SofTMech with MIT and POLIMI (SofTMechMP)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: School of Mathematics & Statistics

Abstract

Soft tissue related diseases (heart, cancer, eyes) are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite extensive
biomedical research, a major challenge is a lack of mathematical models that predict soft tissue mechanics across
subcellular to whole organ scales during disease progression. Given the tremendous scope, the unmet clinical needs, our
limited manpower, and the existence of complementary expertise, we seek to forge NEW collaborations with two world-leading
research centres: MIT and POLIMI, to embark on two challenging themes that will significantly stretch the initial
SofTMech remit: A) Test-based microscale modelling and upscaling, and B) Beyond static hyperelastic material to include
viscoelasticity, nonlinear poroelasticity, tissue damage and healing. Our research will lead to a better understanding of how
our bodies work, and this knowledge will be applied to help medical researchers and clinicians in developing new therapies
to minimise the damage caused by disease progression and implants, and to develop more effective treatments.
The added value will be a major leap forward in the UK research. It will enable us to model soft tissue damage and healing
in many clinical applications, to study the interaction between tissue and implants, and to ensure model reproducibility
through in vitro validations. The two underlying themes will provide the key feedback between tissue and cells and the
response of cells to dynamic local environments. For example, advanced continuum mechanics approaches will shed new
light on the influence of cell adhesion, angiogenesis and stromal cell-tumour interactions in cancer growth and spread, and
on wound healing implant insertion that can be tested with in vitro and in vivo systems. Our theoretical framework will
provide insight for the design of new experiments.
Our proposal is unique, timely and cost-effectively because advances in micro- and nanotechnology from MIT and POLIMI
now enable measurements of sub-cellular, single cell, and cell-ECM dynamics, so that new theories of soft tissue
mechanics at the nano- and micro-scales can be tested using in vitro prototypes purposely built for SofTMech. Bridging
the gaps between models at different scales is beyond the ability of any single centre. SofTMech-MP will cluster the critical
mass to develop novel multiscale models that can be experimentally tested by biological experts within the three world-leading
Centres. SofTMech-MP will endeavour to unlock the chain of events leading from mechanical factors at subcellular
nanoscales to cell and tissue level biological responses in healthy and pathological states by building a new mathematics
capacity.
Our novel multiscale modelling will lead to new mathematics including new numerical methods, that will be informed
and validated by the design and implementation of experiments at the MIT and POLIMI centres. This will be of enormous
benefit in attacking problems involving large deformation poroelasticity, nonlinear viscoelasticity, tissue dissection, stent-related
tissue damage, and wound healing development. We will construct and analyse data-based models of cellular and
sub-cellular mechanics and other responses to dynamic local anisotropic environments, test hypotheses in mechanistic
models, and scale these up to tissue-level models (evolutionary equations) for growth and remodelling that will take into
account the dynamic, inhomogeneous, and anisotropic movement of the tissue. Our models will be simulated in the
various projects by making use of the scientific computing methodologies, including the new computer-intensive methods
for learning the parameters of the differential equations directly from noisy measurements of the system, and new methods
for assessing alternative structures of the differential equations, corresponding to alternative hypotheses about the
underlying biological mechanisms.

Planned Impact

Academic beneficiaries:

Multi-scale soft tissue modelling, based on biological processes and specifically designed
experiments, attacks the grand challenge of integrating cellular and sub-cellular mechanics with tissue and organ scale
mechanics that lies at the core of biomechanics research. Thus, the project will contribute to both basic and applied
sciences, as well as the translational (healthcare) domain. Our novel statistical inference methods will provide powerful
tools that will also be of benefit to cognate disciplines, like pathway medicine and systems biology.

The project will train 2 RAs and 11 PhD students, and benefit 50+ PhD students supervised by the applicants. It will aid early career researchers in the team to develop their international leadership, and expand cutting-edge soft tissue mechanics research in the UK. The
computational framework will be licensed for commercial software development to provide easy access for nonmathematicians.

Beneficiaries in EPSRC Healthcare Technologies:

The research will generate new models for studying many different soft
tissue diseases, and form the backbone of generic soft tissue modelling applicable to many additional health challenges. It
will contribute to "Novel treatment and therapeutic technologies" by providing the means to simulate tissue growth, cancer
invasion and cell migration, and inform the design of new experimental methods for cell and tissue growth, and drug
delivery, for heart and cancer applications and beyond. Our models will help to identify new biomarkers in MRI,
contributing to "Enhanced prediction and diagnosis in real time and at the point of care". As the tools can be used for the
development of experimental methods and translation of experimental results into clinical practice, it is also linked to
"Design, Manufacture and Integration of Healthcare Technologies".

