UK Turbulence Consortium

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Dept of Aeronautics

Abstract

Understanding, predicting and controlling turbulent flows is of central importance and a limiting factor to a vast range of industries: naval, aeronautical, automotive, power generation, process, pharmaceutical, meteorological and environmental. Our view is that the key to advances in turbulence is by sustaining and stimulating interaction among researchers. It is essential that a diverse range of viewpoints, opinions, strategies and methods are brought together in an efficient and constructive manner. The essence of the consortium is to provide the central core of a needed critical mass activity considering the big challenges posed by turbulence.

The consortium brings together complementary expertise/experience/knowledge and coordinate activities to look at coherent, rational and strategic ways of understanding, predicting and controlling turbulent flows using High Performance Computing. The consortium is crucial for the UK in order to coordinate, augment and unify the research efforts of its participants and to communicate its expertise and findings to a wider audience. Firstly funded in 1995, the UKTC has been through five highly successful iterations. It has seen significant growth since its inception, from 5 original members to 46 members over 21 UK institutions for the present bid, and is continuously receiving requests from academics to join (20 new members for the present bid). In the last 22 years, the UKTC has (i)
demonstrated its ability to convert access to national High-End Computing (HEC) resources into internationally leading research (hundreds published papers since 1995 with thousands non-self citations), (ii) established its international competiveness, (iii) helped its members to leverage and secure multi -million £ grants from governmental funding bodies and industries, (iv) allowed the discovery of new fluid flow phenomena which have led to new ways of improving beneficial effects and reducing negative effects of turbulent flows and (v) facilitated the design of more sophisticated turbulence models redefining industry standards.

The member of the consortium are (in alphabetic order): Pavlos Aleiferis (Imperial College London); Eldad Avital (Queen Mary London); Angela Busse (University of Glasgow); Yongmann Chung (University of Warwick); Dimitris Drikakis (University of Strathclyde); David Emerson (Daresbury Lab); Jian Fang (Daresbury Lab); Gerard Gorman (Imperial College London); Shuishen He (University of Sheffield); Yongyun Hwang (Imperial College London); Richard Jefferson-Loveday (University of Nottingham); Xi Jiang (Queen Mary London); Robert Kerr (University of Warwick); Jae-Wook Kim (University of Southampton); Sylvain Laizet (Imperial College London); Michael A. Leschziner (Imperial College London); Kai Luo (University College London); Xuerui Mao (University of Nottingham); Olaf Marxen (University of Surrey); Joanne Mason (University of Exeter); Aimee S. Morgans (Imperial College London); Charles Moulinec (Daresbury Lab); Gary Page (Loughborough University); George Papadakis (Imperial College London); Matthew Piggott (Imperial College London); Alfredo Pinelli (City University London); Alistair Revell (University of Manchester); Pierre Ricco (University of Sheffield); Aldo Rona (University of Leicester); Neil Sandham (University of Southampton); Mark Savill (University of Cranfield); Peter Schmid (Imperial College London); Mehdi Seddighi (University of Liverpool); Spencer Sherwin (Imperial College London); John S. Shrimpton (University of Southampton); Vassilios Theofilis (University of Liverpool); Emile Touber (Imperial College London); Paul Tucker (University of Cambridge); Maarten van Reeuwijk (Imperial College London); J. Christos Vassilicos (Imperial College London); Peter Vincent (Imperial College London); Andy Wheeler (Univer-
sity of Cambridge); Beth Wingate (University of Exeter); Jun Xia (Brunel University London); Yufen Yao (University of Bristol).

Planned Impact

The research to be carried out in the UK turbulence consortium is relevant to the transportation, energy supply/genera on, biomedical and process sectors in the UK and the world. In addition to creating new knowledge and training for the next genera on of engineers and scientists, the research carried out in this HEC consortium will deliver benefits to the economy and allow us to realize our societal goals.

