas Instruments Inc.
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Report relevant research advances
Collaborator Contribution In kind access to their tools and project support worth approx £60,000 was promised. Additional funding for three PhD studentships worth £81,119 each (total £243,357) was also provided.
Impact No outcomes as yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description University of Birmingham 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Professor Yulii Shikhmurzaev from the University of Birmingham is a co-applicant on the EPSRC Enabling Next Generation Additive Manufacturing Programme Grant. He sits on the Programme's Executive Team and will line manage a research fellow working on Research Challenge 2 of the Programme.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Yulii Shikhmurzaev from the University of Birmingham is a co-applicant on the EPSRC Enabling Next Generation Additive Manufacturing Programme Grant. He sits on the Programme's Executive Team and will line manage a research fellow working on Research Challenge 2 of the Programme.
Impact No outcomes as yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description University of Warwick 
Organisation University of Warwick
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr James Sprittles from the University of Warwick is a co-applicant on the EPSRC Enabling Next Generation Additive Manufacturing Programme Grant. He sits on the Programme's Executive Team, is joint lead for the Programme's Research Challenge 2 and line manages a Programme research fellow.
Collaborator Contribution Dr James Sprittles from the University of Warwick is a co-applicant on the EPSRC Enabling Next Generation Additive Manufacturing Programme Grant. He sits on the Programme's Executive Team, is joint lead for the Programme's Research Challenge 2 and line manages a Programme research fellow.
Impact Dr Sprittles is an author on 6 journal papers which have acknowledged this Programme.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Archway STEM Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact STEM festival hed at Bluecoats Beechdale Academy, Nottingham for school students and their families
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Co-host: Additive International Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Additive International is the premier summit for academic and industrial leaders in Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing. Since 2006, we have showcased next-generation technology and the latest thinking, providing a forum for practitioners to build their networks and drive innovation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.additiveinternational.com
 
Description FAESP Week London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) organized FAPESP WEEK LONDON on 11-12 February 2019. The international symposium aimed to strengthen the links between researchers from Brazil and the United Kingdom, with the objective of promoting research partnerships. It is part of the UK-Brazil Year of Science and Innovation (YoSI) 2018-2019. FAPESP is one of the major funding agencies for scientific research in Brazil. Funded by the public taxpayer, its mission is to foster scientific research in all fields of knowledge by awarding scholarships, fellowships and grants to investigators linked with higher education and research institutions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. FAPESP is aware that the very best research can only be done by working with the best researchers internationally. Therefore, it has established partnerships with funding agencies, higher education, private companies, and research organizations in other countries known by the quality of their research and has been encouraging scientists funded by its grants to further develop their international collaborations
Programme researcher Gustavo Ferraz Trindade connected with other researchers and gathered information about funding for potential collaborations involving the application of metal/organic 3D printing for the manufacture of GEM detectors (collaboration between UON-USP-CERN).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.fapesp.br/week2019/london/
 
Description Family Discovery Day 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact University of Nottingham Discovery Days offer engaging sessions with academic experts. Children and their families also meet current students and take part in interactive campus tours. There are visit in school before the day to introduce the concept of university and the Discovery Day theme. After the Discovery Day, there are further classroom visits, working with children to consider their future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Hosted summer internships 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact We hosted 6 undergraduate students on 8-10 week summer internships
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description IOP 'Science of Printing and Interfacial Phenomena' Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The conference brought together internationally leading researchers across a wide range of disciplines in both academia and industry to exchange ideas and discuss new research on physics of printing and droplet deposition. The focus was on experimental and numerical research that advances the science in the field of wetting kinematics, drying phenomena, sintering of nanoparticles, rheology and influence of recent research on printing/deposition technologies.The invited speakers were from academia and industry, and was organised by the Institute of Physics Printing and Graphics Group.
Programme researcher Dr Ehab Saleh was an organiser, Co-I Dr James Sprittes spoke about his research on modelling of droplet/substrate interface phenomenon and researcher Dr Gustavo Ferraz Trindade presented a poster on the advanced characterisation of multimaterial 3D printed objects . The outcome was that Programme members from three different Research Challenges connected with colleagues in related fields.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.iopconferences.org/iop/frontend/reg/thome.csp?pageID=787478&eventID=1274&traceRedir=2
 
Description IntuUniversity Family Learning Graduation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact During their visit to the University campus, school students and families met enthusiastic academics and tried out a range of hands-on, drop in activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description New Scientist Live (Fromhold 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presented as part of a large national science festival open to the public, schools, families, professionals and the media
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Pint of Science (Fromhold 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Evening talk to the general public in an informal environment as part of the Pint of Science festival
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Pint of Science - Tech Me Out 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Programme team members took part in two activities as part of Pint of Science -Tech Me Out 2019 - informal events at various Nottingham city centre venues
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Pint of Science Creative Reactions, Nottingham (Fromhold 2018, Gosling 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Evening talk/activity to the general public in an informal environment as part of the Pint of Science festival at various Nottingham city centre venues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Royal Society Quantum Technologies Showcase (Fromhold) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Exhibitors to showcased their research, innovation activities and products to a large industry and government audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Supported the Polymer Research Symposium 2019, University of Nottingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact One of our team members, Amy Stimpson was a joint organiser for this event and the Programme provided financial support of £500 towards the event costs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description UK Quantum Technology Industry Showcase (Fromhold 2018, 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The UK National Quantum Technologies Programme is a UK Government Investment in excess of £600m over 10 years, aimed at accelerating the translation of quantum technologies into the marketplace, boosting British business and making a real difference to our everyday lives. The UK national quantum technologies showcase events recognise and demonstrate the breadth of current investments and activities undertaken as part of the National Programme and the growing commercialisation of quantum technologies in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description University of Nottingham Faculty of Engineering Christmas Lecture 2019 - support activities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A programme team member took part in the support engagement activities which form part of the UoN Faculty of Engineering Christmas Lecture for local school students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019