Socio-Economic impact:

SofTMech-MP will enhance the quality of life and health in the UK, and beyond, and enhance the
UK's global competitiveness by addressing the most important healthcare problems. Heart disease is the leading killer in
the world, responsible for ~30% of all deaths each year. Cancer is the second deadliest disease, and the World Health
Organization projects that without immediate action, the global number of deaths from cancer will increase by nearly 80%
by 2030. Retinal degenerative diseases will affect 196 million people worldwide in 2020, predicted to rise to 288 million by 2040. Our
research will generate a range of reproducible models for studying these diseases that will facilitate translational medical
research to enhance diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. By developing test- and data-based modelling, we will examine
how cellular changes affect stress and strain distributions within organs, what drives functional responses within cells, and
which parameters are strongly associated with adverse remodelling leading to heart failure, wound healing after implants,
retinal detachment, or cancer metastasis. This fundamental research will significantly advance our understanding of
disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and responses to therapy, and hence move clinical research forward.
SofTMech-MP will raise awareness of our research to new and existing groups by networking activities, increase
knowledge transfers by involving new clinical/industrial partners through networking and Dialogues, and influence the
effectiveness of public services and policy by engagement with the Turing Gateway to Mathematics. Ultimately, our research will improve
the quality of life of all and lead to health economic benefits for the NHS and wider society.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Cell modelling:
Using Gaussian process enhanced semi-automatic approximate Bayesian computation, we have performed parameter inference in a stochastic differential equation system for chemotaxis. Our findings show how local deformations of the cell membrane (so-called pseudopods) drive cell movement, how these deformations depend on the diffusion and reactions of certain chemicals (activators and inhibitors) in the cell membrane, how a variation of the chemical reaction and diffusion parameters induces different cell movement modes, and how these parameters can be estimated, along with sound uncertainty quantification, from cell movement data.
Dr Jakub Koery (RA1) has constructed an extensive literature review on single cell modelling, particularly focusing on the structure of the cytoskeleton and models for cross-linked actin filaments. He has formulated a new discrete model for a cross-linked actin network and examined the response to prescribed motion of a single cross-link (to mimic optical tweezers experiments for estimating cell rheology conducted by our collaborators at MIT) He has further performed discrete-to-continuum upscaling on this discrete model, deriving a new (nonlinear) continuum model for the cell rheology within the framework of nonlinear elasticity and extracting a new strain energy function for the cell. Dr Namshad Thekkethil (RA2) has performed finite element simulations using this new strain energy functional, and the results show good qualitative agreement with Dr Koery's results.

A new collaboration has been established with Professor Albert Folch at the University of Washington, which led to a Vest Scholarship to support a one-year visit to Folch's lab by Yin's PhD student Giulia Spennati. There, Giulia developed a realistic 3D tissue platform for in vitro metastatic assays. Using these platforms, we show that the more aggressive invasion of the MDAMB-231 breast cancer cells likely resulted not only from their lower stiffness but also from their lower adhesion to the surrounding tissue. These discoveries have just been published in Experimental Cell Research (2021) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2021.112527.

Poroelasticity and porous media flow: We developed a poroelastic ventricular framework accounting for three-phase interaction, which is used to build a left ventricle model. We published interesting new results and extensive validation using this framework. We found that the poroelastic left ventricle model behaves differently from the hyperelastic left ventricle model. For example, accounting for perfusion results in a smaller diastolic chamber volume, agreeing well with the well-known wall-stiffening effect under perfusion reported previously. Meanwhile, differences in systolic function, such as fibre strain in the basal and middle ventricle, are found to be comparatively minor. Dr Namshad Thekkethil also developed an immerse interface model for both hyperelastic and poroelastic material.

We revealed the role of microscale solid matrix compressibility on the mechanical behaviour of poroelastic materials and derived a new model which describes the macroscale mechanics and effective coefficients of poroelastic composites. We also investigated the role of inhomogeneous body forces in driving fluid flow in heterogeneous porous media. We derived a new model which can be used to predict the role of magnetic (or electric) fields on ferrofluids (or electrolytes) flowing in porous and their interplay with the heterogeneous porous structure.

Mechanics of complex systems/composites: We investigated the behaviour of electrosensitive multiscale materials and derived a new set of effective balance equations for composites characterised by a discontinuity in both the electric and the mechanical properties.

