SUPERGEN Photovoltaic Materials for the 21st Century

Lead Research Organisation: Durham University
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

PV-21 is the UK's inorganic solar photovoltaic (PV) research programme / this proposal is for a renewal for the second four year cycle. The Consortium has sharpened its focus on the science that will deliver our medium to long term goal of 'making a major contribution to achieving competitive PV solar energy'. In its initial period of activity, the Consortium has put in place lab-scale facilities for making three main types of solar cells based on thin film absorbers - copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride and ultra thin silicon - using a range of methods. In the renewal programme, these three 'Technology Platforms' form the basis for testing new processes and concepts. To reduce costs, we shall concentrate on critical materials and PV device issues. For large-scale PV manufacture, the materials costs dominate, and together with module efficiency determine the cost per kW peak. A closely related issue is sustainability. For example the metal indium is a key component in PV, but is rare and expensive ($660/kg in 2007). Reducing the thickness of semiconductor by one millionth of a metre (1 micron) in 10% efficient cells with a peak generating capacity of 1GW would save 50 tonnes of material. The renewal programme therefore includes work on both thickness reduction and on finding alternative sustainable low cost materials (absorbers and transparent conductors). To increase efficiency we shall work on aspects of grain boundaries and nanostructures thin films as well as on doping. Nanostructures will also be exploited to harvest more light, and surface sensitization of thin film silicon cells by energy transfer from fluorescent dyes will also be investigated as a means of making better use of sunlight and substantially reducing the required film thickness to as low 0.2 microns. In order to ensure a focus on cost effectiveness, the renewal programme includes a technical economics package that will examine cost and sustainability issues. Future links between innovative concepts and industry are ensured by a 'producibility' work package. Two highly relevant 'plus' packages have been submitted alongside the renewal proposal, these being on a) thin film silicon devices, grain engineering and new concepts, and b) new absorber materials. The Consortium will also continue to run the successful UK network for PV materials and device research, PV-NET, which is a forum for the UK academic and industrial research communities. The Supergen funding mechanism has enabled the Consortium to assemble and fully integrate a critical mass of PV researchers in the UK, and the work packages outlined in the proposal interweave the skills and capabilities of seven universities and nine industrial partners. PV-21 is also plays an important role in skills development, with nine PhD students due to be trained in the first cohort. The EPSRC Supergen funding mechanism is absolutely vital for the continued growth and strength of the UK PV materials research effort.

Organisations

Publications

10 25 50

Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
EP/F029624/1 01/04/2008 01/03/2011 £6,185,728
EP/F029624/2 Transfer EP/F029624/1 01/03/2011 30/09/2012 £1,806,675
 
Description Development and characterisation of downshifting and light harvesting structure for solar energy capture by solar cells
Exploitation Route Potential for commercialisation, in collaboration with solar cell manufacturers or via a spin out company is being explored
Sectors Energy