Despite being the largest contributors to harmful emissions, the transportation, energy genera on/supply and process sectors are experiencing unprecedented growth around the world. For example, it is estimated that more than 29, 000 new large civil airliners, 24, 000 business jets, 5, 800 regional aircraft and 40,000 helicopters will be required worldwide in 2032 to deal with the constant increase of worldwide air traffic. It is predicated that by 2025 there will be more than 16 billion passengers per year worldwide. The UK is directly concerned by this challenge as it is the second biggest national aerospace industry in the world, with a 17% global market share for a turnover of more than £20 billion every year, sustaining more than 200,000 jobs. Aviation will need to find ways to meet this impressive growing demand whilst reducing its environmental impact - specifically the noise levels and carbon emissions. This can only be achieve with be er understanding of the overarching subject of turbulence. Many of our members, with AIRBUS and the US Air Force, are currently working on drag reduction techniques for airplanes, high-speed trains, automotive vehicles and over the hulls
of ships and submarines. Even a 1% reduction in drag can save at least 25,000 gallons of fuel per year per aircraft . Worldwide, this reduction could translate to fuel savings of more than $1 billion per year. The resulting reduction in emissions into the air is equally as impressive. Those projects will have a significant impact in our quest towards a greener future.

Since the mid-1990s, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been integrated into industrial design and engineering processes, playing a decisive role in improving the quality and efficiency of complex products and significantly reducing the me to market. HEC has enabled simulations at a higher level of precision and complexity, significantly impacting new areas of research. CFD is now recognised as a driver of economic growth and societal well-being and is vital for maintaining international competitiveness. The UK has a long history in Europe of developing cutting-edge applications dedicated to CFD. Because of the rapid evolution of the enabling technologies and the expanding range of applications demand, the UK needs to support and encourage this consortium, which can produce new knowledge, help to design innovative products and reduce cost and me of their implementation in real life applications. A striking example is the recent purchase by our project partner Siemens of the CFD software company CD-Adapco for $970M which clearly shows that better turbulence models that can improve engineering design for a great range of applications are crucially needed by industries. Siemens believes that work within UKTC constitutes a very important contribution to developing knowledge of turbulence and therefore new avenues for modelling turbulence in a very wide range of engineering applications. As project partner, Siemens will have first-hand access to any information, understanding or guidance from our fundamental DNS/LES research that can filter into their commercial CFD software. Rolls-Royce, heavily involved with several members of the consortium, believes that the consortium is crucial to gain insights into turbulence physics and has enabled them to better understand limitations of their current CFD approaches and how to devise improvement strategies to take a competitive lead. This interest is shared by an F1 team who is pushing to embrace leading edge simulation techniques.
 
Description Understanding, predicting and controlling turbulent flows is of central importance and a limiting factor to a vast range of industries: naval, aeronautical, automotive, power generation, process, pharmaceutical, meteorological and environmental. Simulating and understanding turbulent flows to manipulate them at our advantage is one of the most challenging problems in science. Many of the environmental and energy-related issues we face today cannot possibly be tackled without a be er understanding of turbulence.

--> development of state-of-the-art flow solvers
--> networking activities for better engagement with industries and to promote collaboration
--> design of new turbulence models for industries
Exploitation Route Scientists can used our software for their own research
Industries can contact the UK Turbulence Members for collaborations
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Energy,Transport

 
Description FIA
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Title Database UK Turbulence Consortium 
Description Collection of databased generated by UK Turbulence Consortium members. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Data used by various research group worldwide 
URL https://www.ukturbulence.co.uk/database.html
 
Description Airbus 
Organisation Airbus Group
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution City University London: collaboration with AIRBUS to study the characterisation of swept wings in transitional and turbulent regimes and the introduction of large scale vortex generators to control separation at high loading.
Collaborator Contribution City University London: collaboration with AIRBUS to study the characterisation of swept wings in transitional and turbulent regimes and the introduction of large scale vortex generators to control separation at high loading.
Impact See list of publications
Start Year 2019
 
Description BAE Systems 
Organisation BAE Systems
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Cranfield: project aiming to investigate the reproducibility of turbulent structures in a forced flat plate boundary layer, under a controlled level of uncertainty. Imperial College London: development of state-of-the-art flow solvers based on high-order methods
Collaborator Contribution University of Cranfield: project aiming to investigate the reproducibility of turbulent structures in a forced flat plate boundary layer, under a controlled level of uncertainty. Imperial College London: development of state-of-the-art flow solvers based on high-order methods
Impact See list of publications
Start Year 2019
 