Growth and Remodelling: We published a new model for estimating the residual stress of the heart using multiple opening angle cuts. The key result is that multiple cuts must be in a combination of radial and circumferential cuts and that the residual stress could be twenty times greater compared with existing one-cut opening angle methods. We estimated growth tensors of the heart from human longitudinal data and identified three different growth patterns: shrinkage, dilation, and no-change. We also revealed that the growth tensor can be used to indicate a longer-term growth trend of the heart.

Viscoelasticity: Since his appointment six months ago Dr Yangkun Du (RA3) has produced an excellent and thorough survey of the literature on both theoretical and experimental aspects of the elasticity and viscoelasticity of cells and tissues and identified suitable theoretical models for the purposes of comparison with experimental results. This has been used as a basis for formulating the finite deformation indentation of a soft half-space with a rigid indenter in order to obtain a finite deformation generalization of the linearly elastic Hertz indentation result, and good progress has been made towards this.

We developed a new model for hierarchical viscoelastic composites and computed three-scales homogenised properties for wavy layered structures analytically. We also implemented a new semi-analytical scheme (AHMFE, i.e. Asymptotic Homogenisation Method Finite Elements) via which we computed (a) the effective properties of isotropic viscoelastic composites in three dimensions and (b) extended the formulation to compute the effective properties for both long and short (i.e. cylindrical inclusions) anisotropic fibres.

Application to the heart: we studied the effects of myofibre architecture on ventricular pump function by using a neonatal porcine heart model: from DT-MRI to rule-based methods, and we found the progression of cardiac amyloidosis can be predicted using mechanical models and multiple biomarkers. We also developed a number of surrogate models based on machine learning methods for parameter estimation of left ventricle myocardium. We developed a ghost structure finite difference method for a fractional FitzHugh-Nagumo monodomain model on moving irregular domain. Furthermore, we studied the closed-loop effects on cardiovascular decision support. We made a comparative evaluation of different emulators for cardiac Mechanics.

Applications to stent: We obtained analytical and numerical studies of shape memory polymers stent and found that radial strength of stent is a function of the radius of the stent and periodic numbers of the unit cell in the circumferential direction. We identified influences of vessel curvature and plaque composition on drug transport in the arterial wall following drug-eluting stent implantation. We identified how stent expansion alters drug transport properties of the arterial wall.

Applications to the eye: We modelled floppy iris syndrome and the impact of pupil size and ring devices on iris displacement.
Exploitation Route Journal publications, open-source software, conference presentations, new collaborations, research visits, talks to clinicians.
Sectors Education,Healthcare

 
Description SofTMechMP is a new International Centre to Centre Collaboration between the SofTMech Centre for Multiscale Soft Tissue Mechanics (www.softmech.org) and two world-leading research centres, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the USA and Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) in Italy, funded by the EPSRC. Its exciting programme of research addresses important new mathematical challenges driven by clinical needs, such as tissue damage and healing, by developing multiscale soft tissue models that are reproducible and testable against experiments. Heart disease has a strong negative impact on society. In the United Kingdom alone, there are about 1.5 million people living with the burden of a heart attack. In developing countries, too, heart disease is becoming an increasing problem. Unfortunately, the exact mechanisms by which heart failure occurs are poorly understood. On a more optimistic note, a revolution is underway in healthcare and medicine - numerical simulations are increasingly being used to help diagnose and treat heart disease and devise patient-specific therapies. The Centre started on 1st January 2020 and economic and social impacts are not expected till later in the award. However, SofTMechMP has an impressive range of project partners that it engages with to advance research and ultimately deliver real-world impact. These include Biomer Technology Ltd; Boston Scientific; Dassault Systemes; GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK); Humanitas University; InSilicoTrials Technologies; Kirkstall Ltd; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; NHS; Polytechnic University of Milan; Scottish Health Innovations Ltd; Siemens; Terumo Aortic; Translumina GmbH; Vascular Flow Technologies.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Education,Healthcare
 
Description IEC\NSFC\191622 - International Exchanges 2019 Cost Share (NSFC) Royal Society-Newton Mobility Grant
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Funding ID IEC\NSFC\191622 - International Exchanges 2019 Cost Share (NSFC) 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2020 
End 03/2022
 
Description Leverhulme Research Fellowship (Professor Nick Hill)
Amount £55,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2021 
End 04/2022
 
Description SofTMech with MIT and POLIMI (SofTMechMP)
Amount £1,599,530 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S030875/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2019 
End 06/2023
 
