Engineering Fellowships for Growth: Materials by Design for Impact in Aerospace Engineering

Lead Research Organisation: Cardiff University
Department Name: Sch of Engineering

Abstract

Policy makers and regulatory bodies are demanding the aerospace industry reduces CO2 emission by 50% and NOx emission by 80% by 2020. In order to meet these drastic demands and ensure affordable air travel in the future, it is essential to make lighter aircraft which will use minimum fuel. The aerospace research community recognises the need to make a dramatic performance improvement and is considering several new aircraft concepts that move away from the conventional two-wing-one-fuselage configuration. This brings new challenges to aircraft design. A wing is a highly complex structure to design as it needs to consider the complex interaction between aerodynamics and structural behaviour. The current design practice is therefore very much based on using the previous successful design data. The challenge of departing from the conventional aircraft is that there are limited successful historical design data that is applicable to new concept aircraft. Once we have a wing design, however, there are sophisticated computational methods that analyse how the wing behaves under external flight conditions.

In fact, there has been a significant level of development in computational analysis methods taking advantage of growing computational power. A prime example of this is the recent development in the computational modelling of materials. Using this technology, new advanced materials can be created in half the time that traditional material development takes and the return on investment in computational materials research has been estimated at between 300 - 900%.

This fellowship is at the heart of developing sophisticated computational methods to design aircraft configurations that have not been considered before. The majority of the current methods analyse how a given material or structure responds to the external environment such as in flight at speed Mach 0.8, 38000 ft. What is different about the methods in this research is that they are inverse of the analysis methods: They will determine the best combination of advanced material and structural configuration based on the external environment and hence design the optimum wing for the given flight conditions.

My research approach is to represent the design problem as a set of mathematical functions and develop computational methods to find the optimum solution. The methods will therefore, find the optimum design for both materials and structural configuration at the same time. The outcome of this fellowship will provide engineers with a sophisticated tool to design complex aircraft structures. The tools will be developed and disseminated in a way that they can be used on a range of other complex engineering problems.

The UK has 17% of the global aerospace market share with revenue of £24 billion and is responsible for 3.6% national employment. With the international civil aerospace market forecast to grow to $4 trillion by 2030, the UK market has the opportunity to grow to $352 billion by 2030. It is critical that the UK develops this unique capability to ensure we maintain the market share of these high value products and processes and its economy has the opportunity for growth. Furthermore, the weight savings which will be made from optimum use of materials lead to meeting the emission targets, thus ensuring sustainable environment for the future generations.

Planned Impact

(1) Industry and Economy
This research has a significant societal and economic impact for growth. The material industry in the UK has an annual turnover of around £197 billion and export values at £50 billion. Tailoring advanced materials for specific applications will lead to more high value products and processes which have strong potential to bring sustainable growth and high economic value to the UK. A variety of case studies have shown that the use of computational modelling and optimisation in materials and structural design reduced lead time to product by 50-80%. Taking this a step further to develop computational methods of simultaneously optimising both materials and structures will strengthen the UK as a global leader and enhance the national economy. Material innovation has been identified as particularly critical to the aerospace sector. The aerospace industry employs over 84100 (3.6% of national employment) with the revenue of £24 billion, 17% of the global market share, second only to the USA. The international civil aerospace industry is forecast to grow and to be worth approximately $4 trillion by 2030 and the UK has the opportunity to grow its market to $352 billion by 2030. The aerospace industry in the UK therefore, is said to have a "tremendous opportunities for growth" and is considered to be of strategic importance for the future of the UK economy. The unique capability to design revolutionary aircraft concepts will grow the national economy by creating jobs and ensuring a globally leading market position for the UK. In addition, the use of engineering optimisation to produce the lightest and the most efficient aircraft provides a route to minimise the overall fuel burn and contribute to the sustainable future.

(2) People and Society
Maintaining global leadership in high value products and process through materials and aerospace structures will attract manufacturing industry and increase the global market share, thus growing the UK economyhis will create more jobs and wealth which will ultimately benefit people and the society. In addition, the advanced materials and optimisation methods developed within this research will lead to the lightest aircraft and to low operating and through-life costs. With the increasing risks and uncertainties of fuel prices, this effort is critical in ensuring that future air travel remains affordable. The research also addresses the sustainability of air travel via low emissions through low fuel burn and optimising existing aircraft for re-use. This work will therefore benefit the environment and the future generations.