Description EDF Energy 
Organisation EDF Energy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution University of Sheffield: collaboration with EDF Energy to study natural convection in an enclosed rod bundle and for the modelling of the cooling of Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR) fuel in low flow scenarios encountered during refuelling.
Collaborator Contribution University of Sheffield: collaboration with EDF Energy to study natural convection in an enclosed rod bundle and for the modelling of the cooling of Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR) fuel in low flow scenarios encountered during refuelling.
Impact See list of publications
Start Year 2019
 
Description MBDA UK 
Organisation MBDA Missile Systems
Department MBDA UK Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution University of Southampton: collcaboration with MBDA UK. The project is considering shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions with side walls. The project has developed a compressible form of an inflow condition based on an efficient forward stepping approach and validated this for square duct flows. Further work is continuing to explore shock interaction and the validation of WENO/TENO numerical schemes for the problems of interest.
Collaborator Contribution University of Southampton: collcaboration with MBDA UK. The project is considering shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions with side walls. The project has developed a compressible form of an inflow condition based on an efficient forward stepping approach and validated this for square duct flows. Further work is continuing to explore shock interaction and the validation of WENO/TENO numerical schemes for the problems of interest.
Impact See list of publications
Start Year 2019
 
Description National Grid Gas 
Organisation The National Grid Co plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution University of Manchester: development of embedded large eddy simulation for National Grid Gas distribution networks
Collaborator Contribution University of Manchester: development of embedded large eddy simulation for National Grid Gas distribution networks
Impact See list of publications
Start Year 2019
 
Description PETROBRAS 
Organisation Petrobras Brazil
Country Brazil 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Imperial College London: Collaboration with the University of Porto Allegre and PETROBRAS, Brazil, in environmental turbulence. The project is related to turbidity currents in the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Collaborator Contribution Imperial College London: Collaboration with the University of Porto Allegre and PETROBRAS, Brazil, in environmental turbulence. The project is related to turbidity currents in the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Impact See list of publications
Start Year 2019
 
Description Rolls-Royce 
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution University of Cambridge: very intense collaboration with Rolls Royce on various projects related to improving the performance of engines: Targeting loss mechanisms using high-fidelity simulations (funding via EPSRC CDT in Gas Turbine Aerodynamics); Accurate loss prediction using high fidelity methods (funding via EPSRC CDT in Gas Turbine Aerodynamics); Velocity ratio effects on jet-aerofoil interaction; Large Eddy Simulation of Mach number effects on jet with a nearby surface; Large Eddy Simulation of compressible coaxial jets with and without flight streams and installation effects; Large Eddy Simulation of interference effects of leading edge instrumentation on turbine blades; Investigation of fan wake turbulence for broadband noise using Large Eddy Simulation; Interaction between the Separated Turbulent Shear Layer and Downstream Fan Using the Geometry Modelling Method.
Collaborator Contribution University of Cambridge: very intense collaboration with Rolls Royce on various projects related to improving the performance of engines: Targeting loss mechanisms using high-fidelity simulations (funding via EPSRC CDT in Gas Turbine Aerodynamics); Accurate loss prediction using high fidelity methods (funding via EPSRC CDT in Gas Turbine Aerodynamics); Velocity ratio effects on jet-aerofoil interaction; Large Eddy Simulation of Mach number effects on jet with a nearby surface; Large Eddy Simulation of compressible coaxial jets with and without flight streams and installation effects; Large Eddy Simulation of interference effects of leading edge instrumentation on turbine blades; Investigation of fan wake turbulence for broadband noise using Large Eddy Simulation; Interaction between the Separated Turbulent Shear Layer and Downstream Fan Using the Geometry Modelling Method.
Impact See list of publications
Start Year 2019
 
