Investigation of the mechanisms of neonatal imitation

Lead Research Organisation: University of Dundee
Department Name: Psychology

Abstract

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Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Although a series of studies have confirmed that newborn infants even as young as a few hours old can imitate others' gestures, neonatal imitation has remained a controversial 'fuzzy phenomenon'. Several studies failed to replicate the results or regarded it as an artefact. Imitation is still lacking a comprehensive ethological, neurophysiological description in neonates. Recent explanations include the theory of intermodal mapping and the mirror neuron system model. These models however, have not been tested as potential mechanisms of neonatal imitation. Arbib (2005) suggested that a part of the brain, called the mirror neuron system has developed through the evolution to equip humans with the ability to communicate through language. He suggested an evolutionary line from simple imitations through more complex imitations, towards protospeech and finally to language. Our earlier study (Nagy & Molnar, 1994, 2004) described how newborn infants use imitations for reciprocal communication, as part of their first dialogues. Based on these two models, we proposed that neonatal imitation is not only an existing, valid phenomenon, but is guided by parts of the same mirror neuron system Arbib is proposing. Such explanation could explain why babies imitate immediately after birth, and how neonatal imitation equips babies with the skill to be able to develop and maintain intimate interactions much before they have mastered language.

One of the main aims of the research project was to confirm the phenomenon of neonatal imitation with a very large sample of neonates. Using a novel, purely statistical approach in the coding and the analysis aimed to ensure the objective, interpretation-free results. The second aim of the study was to explore the underlying mechanisms in neonatal imitation. We did so by using a gesture, that was different from those used in previous studies, but similar used in studies that described the mirror neuron system in adult humans and apes. The project therefore aimed not only to show that newborns can imitate the index-finger movement gesture but by using the gesture, to investigate the laterality thus the potentially different contribution of the left and right hemispheres in neonatal imitation. Such result could allow us to speculate whether the lateralized components of the mirror neuron system are part of the neural network underlying imitation.
A further aim was to explore the complexity, representation and potentially the meaning of imitative finger movements by modelling a range of movements, such as one-finger movement, a gesture representing number 2, and a gesture representing number 3. As a final aim, the project investigated how neonates are able to process and copy complex, sequential movements, such as clapping movement.
The results from all studies showed a selective increase of the targeted movements during imitation, thus with a very large sample size, with the use of an objective, statistical-based coding, the project confirmed the evidence of neonatal imitation through a series of studies and gestures. These gestures included fine motor finger movements, movements representing numbers, and sequential, complex movements. Although bilateral imitation was the most specific, there was an advantage of left sided imitative movements, as they occurred earlier and faster than right-sided ones. This result can be attributed to the underlying neural structure, the lateralization in the mirror-neuron system, thus confirms our assumption that a lateralized brain-system could contribute to the mechanism of neonatal imitation. As for the potential mechanism of neonatal imitation, results allowed us to further explore the mechanism of imitation, and found that imitation has a learning component and that general arousal can solely be responsible for neonatal imitation. This means, imitation must be part of a primary motivational system serving intersubjective communication.
Further investigations of the mechanisms described here will be needed however. Our future studies plan to monitor not only behavioural but also the psycho- and neurophysiological responses of the baby during imitation to obtain direct evidence on the underlying mechanisms.
The current study used the methods of the quantitative experimental psychology, a very much needed approach to investigate the existence, and the main features of neonatal imitation. Pilot analyses of the data as next step in the research (such as explorations into the interpersonal aspects of neonatal imitation) however indicated, that in the next phases of this research, qualitative, case-based, bottom-up micro-analytic descriptions will also be needed, integrated with the quantitative, objective, statistical based analysis used in the current project.
The results not only further our understanding in neonatal imitation, but also offer data-based insight into the social-communicative competence of human neonates. The data show that newborn infants have an innate motive and complex skills to imitate, thus to relate to others. Such results call for the importance of sensitive, intuitive parenting and caretaking from the very first moments of life. Based on it's potential impact, the project brought closer researchers and primary care professionals in the area, disseminating the notion of the socially competent newborn among paediatricians, midwifes, nurses and though the debriefing and the videos, among large number of parents. This increased awareness could lead to real difference in parenting and infant mental health care from the very first moment of life.
Exploitation Route 1. Further empirical work on the importance of neonatal period and to describe the psychology of the neonate
2. Inform theories on learning, imitation and communication in the areas of developmental, cognitive, social, educational and comparative psychology
3. The project leads to new research projects in clarifying the nature and the mechanisms of neonatal imitation.
4. The views of mental health professionals, physicians, midwives, nurses and early years educators on the earliest stage of development and the newborn period thus could transform our views on parenting.
5. Colleagues with a focus on disseminating research on early years have been talking about the PI's results from the project. Such mutual dissemination of research data by colleagues in the field is common and serves the benefit of all parties involved. For example, Dr. Suzanne Zeedyk talked about the PI's research to approximately 3000 people across the UK and Europe. She talked to groups of parents, childminders, teachers, mental health professionals, midwives, and addressed policy makers at the Scottish Parliament on the importance of early years, and cited empirical data from the research project.