(3) Investigator and researchers
The potential of high impact scientific research in this fellowship provides an opportunity for myself and my researchers to become world leaders at the interface of materials and structures. This research integrates materials and structures which have traditionally been considered two distinct disciplines. Therefore the integrated expertise of materials and structures from a design perspective is rare and this unique expertise will firmly place me at the forefront of the state of the art and make my researchers distinctive and highly employable. The fellowship will lead to the identification of new research challenges and open up new opportunities to secure future funding from industry and funding bodies. Working closely with industrial partners provides a route for the researchers to make a direct impact in engineering industry and society.

Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
EP/M002322/1 19/06/2014 01/10/2015 £1,236,949
EP/M002322/2 Transfer EP/M002322/1 02/10/2015 01/07/2020 £946,062
 
Description (1) New architected materials with spatial variations and continuous interfaces can be discovered using the new method developed in this project. (2) When applied to optimize for a load carrying functionality by minimizing strain energy, the optimum material configuration is solid isotropic material. This means porous material and microstructures lattices will give a heavier structure than a solid material. This needs to be further investigated for the material stress and buckling requirements however, this also intuitively makes sense in many design cases. (3) The porous materials are more likely to be optimum for multifunctional (and probably multiphysics) applications and this is currently under investigation.
Exploitation Route The results potentially influence the future research direction of the porous material and lattice material research community as many understand the porous/lattice material will offer a lighter structural solution. Our research reveals that when a structural load carrying functionality is considered, this is unlikely to offer a lighter solution.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

 
Description EPSRC SAT
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description NASA 2040 vision for ICME
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description NSF workshop
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description professional review panel on integrated multiscale materials and structures modeling and simulation in the aerospace community
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description EOARD research
Amount $73,500 (USD)
Organisation European Office of Aerospace Research & Development (EOARD) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2015 
End 08/2016
 
Description Virtual Engine Design Systems (VEDS) Topology Optimisation Research Support in GEMinIDS
Amount £227,685 (GBP)
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 10/2019
 
Title M2DO research data online storage 
Description Data related to our published work were uploaded into the online storage which enables interested researcher to download/use. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact none 
 
Description AIRBUS OPERATIONS LIMITED 
Organisation Airbus Group
Department Airbus Operations
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution development of topology optimisation for aircraft design
Collaborator Contribution expertise in aircraft design and requirements
Impact Industrial CASE award, further research collaborations in composites and optimisation
Start Year 2008
 
Description Akin Keskin - RR Thermomechanics 
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Level set topology optimization and coupling physics
Collaborator Contribution Expertise and physics tools for engine performance analysis and design
Impact Multidisciplinary - design optimization, structural mechanics, heat transfer
Start Year 2018
 
Description Cardiff GW4 
Organisation Cardiff University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Discrete optimization extending the concept of topology optimization
Collaborator Contribution Sensor and energy harvesting network design problem
Impact GW4 proposals
Start Year 2015
 
Description Cardiff GW4 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Discrete optimization extending the concept of topology optimization
Collaborator Contribution Sensor and energy harvesting network design problem
Impact GW4 proposals
Start Year 2015
 
Description Cardiff GW4 
Organisation University of Exeter
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Discrete optimization extending the concept of topology optimization
Collaborator Contribution Sensor and energy harvesting network design problem
Impact GW4 proposals
Start Year 2015
 
Description Justin Gray - Topology Optimization in OpenMDAO 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution My team is contributing our expertise in topology optimization to this collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution NASA Glenn is contributing their expertise in MDO on their OpenMDAO platform and the associated tools.
Impact Publication and presentation at AIAA SciTech conference, USA.
Start Year 2017
 
Description LANL Antenna 
Organisation US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Developing a topology optimisation methodology to realise the full potential of superluminal, accelerated, polarisation currents in dielectrics antenna
Collaborator Contribution invention of superluminal, accelerated, polarisation currents in dielectrics antenna
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Physics
Start Year 2015
 
Description LANL Porous materials 
Organisation Los Alamos National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution New theory and numerical method for modelling porous materials
Collaborator Contribution physical understanding and experimental expertise in nonlinear porous material behavioiur
Impact Kim HA, Guyer RA, Nonlinear Elasticity of Porous Materials, Wiley and Sons, in press. Multi-disciplinary: geophysics
Start Year 2009
 