Description SIEMENS SOFTWARE 
Organisation Siemens industry Software
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Imperial College London: development of state-of-the-art turbulence models
Collaborator Contribution Imperial College London: development of state-of-the-art turbulence models
Impact See list of publications
Start Year 2019
 
Title Code_Saturne 
Description Code_Saturne is a multi-physics CFD open source software first developed by industry, and now widely spread in academia. It relies on the finite-volume method to discretise the equations up to 2nd order in space and time, and is suitable for LES in complex geometries, as its unstructured nature support sany type of cells. It is written in C, Fortran and Python is used to manage the simulations. MPI/OpenMP handle parallelisation, and the code has shown good performance on over 3 million threads on Argonne's Blue Gene/Q. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2019 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact See list of publications 
URL https://www.code-saturne.org
 
Title Incompact3d 
Description Incompact3d is a powerful high-order flow solver for academic research. Dedicated to Direct and Large Eddy Simulations (DNS/LES), it can combine the versatility of industrial codes with the accuracy of spectral codes. It scales with up to one million cores. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized with finite-difference sixth-order schemes on a Cartesian mesh. Explicit or semi-implicit temporal schemes can be used for the time advancement depending on the flow configuration. To treat the incompressibility condition, a fractional step method requires to solve a Poisson equation. This equation is fully solved in spectral space via the use of relevant 3D Fast Fourier transforms(FFTs), allowing any kind of boundary conditions for the velocity field in each spatial direction. Using the concept of the modified wavenumber, the divergence free condition is ensured up to machine accuracy. The pressure field is staggered from the velocity field by half a mesh to avoid spurious oscillations. The modelling of a solid body inside the computational domain is performed with a customised Immersed Boundary Method. It is based on a direct forcing to ensure a no-slip boundary condition at the wall of the solid body while imposing non-zero velocities inside the solid body to avoid discontinuities on the velocity field. This customised IBM, fully compatible with the 2D domain decomposition and with a possible mesh refinement at the wall, is based on a 1D expansion of the velocity field from fluid regions into solid regions using Lagrange polynomials. To reach realistic Reynolds numbers, an implicit LES strategy can be implemented to solve the Navier-Stokes equations without any extra explicit modelling. In order to mimic a subgrid-scale model, artificial dissipation can be added via the viscous term thanks to the artificial dissipative features of the high-order compact schemes. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2019 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact see list of publications 
URL http://www.incompact3d.com
 
Title Nektar++ 
Description Nektar++ is a tensor product based finite element package designed to allow one to construct efficient classical low polynomial order h-type solvers (where h is the size of the finite element) as well as higher p-order piecewise polynomial order solvers. Nektar++ is available in both a source-code distribution and as pre-compiled binary packages for a number of operating systems. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2019 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact See list of publications 
URL https://www.nektar.info/
 
Title OpenSBLI 
Description OpenSBLI is a Python-based modelling framework that is capable of expanding a set of differential equations written in Einstein notation, and automatically generating C code that performs the finite difference approximation to obtain a solution. This C code is then targetted with the OPS library towards specific hardware backends, such as MPI/OpenMP for execution on CPUs, and CUDA/OpenCL for execution on GPUs. The main focus of OpenSBLI is on the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with application to shock-boundary layer interactions (SBLI). However, in principle, any set of equations that can be written in Einstein notation may be solved. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2019 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact See list of publications 
URL https://opensbli.github.io/
 
Description Participation at Imperial Festival 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Demonstration of the Shadowgraph experiments (how to see invisible air using advance optical techniques) during Imperial Festival 2017/2018/2019. Imperial Festival is a free public event which is held each year on Imperial's South Kensington Campus. The weekend-long event features activities and attractions for all ages, including: Hands-on demonstrations; Workshops; Talks and Tours. More than 400 pupils attended for a school visit on the Friday, which sparked questions and discussion afterwards. More than 10,000 members of the public attended on Saturday and Sunday. As a result of a very successful event, we are now receiving request to reproduce this experiments at other outreach events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/festival/
 
Description Twitter account for the UK Turbulence Consortium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Twitter account for the UK Turbulence Consortium
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com/ukturbulence