The following user groups benefit from the research and related expertise: medical professionals, paediatricians, obstetricians, neonatologists, general practitioners, psychiatrists; mental health and infant mental health professionals; psychotherapists working in early prevention and intervention; early-years educators; midwives, social workers and professionals working with perinatal mothers and babies, and most importantly parents and families of newborns.
Sectors Education,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

 
Description As a result of the research and dissemination, user groups outside the research community, such as psychotherapists, psychoanalytic practitioners, professionals and trainees working with the care of preterm and term neonates and their families should learn about the imitative and communicative abilities of the newborn infant as early as the first hours of life. Such empirical results have an impact on a) Psychotherapies - the results transform the role and responsibilities of the parent, both healthy and with mental health problems; b) Intervention methods - contributed to the empirical and theoretical concepts behind Video Interaction Guidance (VIG, Kennedy et al., 2011) that is a nationally and internationally widely used method for intervention c) Transform our views on parenting. The PI has been involved in disseminating the results to user groups. She has been invited to talk to a large group of psychoanalysts and psychotherapists at the Joint Meeting of the Brazilian and French Psychoanalytic Societies; she gave a key-note talk at the International Video Interaction Guidance Conference that brought together researchers and practitioners across a wide range of fields. Also, she talked about the research and the results to nurses, midwifes, obstetricians and neonatologists at the site of research, as well as to well over 100 parents of newborn infants while working on the research project. Additionally, colleagues with a focus on disseminating research on early years have been talking about the PI's results from the project. Such mutual dissemination of research data by colleagues in the field is common and serves the benefit of all parties involved. For example, Dr. Suzanne Zeedyk talked about the PI's research to approximately 3000 people across the UK and Europe. She talked to groups of parents, childminders, teachers, mental health professionals, midwives, and addressed policy makers at the Scottish Parliament on the importance of early years, and cited empirical data from the research project. The following user groups benefit from the research and related expertise: medical professionals, paediatricians, obstetricians, neonatologists, general practitioners, psychiatrists; mental health and infant mental health professionals; psychotherapists working in early prevention and intervention; early-years educators; midwives, social workers and professionals working with perinatal mothers and babies, and most importantly parents and families of newborns. Hopefully, the importance of the neonatal period in life will soon be acknowledged by mental health and social service programmes, and prevention efforts will start as early as the birth of a child. The research is a basic research and basic research takes a longer time than applied research to be translated to measurable societal and economic impact. Part of the impact is expected to be longitudinal, long-term, and intergenerational. Informed, sensitive parenting of the neonate is expected to have a long-term benefit not only in the development and the mental health of the future child, adolescent, and adult, but the effects to extend well beyond into the next generations.
First Year Of Impact 2007
Sector Education,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Small Research Grants
Amount £7,450 (GBP)
Funding ID SGS/36565 
Organisation Nuffield Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2009 
End 06/2010
 
Description Studentship
Amount £800 (GBP)
Organisation Carnegie Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2007 
End 08/2007
 
Description A workshop at the 21st Annual Gravens Conference on the Physical and Developmental Environment of the High Risk Infant 2008 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop was presented to professional practitioners working with premature and high risk infants on methodological aspects of studying and working with neonates.