Description Level set topology optimisation using OpenVDB 
Organisation Voxel Tech Inc.
PI Contribution Using the level set method in topology optimization has several advantages, such as being able to handle complex topological changes and having a crisp definition of the boundary. However, a common criticism is that they tend to be slower in convergence than the traditional density-based approach (such as SIMP [1]). One reason for this slowness is attributed to having to search through grid points, such as when updating the level set functions and finding the nearest neighbor of a grid point. For example, a popular method for updating the level set function, the Fast Marching Method, has an algorithmic complexity of O(NlogN) because it uses a min heap data structure for accessing grid values. This becomes very costly and slow as the number of grid points (N) increases. The efficiency of the level set method can be substantially improved by using a hierarchical data structure (VDB [2]) designed to take advantage of the level set method's unique characteristics. The hierarchical data structure is a volumetric dynamic grid that is similar to B+ trees and allows for the efficient storage and manipulation of sparse volumetric data. By arranging blocks of the grid into a hierarchical structure that resembles a B+ tree, it can be shown that the structure can support fast random, sequential, and stencil access (average O(1)) to the grid data. This fast access speeds up the level set update and associated computations such as calculating the normal at the boundary.
Collaborator Contribution Developing and sharing an Open Source Code.
Impact Working on the code and writing an abstract for a conference
Start Year 2016
 
Description NASA Composites 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department NASA Langley Research Centre
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Level set composite fibre path optimization
Collaborator Contribution tow steered fibre composite manufacturing expertise
Impact fibre path optimization, journal and conference papers, best paper award
Start Year 2015
 
Description NASA aeroelasticity 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department NASA Langley Research Centre
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Topology optimisation for aeroelassticity
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in aeroelasticity and the research application, common research model
Impact Further collaboration in advanced fibre composites
Start Year 2015
 
Description Norato 
Organisation University of Connecticut
Department Department of Mechanical Engineering
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Level set topology optimization
Collaborator Contribution stress sensitivity analysis
Impact Conference paper.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Nottingham 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
Department Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution topology optimization method
Collaborator Contribution additive manufacturing expertise
Impact topology optimization for additive manufacturing
Start Year 2015
 
Description RAL 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department Numerical Analysis Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Topology optimization for buckling
Collaborator Contribution Eigenvalue analysis solver
Impact Topology optimization for buckling, journal paper
Start Year 2015
 
Description Stanford 
Organisation Stanford University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Topology optimization method
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in opensource software
Impact Currently working on developing the code towards open source publication
Start Year 2015
 
Description Topology Optimization of Shock Absorbing Materials 
Organisation Cardiff University
Department School of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of simulation and optimization methods for the design of shock absorbing, 3D printed materials.
Collaborator Contribution Fabrication and experimental testing of optimised designs.
Impact Several designs have been manufactured, which validate the predicted behaviour. Upon further testing, a journal article will be written on this subject.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Topology Optimization of Vibrational Energy Harvesters 
Organisation Cardiff University
Department School of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of simulation and optimization methods for vibrational piezoelectric energy harvesting device.
Collaborator Contribution Fabrication and experimental testing of optimised designs.
Impact Working prototype devices have been produced, which validate the predicted design behaviour. A journal article is currently being written on this subject. A conference paper has also been submitted to WCCM 2018.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Topology optimization with AFRL 
Organisation Air Force Research Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Topology optimization method
Collaborator Contribution Aeroelasticity expertise and astros, potential applications
Impact The collaboration has not led to an outcome yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description UCSD 
Organisation University of California, San Diego (UCSD)
Department Department of Structural Engineering
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Level set topology optimization
Collaborator Contribution meshfree and isogeometric analysis
Impact Working on developing new topology optimization methods
Start Year 2016
 
Description Wenbin Yu - Multiscale using structural genome 
Organisation Purdue University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Multiscale topology optimization
Collaborator Contribution Structural genome and multiscale modeling
Impact It is multidisciplinary bringing together optimization with multiscale mechanics and composites. A journal paper and a conference paper. Our journal paper was the most downloaded paper of CMAME in the last 90 days.
Start Year 2017
 
Title OpenLSTO V0.1 - open source level set topology optimisation 
Description OpenLSTO is an open-source software for level set based structural topology optimization, written in C++. The topology optimization method deals with the problem of determining the optimal layout of material and connectivity inside a design domain in order to obtain the best structural performance. Level Set Method was originally developed as a mathematical tool for tracking the motion of interfaces. Its natural handling of topological changes coupled with a clear and smooth interface representation led to its use for structural topology optimization. This first light version implements the M2DO lab's level set topology optimization method to solve the problem of minimizing compliance (maximizing stiffness) under a volume constraint in a 2D design domain. It has been designed with ease of installation and use in mind. This means that, wherever possible, a conscious effort was made to develop in-house code components rather than relying on third-party packages or libraries. In simple cases (serial version with no external libraries), the code can be compiled and executed with just a C++ compiler. Extended capabilities using externally provided software are to be included in the next, more advanced version. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact This software will allow researchers on structural topology optimization to be able to easily adopt our method to conduct relevant studies. Awareness of this software will be generated via presentations to be given in several conferences in the following months, and an improved version with more advanced functions, e.g. 3D structure, will be released at the end of August. 
 