Title Cardiac Modelling with dispersed myofibre and collagen structures 
Description It is the accompanying dataset and model the paper "modelling of fibre dispersion and its effects on cardiac mechanics from diastole to systole", accepted in the Journal of Engineering Mathematics. It implements two different fibre dispersion models within two ventricular finite element models: a bi-ventricular rabbit heart and a human left ventricular model. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This study highlights the importance of fibre dispersion in cardiac mechanics, and for the first time to investigate how to incorporate a complex fibre dispersion distribution into a cardiac mechanics model. This work has been presented in the Living Heart Project Seminar, and we are working with the Virtual Human Team from Dassault System to implement it in the Living Heart Project. 
URL https://github.com/HaoGao/DispersedFibresMyocardiumModelling
 
Title GlasgowHeart: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-derived 'virtual twin' cardiac mechanics platform 
Description A personalized biomechanical cardiac modelling framework, aimed at the mechanistic understanding of individual patients' cardiac remodelling in the longer-term and risk-stratification. Our long-term aim is to be able to revolutionise clinical practice through accurate risk-stratification and virtual testing. Four modules are currently available in GlasgowHeart: 1) image processing, 2) biomechanics modelling, 3) personalization, inference and machine learning of left ventricular (LV) mechanics and 4) statistical emulation as shown in Figure 1. Modules 1, 2 and 3 have been developed in MATLAB by the co-authors, and module 4 is programmed in Python using Tensor Flow, Scikit-learn, XGBoost to use advanced machine-learning methods. For computational modelling in module 2, we further use LibMesh, IBAMR, Fenics for solving nonlinear systems, Visit and Paraview for 3D visualization. Module 2 can also work with other commercial packages for biomechanics simulations (ABAQUS, FEAP). 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This framework has been developed over the last ten years and contributed to various projects and funding applications. Recently it was presented in SCMR 2021 conference in the open-source software demo session. 
URL https://github.com/HaoGao/GlasgowHeart
 
Description Interview for BBC Scotland News, 12th November 2020: Colin Berry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Colin Berry discussing the effects of long COVID on BBC News on the 12th November, 2020. The purpose was to make the general public aware that some people who become infected with COVID suffer long lasting effects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://twitter.com/UofGMVLS/status/1326844312525606914
 
Description Joint CDT conference (Team member Prof. Matthew Dalby, Director of Glasgow lifETIME CDT) - a meeting between CDTs based in Glasgow, Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Aston, Sheffield, Keele, Nottingham and Loughborough 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The following EPSRC Centres for Doctoral Training across the UK regenerative medicine field and the UK society for biomaterials came together online on 24th and 25th June 2020:
EPSRC-SFI Joint CDT in Engineered Tissues for Discovery, Industry and Medicine (LifETIME)
EPSRC/MRC CDT in Regenerative Medicine
EPSRC/MRC CDT in Regenerative Medicine
EPSRC Advanced Biomedical Materials CDT (ABM)
EPSRC CDT in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM)
Doctoral Network for Technologies in Healthy Ageing (Ageing)

The CDTs showcased their research to professionals and other PhD students within the field via Zoom.
The conference will began with keynote speaker Prof Liam Grover, Director of the Healthcare Technologies Institute (HTI) at the University of Birmingham.
The conference then broke out into six themes across two days. During each session there were presentations from later year CDT students within the field and poster and flash talks from early year students. Time was also allowed to view posters on the UKSB website in advance of the poster discussion session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://lifetime-cdt.org/agenda-of-cdt-events/
 
Description LifETIME Centre for Doctoral Training stakeholder day (Team Member Prof. Matthew Dalby, Director of the LifETIME CDT) - a meeting between industry, academics, charities and funders to enhance student training. Jan 2021. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact LifeTIME Centre for Doctoral Training (LifeTIME CDT) stakeholder day. Professor Matthew Dalby is the Director of the lifETIME CDT; the meeting was held to discuss ideas on enhancing student training. The partners were from industry, academia, charities and funders.
The stakeholder day will bring together LifETIME students, academics, industry partners, iClub members and steering group.
The purpose of the stakeholder day was to capture our stakeholder views from which the management will use to refine the CDTs impact strategy. In the morning a facilitator captured CDT subjects, highlighted and raised by stakeholders. These subjects then formed the basis for the discussion points in the afternoon.
The afternoon consisted of six co-current discussions over three different sessions. Each session 30 minutes long and stakeholders had the chance to attend the discussion most important and relevant to them. The discussion sessions used open space principles and responses and suggestions will be collected.
There was als an opportunity for all attendees to network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://lifetime-cdt.org/agenda-of-cdt-events/
 