To disseminate research and methodology to professional practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Challenges when studying the behaviour of the human neonate. The Psychology of the Neonate. 'Psychology of Newborn International Workshop', Dundee, 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was the last session of the conference on the 'Psychology of the Newborn' we organized with the support of the ESRC. It was a methodological session that was to stimulate cross-talk between researchers and practitioners from different fields and talk about the challenges when working with the neonate.

Identified questions, problems, common topics of interest and further questions to study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Channels of the innate intersubjectivity: The role of the face, voice, and the movement in neonatal imitation and communication. European Conference of Developmental Psychology, Vilnius, Lithuania in August, 2009. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The talk was at the European Conference of Developmental Psychology, Vilnius, Lithuania in August, 2009. Results on the neonatal imitative abilities were presented to professional audience in developmental psychology and infant development.

Informing peers about the results of the research has been the most notable impact from this activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Communication with human neonates. World Association for Infant Mental Health Congress, 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a preconference workshop for the World Association for Infant Mental Health Congress held in Edinburgh, Scotland, June, 2014. This was an invited talk to professional practitioners working with or interested in working with the NBAS technique with newborn infants.

Reached a large number of professionals working with the newborn infant to talk about the recent results of my research with human neonates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Communicative sensitivity, self-regulation, and resilience: Communications with newborn infants. European Conference on Developmental Psychology, Bergen, Norway, 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact It was a Symposium presentation at the 15th European Conference on Developmental Psychology, Bergen, Norway. The results on the recent research by the lab on neonatal imitation were communicated to developmental psychologists from all around Europe.

International interest, recognition and collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Emergent intersubjectivity: The Psychology of the Newborn Infant. Talk to the Instituto Seminario International Transdisciplinar sobre o bebe in Paris, in 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact It was an invited talk for the Instituto Seminario International Transdisciplinar sobre o bebe in Paris, in 2011. This is a society for French and Brazilian psychoanalysts who are working with infants, young children as well as in autism. The society expressed a great interest in the research published from the results of the projects funded by the ESRC.

Changing views of professional practitioners working with infants and autism.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description From Imitation to imprinting; and from Imprinting to a shared intersubjective world. Symposium, Rethymno, Greece, 2009. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact This was an invited talk at Symposium : 'Sharing in Culture and Nature', University of Crete, Rethymno, Greece in October, 2009. Organized by Professor Giannis Kugiumutzakis and internationally renown leaders in this field were invited to talk and share ideas, including Daniel Stern (Geneva), Colwyn Trevarthen (Edinburgh), Vasudevi Reddy (Portsmouth), Jacqueline Nadel (Paris).

It was the most stimulating international collaborative symposium. In the talk recent results from the ESRC funded projects on neonatal imitation and neonates' responses to the still face situation were presented. Long-term collaborations emerged and plans for joint publications and communication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Hungarian Radio 'Kossuth' coverage of the research : 'Ter es ido: megfogantam tehat vagyok' (Space and time: I am conceived therefore I exist) 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The research of the PI was covered in this broadcast.

To disseminate information in the public - in Hungarian.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Imitation and Communication in Human Neonates: Possible Mechanisms. Talk at the BPS Conference, 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Professionals in developmental and cognitive psychology attended UK's most prominent yearly conference organized by the BPS. The talk received a great interest by professionals and generated interest and further scientific collaborations, as well as an invitation to the editorial board of PLOSOne.