 
Description We established methods to make world class thin film solar cell devices in the CdTe system. Beneficiaries: UK academic groups working on CdTe. International groups working on CdTe Contribution Method: This has established the international credibility of the UK thin film PV research effort, which has now laid down a marker with a high efficiency result in a mainstream PV technology Method of making CZTS solar cells. The best performing thin film PV technology is CuInGaSe2 (>20%). A potential barrier to its widespread use in future is the reliance on low abundance materials (In & Ga) that are byeproducts and produced in relatively small quantities. Northumbria identified early work in Japan and Germany on CZTS and developed this with the University of Bath. Northumbria used method in which metal layers were deposited by a vacuum process known as sputtering. These were then heated in selenium and or sulphur to produce the semiconducting layer that aborbs light. Making solar cells from this material resulted in a world's best performance. This idea and techique has now stimulated many other groups to try to duplicate the technique and this was given a much greater urgency after IBM had seen our use of selenium and used it with their nonoparticle sulphide films to produce a device with an efficiency of nearly 10% - a value that is important for future commercial production. Beneficiaries: Northumbria University has benefited, is now a partner in the KESTCELLS Marie Curie ITN. PV21, other UK and European collaborators, have chosen to duplicate the 2-stage Northumbria route rather than IBM's record breaking non-vacuum path. The UK science base is enhanced, its PV community - stimulated and seen as competitive. It has led to submission of2 UK EPSRC proposals; researchers and UK collaborators (Strathclyde University) establishing expertise and journal/conference publications. Contribution Method: The record CZTSe cell performance provided IBM with the idea to use selenium and annealing that helped produce a record CZTS,Se cell. Production of sulphide absorber materials based on Cu-Sb and Cu-Bi was acheved by sputtering Cu-Bi or Cu-Sb metal layers and heating them in sulphur. Hese were then made into the first Cu3SbS3 cells. Starting from thin film technologies that use indium and gallium and then identifying alternative abundant materials was a key part of PV21. Both bismuth (Bi) and antimony (Sb) are produced in much grater quantities than In and Ga. These materials were combined with copper and then heated in sulpur. Northumbria made material by vacuum processing whereas Bath University use non-vacuum wet processes to make the material and Cranfield - Shrivenham developed special techniques to find out about how the mixing of the elements changed the materials behavoiur. Northumbria produced the first working solar cell from Cu3SbS3. The impact of this together with the use of selenium /sulphur ratio to tailor properties, provides further opportunity for develpoment of new and sustainable pv technologies. Beneficiaries: Northumbria University has benefited from establishing a device based on Cu3Sb(SeS)3 . Collaborators within and outside the PV21 consortium (Strathclyde University) have investigated the optical properties of this material, broadening their understanding of this materials family has led to work due to be published and the submission of a research proposal on the fundamental properties of new materials. The UK science base is also enhanced and a PhD student has established new expertise. Contribution Method: This has brodened and deepened the understanding of this family of sulphur-selenisdes of abundant materials. As a consequence the reseach capability has been enhanced and the UK Science base developed. A development of a system established at NREL in the US to characterise the electrical properties of PV and other materials. The system measures fundamental electrical properties of transparent conductors and absorber layer PV materials. It is a joint development with a UK SME, SemiMetrics Ltd. This will both help Northumbria's and the UK's reseach base and also establish SemiMetrics Ltd as maker of this and related systems in future. Interest from Pilkington/NSG and other UK and EU universities. Beneficiaries: Northumbria University will benefit from this unique characterisation tool with possible application for characterisation of a range of electronic and semiconducting materials. The research enabled a combined development with an SME, SemiMetrics Ltd and software engineer that provides opportunity for commercial exploitation in future. Contribution Method: The ressearch and development of the 4C system has provided a deeper understanding of the roll of molybdenum doping of indium oxide in the high performance indium molybdenum oxide transparent conducting oxide. The development of this system has also begun to identify parameters within absorber materials that will be valuable in optimising these materials for solar cells. Solar Photovoltaics: The challenges and potential for research into a sustainable future. Invited talk at a UK-Brazil, Workshop on Physics and Chemistry of Climate Change, on Solar PV related challenges and opportunities for the Future. Beneficiaries: Adacdemics from Brazil and the UK, students, Brazil - UK scientific interaction and the UK-Brazil year of science. The meeting was reported in the Brazillian media and some exchange of data has been achieved - contacts made for future reference. Local businesses in the North East of England were provided as examples of new PV related business opportunities (Romag and NaREC were given). Contribution Method: The research provided a focus and underpinning scientific depth that enabled the talk to both inform the audience about the subject, highlight the activities and capabilities available at Nothumbria, its PV21 partners. Thin Film Photovoltaics. Invited talk on the thin film PV at Solar Flair 10, Lumley Castle, Co Durham. Beneficiaries: Those attendees at the Solar Flair10 that were interested in PV developments, future technologies and research in the UK. Local government, industry, SME and academics. Contribution Method: The research supported the theme of sustainability for future solar markets and helped make the case for and demonstrate the results of, research into PV tecnologies that is being undertaken in North East England as part of a successful national programme. Materials sustainability: Thin film photovoltaics in a terrawatt solar electricity market. Invited talk on the sustainability of PV materials in the context of predicted future electricity markets. Beneficiaries: Members of the Materials community and industry gained an insight into Contribution Method: The research supported the theme