Description AFRL 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Raising awareness of the latest capabilities, and has led to two collaboration areas with potential funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Aerospace Defence and Security Working Group on Design for the Environment, Cardiff University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Open day event to showcase Cardiff university research to aerospace industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description An invited talk at ASME SMASIS 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact xxx
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description An invited talk at Air Force Academy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Many Air Force employees attended this event, and this has led to follow up meetings on specific topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description An invited talk at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Researchers at RAL are interested in the Level set topology optimisation method developed at my lab and intend to create collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description An invited talk or presentation at CAE Geometry workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation on the overview of my lab's research on level set topology optimisation was given to engineers and researchers working on computer aided engineering for geometry, which stimulated questions from audiences and raised their interests on structural topology optimisation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Autodesk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact They have begun to implement my method for further investigation with a view to include in their software and we are organizing follow-up meetings to develop our discussion towards a regular collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Boeing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Many Boeing employees from all over the world phoned in and this has led to follow up meetings on specific topics, and currently going through their internal procedures to share their data to conduct a feasibility study with the aim to build up confidence for more substantial collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description CIRA Ansys workshop 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The follow-up discussions revealed that the presented material was new to them and I raised awareness of this new area that made them think about the future in a new way.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description IACM Female Researchers Chapter chair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact To organise events for female researchers on computation mechanics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ICME panel, Scitech 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact It inspired many interesting questions and discussions for the future research and development directions for ICME
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description ICME working group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact To direct the priority research areas in the research field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited talk: Topology optimization, Roundable 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk on multiscale mutiphysics topology optimization (M2DO).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description KAIST 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Gave a seminar to the graduate students and academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description LLNL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussion on-going to find a funding mechanism to collaborate. This had led to a couple of proposal submissions but not yet successful.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Lockheed Martin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This talk led to a collaborative proposal which was submitted to DARPA and this was not successful. However, the relationship with the DARPA program manager that arose from this interaction led to a single PI project funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description MEM Winter Seminar Series at the Drexel University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk on multiscale multiphysics topology optimization (M2DO). This talk introduced some of the latest developments and challenges in topology optimization, including stress constraints topology optimization, multiscale and multiphysics topology optimization.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description NASA Vision 2040 expert panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I advised and contributed as the expert in optimization towards defining the vision and the roadmap for Vision 2040 for ICME carried out by NASA. This will shape the future research focus and strategy for NASA and other government agencies, expecting to influence the international research landscape.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Organization of special sessions and panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Sessions on specific research topics have been organised in international conferences, such as ECCM-ECFD 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Panelist at Additive in Aerospace Summit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact To direct the priority research areas in the research field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Plenary MEET paris 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact It raised several questions and discussions about how they might be able to use in their future research and design projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Plenary RR ADOS 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact It inspired new future research directions which led to specific discussions for research collaboration and also my presentation was requested by several industrialists for their internal communications. This subsequently led to an ATI proposal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description SIAM plenary, Salt Lake City 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact It inspired new research interests in the SIAM geometric modeling community. DARPA program manager is formulating a new program inspired by the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Sandia National Lab visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Following the seminar, it was a full day of discussion with several researchers on what would be possible to achieve in their research and how optimization research can influence their research and potential collaborations. It raised awareness of the capabilities that influenced their future research and development policy. This led to plans for collaboration and an invite to a focused roundtable workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminars at UC Berkeley 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A seminar on optimization for multiscale and multiphysics was given to researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminars at universities 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact good discussions after the seminar, familirisation of each other's current and future research activities

invitation to keynote lecture at a workshop on energy harvesting, research collaboration leading to further funding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminars at universities 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminars given to raise awareness of the latest state of the art. Some subsequently led to collaborative proposals and research. They are given at the following universities: Hanyang University, Korea; Bringham Young University, USA; University of Colorado, Boulder, USA; Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy; University of West England, Bristol, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Twitter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The intended purpose is to broadcast regular research activities as well as significant achievements.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016