The results on the recent studies by the PI were communicated to professional audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Imitation and social engagement in children with and without autism. Poster at the BPS Developmental Section, 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Our lab applied the methodologies we developed with the newborn to studies with autistic children and the results were presented in this poster.

Interest raised in this approach.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description International Conference on Communication in Health. International Conference on Communication in Health. Oslo, Norway, 2008. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A contribution - how health psychology can use the notion of the intersubjective neonate and the innate ability to communicate. A paper was presented at the International Conference on Communication in Health. Oslo, Norway, 2008.

How to apply the research results in other fields of psychology and practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Invited Seminar at the Perception Movement Action Research Centre 2008 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact A small research group specializing in motor development in infancy invited this talk on neonatal imitation of fine motor finger movements.

Results from the research projects were presented and disseminated to this professional audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Invited seminar at University of Portsmouth 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact A seminar entitled: The Intersubjective Newborn: from imprinting to relating was presented at the Department of Psychology at University of Portsmouth. The most recent results from the ESRC funded projects were presented.

Scientific professional dissemination of the research results and collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Invited seminar at the Brain Body Center, University of Illinois, Chicago. 2008 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact This talk was invited by Professor Steven Porges the Director of the Brain Body Center, University of Illinois, Chicago. Results on imitation in human neonates- funded by the ESRC were presented to the research group.

The research results on neonatal imitation were presented and disseminated to a word leading research group in developmental psychophysiology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Invited talk at the International Conference on Autism, Postgraduate researchers, Amsterdam, 2008 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A series of speakers were invited to give an overview on autism - from models to therapeutic approaches to postgraduate students in the Netherlands. I talked about not only our studies on autism but as a framework out studies with newborn infants.

A framework on innate communicative abilities - to be used for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Keynote talk at the 21st Annual Gravens Conference on the Physical and Developmental Environment of the High Risk Infant 2008 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A paper on neonatal imitation of finger movements was asked as a keynote talk. Professionals working with premature and high risk infants (physicians, nurses, midwives and researchers) wanted to hear about the psychological abilities of newborn infants and my recent research funded by ESRC on neonatal imitation was presented to them.

Disseminating the research results to professional practitioners in the US.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Learning, dialogue, synchronicity: Elements and dynamics of intentional intersubjective participation in neonates. talk to psychotherapists and psychoanalysts in Paris, 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an invited talk to psychotherapists and psychoanalysts in Paris. Conference 'Fetus - Prema -Bebe. Quelques pistes, de la recherché a la Clinique'. It reached a large audience to change attitudes and inform them about recent research on the social skills of the newborn infants. The talk was based entirely on the results from the two research projects funded by the ESRC up to that point.

Changing attitudes of psychoanalysts and psychotherapists on the earliest relationships, thus changing their attitude to treatment and the theories behind the therapeutic approaches they use.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Neonatal imitation: Facts, mechanisms, function. Conference on Human Development, Indianapolis, IN, USA in 2008 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact It has been a paper presented at the 20th Biennial Conference on Human Development, Indianapolis, IN, USA in 2008 on the results from the first ESRC project on neonatal imitation of finger movements to American (US) professional audience.

To disseminate the results to developmental psychologists in the US.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Organizing a symposium on the human neonate at the European Congress of Psychology in 2009, Oslo, Norway 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact It was a symposium organized on the psychology of the neonate at the European Congress of Psychology. The main result was to introduce the notion of the 'psychology of the newborn' as well as to present a talk on the recent research.

The impact was to reach a wide range of professional psychologists (not only from the narrow field of developmental psychologists) and to introduce the notion that neonatal should be a recognized stage in psychology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Presentation at 'Cross-cultural perspectives in infant development' 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact A workshop was organized by Dr. Suzanne Zeedyk at the School of Psychology at University of Dundee on Cross cultural perspectives on infancy. International experts were invited to share they research. I also presented a talk entitled : Neonatal imitation: Cross-cultural considerations using data from the ESRC funded projects.