of sustainability for future solar markets. It provided current and practical UK examples of research progress into devices based on sustainable thin film PV materials as an example of alternatives to the current generation of technologies and the potential problems with these. We developed a way to grow the NWs and make core-shell devices from them that is compatible with future PV devices. We demonstrated 2.5% for a lab device. Beneficiaries: Academic groups working on II-VI nanowires worldwide. E.g. Ioffe Institute, St Petersburg Contribution Method: Demonstrated a new method for CdTe NW growth. Provided experimental data for modellers. Opens up a new way to make nano solar cells A new method was developed to establish the extent of the deleterious electrical activity of grain boundaries. It was applied to CZTS and it was found that secondary phases in CZTS help passivate the grain boundaries. Beneficiaries: UK and international research groups working on CZTS solar cells Contribution Method: This opens up a new strand of research in a burgeoning new area of PV Increased doping in CdTe thin films: the upper limit to doping caps the efficiency of solar cells made from CdTe. We did a basic study of surface chemistry that lead to a way to increase the doping limit beyond the state of the art. It increased the performance of the devices. Beneficiaries: Academic groups working on CdTe solar cells. Possibly industrial groups, but they may not disseminate Contribution Method: The basic study allowed the performance of solar cells to be increased We developed a new way to increase the grain size in CdTe thin films and thereby to increase the efficiency of solar cells. The patent was sold to Abound Solar. Beneficiaries: The authors, Abound Solar Contribution Method: A fundamental study generated the method to increase the grain size. The paper 'Implications for CdTe and CIGS technologies of indium and tellurium scarcity' selected among the 20 highest scored abstracts of the 26th EU PVSEC and invited to submit a paper for peer review and for publication in the renowned scientific journal Progress in Photovoltaics. Beneficiaries: PV thin film industry generally plus academic labs Contribution Method: Indium and tellurium scarcity has increasingly become a concern within the PV sector both in terms of absolute availability of the materials to support future market expansion of CIGS and CdTe technologies and of impact of materials prices increases on their cost reduction ambitions. This work provides detailed insights and analysis on both these aspects and it has raised considerable interest from both PV industry and academic representatives. Application of photosynthetic light harvesting via nonradiative energy transfer between a molecule and semiconductor to enhance the photoexcitation of silicon. Beneficiaries: Academic community State of the art materials limit the performance of PV devices. We developed a new material that overcomes these limits. Beneficiaries: University of Liverpool research team Contribution Method: We identified a method to increase the window layer performance of solar cells We used modelling to determine that the layer thicknesses in some PV devices could be tuned to increase the efficincy of solar cells by about 1/5th. Beneficiaries: UK academic groups making solar cells Contribution Method: This has become a major strand in the new UK SUPERGEN PV Hub Significant advances in the understanding of light capture in solar cells. Beneficiaries: Academic communityDevelopment of an non-contact fast imaging system. This system was also developed with SemiMetrics as part of the Mid-term project of PV21. It is unique in the UK and enables rapid assessment of light emitted from the absorber layers following stimulation of electrons by either light or electricity. Offers a method for assessing the optical quality and conversion performance of materials and the identification of poor quality regions. Beneficiaries: Northumbria university has a unique characterisation tool with possible apllication to production. The first version has demonstrated a capability of assessing both as produced absorber layers and completed cells. Successfully further development will enable Northumbria and Semimetrics Ltd will provide a valuable rapid characterisation of materials quality. This will help the UK science base and have commercial/environmental benefits for PV industry if used for minimisation of production waste. Contribution Method: The results of photoluminescence have demonstrated that a rapid characterisation technique can be used to identify key materials parameters - relevant to solar cell optimisation. Further work is required to fully assess the benefits that this technique will provide in future. Significant advances in understanding and methedology of low temperature Si nanowire growth using a catalyst which does not degrade device properties. Beneficiaries: Academic community plus potential benefits to sectors listed Use of S/Se ratios to cntrol the semiconductor electronic bandgap to tune the absorption to match the solar spectrum. When copper is mixed with zinc and tin or with antimony or bismuth and then made into a semiconductor by heating with sulphur or selenium. The semiconductor aborbs light and if a solar cell is made from the material then electricity can be generated by this absorption. If sulpur is used then light with shorter wavelengths (green-blue) is absorbed whereas if selenium is used then longer wavelength (red) light is absorbed. Therefore the colour of light absorbed can be controlled by using different amounts of sulphur and selenium. Northumbria heated with different ratios of sulphur to selenium to demonstrate and control the absorption of light, in three different materials systems. Beneficiaries: Northubria University has established, a capability and understanding of engineering pv materials, collaborative working relationships with institutions in the UK and via these to intistutions in Europe including Belarus and Estonia. Conference/journal publications and proposal submissions Contribution Method: Use of sulphur-selenium ratios to control and engineer the properties has highlighted a route to tailor and optimise output of solar cells that use these copper based materials. This mechanism may provide a valuable tool to maximise energy yield from PV systems should they be based on such thin film technologies.
Sector Chemicals,Education,Energy,Environment
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description Feed in tariff #2
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact ICEPT response to Joint Environmental Audit Committee and Energy and Climate Change Committee Call for Evidence on PV Feed-in Tariff Target Audience: Government Department
 