Description LifeTIME Centre for Doctoral Training student day (Team Member Prof. Matthew Dalby, Director of the lifETIME CDT) - a meeting between industry, academics, charities and funders to develop student networking abilities and allow them to show their work to different sectors. Sept 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact the first LifETIME Student Day took place on Thursday 10th September 2020 via Zoom.
The student day will brought together lifETIME academics, partners, iClub, steering board and students. During the event the 2019 cohortl showcased their research projects and th industrial partners will presented a 5-minute pitch about their company and technologies. This was followed by talks from the funders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://lifetime-cdt.org/agenda-of-cdt-events/
 
Description Presentation of GlasgowHeart Platform in SCMR 2021 meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This is the first time to present the Glasgow heart modelling framework to clinicians in one of the largest meetings in the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging community, SCMR 2021. The audiences consist of clinicians, imaging experts, industry partners, etc. The presentation was given in the first software demo session of the SCMR meeting, which brings the mechanic model one step closer to clinicians. The meeting committee believes that biomechanical biomarkers shall be included in the diagnosis guideline, and encourage more open-source software within the society of cardiac magnetic resonance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://scmr2021.process.y-congress.com/scientificProcess/Schedule/?setLng=en
 
Description Research visits and seminars at the University of Auckland, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, and Department of Maths, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Both students and researchers, including other international visitors, attended the talks during the visits, which sparkled questions and discussion afterwards, and laid the foundation for future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description SofTMech Training Day 8th January 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact On Friday 8th January 2021 an on-line training day organised by the SofTMech Training Committee led by Professor Dirk Husmeier and Dr Peter Stewart was held. The workshop was mainly aimed at PhD students and postdocs, but also welcomed staff members who were interested in closer future collaborations. 51 people registered for the workshop with 48 attending. Postgraduate and Staff from the University of Glasgow, University of Plymouth, Terumo Aortic, Politecnio Milano (POLIMI) (Italy), MIT (US), EPFL and North Carolina State University attended. The aims of the day were :
To give the mathematical modellers a brief overview of state-of-the-art statistical inference in complex systems.
To give statisticians an opportunity to learn about the basic mathematical modelling principles relevant to our projects.
To allow participants to talk together in small groups of 4/5, repeated a few times via Zoom breakout rooms (Speed dating); meeting people from other institutions with the view to future collaboration.
The day also included a presentation by David Hand on "Dark Data"
This recent training day allowed the University of Glasgow staff and postgraduate students to meet staff and students from their partner Institutions in POLIMI, MIT and working on similar areas and this has the potential to lead to future collaborative projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL http://www.softmech.org/events/headline_763982_en.html
 
Description Special interest group on the fluid mechanics of the eye 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Peter Stewart organised two virtual study groups on the fluid mechanics of the eye, one held on 30th November 2020 and one held on 4th March 2021. The event gathered clinicians and modellers (including some PhD students) to derive mathematical models of fluid flow between the uvea and the sclera, so-called uveoscleral flow.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021
URL https://eyefluidssig.wordpress.com/history/
 
Description Statistical inference in cardiac mechanics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given to the Royal Statistical Society local Glasgow group on 12th March 2020, which sparked questions and discussions afterwards, both over coffee and via follow-up emails.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://sites.google.com/site/rssglasgow/events
 
Description Talk at 9th International Biofluid Mechanics And Vascular Mechanobiology Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Maintain the tradition of excellence and the spirit of the International Bio-fluid Mechanics and Vascular Mechano-Biology Symposia that have evolved to be a unique opportunity for reviewing recent major milestones and achievements in all areas of biofluid mechanics, experimental and computational, from molecule and cell to organ levels and corresponding mechano-biological processes, therapeutics, and cardiovascular devices.

The event gathered scientists, clinicians, and practitioners from around the world to explore and assess the latest frontiers of Bio-Fluid Mechanics and Vascular Mechano-Biology, and set important directions for further research and development, and education. The symposium provided an opportunity for investigators to interact with peers, young and seniors, for development of new collaborations, as well as enhancement of existing ones.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://9thbiofluids.com/
 
Description Twitter Account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact SofTMech Twitter Account which covers a number of SofTMech and SofTMech related grants. Main purpose to give information on research activities, events including social, advertise job opportunities to a wide audience, and announce graduations, prizes and achievements of the group. In addition to use the Re-tweet feature of Twitter to advertise information from partner groups or followers. The account has 174 followers and follows 157 other Twitter accounts. Impacts arising from the Account are quick dissemination of material.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021
URL https://twitter.com/home