Description Feed in tariff (small scale)
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact ICEPT submission to the DECC Consultation over revision of the Feed in Tariff for small scale Photovoltaics Target Audience: Government Department
 
Description Feed in tariff advice
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact ICEPT (Imperial Centre for Energy Policy and Technology) letter to DECC Ministers on the pace and scale of change to the PV Feed in Tariff Target Audience: Government Department
 
Description Industry Stakeholder Workshop, NPL, London, 9th June 2011
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Photonics Unit, DG Infso, European Commission, Photonics Technologies and Markets for a Low Carbon Economy. This study has been commissioned by the EC to provide a robust, independent body of evidence for DG Infso as it prepares its response to current initiatives and develops its priorities for the forthcoming Common Strategies Framework (FP8). The overall aims of this study are to analyse Europe's market positioning in green photonics technologies particularly relevant for building a future low carbon economy and its potential for further development. It focuses on promising new photonics technologies that could be made available for market deployment in the next five years and the barriers that need to be overcome to achieve significant market share for Europe. As a key industry stakeholder, I was invited to a workshop being held to review and test the conclusions of the research so far and to contribute to the development of a series of innovation and policy actions to optimise the deployment of photonics in Europe.
 
Description Institute of Physics - Renewable Energy Strategy Consultation
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact The Institute of Physics Response from the Manager, Science Policy to the BERR ?Renewable Energy Strategy Consultation? (26 September, 2008). I provided input and critical assessment of solar PV related areas of the IOP and Government's proposals and position for renewable energy in the UK in a global context. Target Audience: Government Department
 
Description Institute of Physics - Renewable Energy Strategy Consultation
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact The Institute of Physics Response from the Manager, Science Policy to the BERR ?Renewable Energy Strategy Consultation? (26 September, 2008). I provided input and critical assessment of solar PV related areas of the IOP and Government's proposals and position for renewable energy in the UK in a global context. Target Audience: Government Department
 
Description Institute of Physics response on the Economics of Renewable Energy
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Institute of Physics response to a House of Lords Economic Affairs Select Committee Inquiry, 13 June 2008, Provision of input and critical assessment of solar PV related areas of the IOP response to the UK Government's then department of Buisness Enterprise and Regulatory Reform's (BERR) consultation on a UK renewable energy strategy. The contribution identified errors in the data and questionable assumptions about solar's proven ability to deliver energy, and the underestimates of the potential of so-called microgeneration sectors to contribute to the UK renewable energy targets. The response also demonstrated that PV could easily provide 5GWp (at least 1.3 GWp was installed in a period of ~18 onths)installed electricity capacity to alleviate the suggested difficulties that may arise from a failure to deliver all the Wind turbines that were planned and also questioned the low oil prices projected for 2020 (these had already been exceeded). The contribution also highlighted the need to develop a UK skills base in order to maximise the benefit to the UK when PV reaches grid parity in most of Europe including the UK. It was shown that failure to invest would not prevent the UK using solar but that most of the jobs and other benefits would be for countries who already had these skills. Target Audience: Government Department
 
Description Institute of Physics response on the Economics of Renewable Energy
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Institute of Physics response to a House of Lords Economic Affairs Select Committee Inquiry, 13 June 2008, Provision of input and critical assessment of solar PV related areas of the IOP response to the UK Government's then department of Buisness Enterprise and Regulatory Reform's (BERR) consultation on a UK renewable energy strategy. The contribution identified errors in the data and questionable assumptions about solar's proven ability to deliver energy, and the underestimates of the potential of so-called microgeneration sectors to contribute to the UK renewable energy targets. The response also demonstrated that PV could easily provide 5GWp (at least 1.3 GWp was installed in a period of ~18 onths)installed electricity capacity to alleviate the suggested difficulties that may arise from a failure to deliver all the Wind turbines that were planned and also questioned the low oil prices projected for 2020 (these had already been exceeded). The contribution also highlighted the need to develop a UK skills base in order to maximise the benefit to the UK when PV reaches grid parity in most of Europe including the UK. It was shown that failure to invest would not prevent the UK using solar but that most of the jobs and other benefits would be for countries who already had these skills. Target Audience: Government Department
 
Description RCUK Energy Shaping Capability and Strategy Town Meeting, Birmingham, 18th January 2012
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Contributed to the january 2012 RCUK energy workshop at the NEC - input into the priorities and identified gross errors in the EPSRC classification of thin film PV funding levels - nearly all the PV funding was directed at the long-researched OPV and DSC technologies. (by use of titles and abstracts it was easy to identify the errors that had been made) Target Audience: Research Council / Institute
 
Description SET Plan Education and Trainin Initiative
Impact Report and Recommendations to the European Commission on education and training in photovoltaics to fulfill the SET Plan targets.
 
Description UK Photovoltaic Solar Energy Road Map
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact UK Road map for PV industry and adoption funded by the PKTN Target Audience: Government Department
 
Description Finding universal rules for efficiency enhancing layers in thin film solar cells
Amount £442,079 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K005901/01 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2012 
End 03/2013
 
Description NANOEMBRACE
Amount £249,135 (GBP)
Funding ID FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2015
 
Description NANOEMBRACE
Amount £249,135 (GBP)
Funding ID FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2015
 
Description SPARC Cymru
Amount £4,300,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2010 
End 03/2013
 
Description SPARC Cymru
Amount £4,300,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2010 
End 03/2013
 
Description SPECIFIC
Amount £438,500 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/1019278/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2012 
End 12/2016
 
Description SUPERGEN Hub
Amount £4,060,354 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/J017361/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2013 
End 03/2014
 
Description Solar cells by nanowire arrays
Amount £202,465 (GBP)
Funding ID PIRSES-GA-2010-268154 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2011 
End 05/2014
 
Description Solar cells by nanowire arrays
Amount £202,465 (GBP)
Funding ID PIRSES-GA-2010-268154 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2011 
End 05/2014
 
Description Towards Sinter-free Printing of Photovoltaic Cell Interconnects
Amount £237,424 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K009478/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2015
 
Description CFD modelling of TTC inline reactor 
Organisation Glyndwr University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution to compare experimental and modelling of deposited layer using a bespoke reactor
Start Year 2009
 
Description CSER/ Dyesol PV device characterisation interaction 
Organisation Dyesol
Country Australia 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Laser Beam Induced Current (LBIC) imaging used to examine defects in novel Dye Sensitised Solar Cells
Start Year 2011
 
Description Crystal growth 
Organisation Polish Academy of Sciences
Department Institute of Physics
Country Poland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Growth of perfect crystals of technologically important mateirals that allows fundamental studies
Start Year 2008
 
Description EUKENE 
Organisation Uppsala University
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution European Kesterite Network
Start Year 2010
 
Description Electrical nanocharacterisation 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research collaboration
Start Year 2011
 
Description Electron microscopy of silicon nanowires 
Organisation Durham University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research collaboration
Start Year 2010
 
Description Growth of alloys 
Organisation Cornell University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Growth of metal alloy libraries for high throughput analysis
Start Year 2010
 
Description High Throughput Process for Atmospheric Pressure Inline Production of Thin Film Photovoltaics 
Organisation Scanwel Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution simulating, desigining, manufacturing and testing coating heads for an inline process by AP-MOCVD
Start Year 2011
 
Description KESCELLS 
Organisation Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC)
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution EU FP7 Funded Marie Curie Initial Training Network aimed at developing Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 based devices and training excellent researchers - collaborating with the leading EU research groups
Start Year 2012
 
Description Modeling of sputter process 
Organisation University of Ghent
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Mathematical modelling sputter deposition
Start Year 2008
 
Description Nanowire growth theory 
Organisation Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University
Department Ioffe Institute
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Understanding of the physics and chemistry that control nanowire growth. This is important for informing the approach of crystal growers in our lab.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Nedo Cool Earth Project 
Organisation National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Country Japan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Consortium of Japanese instututes working on Innovative Solar Cells
Start Year 2008
 
Description Positron annhiliation spectroscopy 
Organisation University of Dundee
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Fundamental study of point defects in solar energy materials
Start Year 2011
 
Description Qualification of Gallium doped zinc oxide TCO's through characterisation and PV device deposition 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution To compare the performance of a novel ALD deposited GaZnO TCO with that of a conventional SnO2:F produced by NSG Pilkingtons
Start Year 2011
 
Description Solar Photovoltaic Academic Research Consortium (SPARC) Cymru 
Organisation Bangor University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution To develop up to 30x30cm2 test modules with novel atmospheric pressure inline process
Start Year 2010
 
Description Strathclyde 
Organisation University of Strathclyde
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative research into optical properties of new and sustainable materials
Start Year 2012
 
Description Student exchange #1 
Organisation COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Department Department of Physics
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research students
Start Year 2012
 
Description Student exchange #2 
Organisation National Center for Physics
Country Pakistan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Research students
Start Year 2011
 
Description Student exchange #3 
Organisation University of the Punjab
Department Department of Physics
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research students
Start Year 2011
 
Description Student exchange #4 
Organisation University of Pisa
Department Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research students
Start Year 2008
 
Description Sustainable Product Engineering Centre for Innovative Functional Industrial Coatings 
Organisation Swansea University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Application of functional energy generation coatings applied to roofs and walls
Start Year 2011
 
Description Testing of cadmium oxide as a near-IR transparent heat element for "falling film" application 
Organisation RWTH Aachen University
Department Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution CdO films on sapphire were sent to collaborator for characteristaion followed by specific deposition of CdO films on ZnS and BaF2 substrates to enable transparency to longer wavelengths
Start Year 2010
 
Description Testing optical materials 
Organisation Technical University of Madrid
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Testing optical materials
Start Year 2010
 
Description UK Energy Research Centre (2009-2014) 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Continuing the work of the UK Energy Research Centre
Start Year 2009
 
Title MOCVD coating head, injector and method 
Description Methods of injecting MOCVD precursors for an in-line coating head 
IP Reference  
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
 
Title Method of making large grains in semiconductor thin films. 
Description  
IP Reference WO2007129097 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
 
Title Photovoltaic component 
Description  
IP Reference  
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No