Research professionals and postgraduate and graduate students were reached.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Radio Tay: The Psychology of the Neonate. Coverage for the International Workshop. 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This interview was to cover the International Workshop on the Psychology of the Newborn Infant that was presented with the support of the ESRC with renown international experts invited.

To disseminate the research activity to the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk at the Brazelton Institute, Harvard Boston's Children's Hospital, 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Gave an invited talk at the Brazelton Institute at Harvard's Boston Children's Hospital. It was the most stimulating meeting with the leading research institute for the NBAS method. It reached leading professionals, pediatricians and researchers and resulted in stimulating collaborations.

The results from the research supported by the ESRC was communicated with professionals working with the newborns and the Brazelton Institute expressed a great interest in the research results. There have been requests for further talks and information exchange.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk to the Scottish ABC study Group 2007 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The group invited this talk on neonatal imitation to influence further research directions. The group received a large funding from Scottish Executive and they were considering involving neonatal imitation research into a large scale study.

To disseminate information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Talks at the APCP and OT Neonatal Groups Study Day on Infant Mental Health, 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Practitioners working with the newborn infant come for training on the recent advances in research and learn about the abilities of the newborn. It changes views and consequently changes the ways professionals and the public sees the very first relationship between the newborn and the family.

Change the views of practitioners working with the newborn infant
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talks to parents - ongoing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Parents attended at information sessions on the research. It informed their decisions whether to take part in the study and most expressed their interest in the abilities of the newborn infant.

Participation in the experiments and changing views.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009
 
Description Talks to pediatricians 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular discussions on the psychology of the newborns with pediatricians in the neonatal ward and the clinic

Changing perceptions of the newborn, increased interest to support the projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010
 
Description Talks to postgraduate MSc students 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A presentation to postgraduate masters students about my recent research results.

Stimulate research ideas, disseminate information and to involve students into research as assistants or practicum students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2009,2010,2011,2012
 
Description The 'anatomy' of neonatal imitation: From imprinting to intersubjectivity, at the European Congress of Psychology in Oslo, 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact This was a talk delivered at the symposium that I organized on the Psychology of the Neonate at the European Congress of Psychology in Oslo, Norway. The talk presented results from two ESRC funded projects neonates' ability to imitate complex gestures as well as their sensitivity and responses to the still face situation.

Broad international attention to the research projects from various files in psychology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description The Intersubjective Newborn: The origin and 'anatomy' of the first dialogue. Keynote talk, VIG Conference, 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a keynote talk at the VIG International Conference held in Dundee. Professionals practicing Video Interaction Guidance technique in different fields participated. The results on the inherent communicative skills of the human neonate are one of the theoretical foundations of the methodology. The recent results on the newborns' communicative abilities were met with keen interest.

Professionals practicing VIG methodology all over Europe listened to the most recent findings from the projects on neonates' communicative and imitative skills.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description The first dialogues: Descriptive behavioural analysis in understanding intersubjectivity in the perinatal period. World Association for Infant Mental Health Congress, 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact It was an invited talk at the World Association for Infant Mental Health Congress held in Edinburgh, Scotland, June, 2014.
This is the most notable and biggest international scientific meeting on Infant Mental Health with a wide range of professionals attending. It reached psychotherapists, researchers, midwives, physicians and other mental health professionals working with the infant.

Disseminating the results of the research studies to professional practicioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Twitter page for the projects on neonates 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A twitter page has been set up recently to share information about the laboratory, results, publications. It is at its early stages yet but with my students we plan to maintain, popularize and develop.

To reach professional and public audience, disseminate results and achievements.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://twitter.com/NewbornPsychLab
 
Description Why is the newborn missing from psychology? 'Psychology of Newborn International Workshop', Dundee, 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Contribution to the international workshop organized supported by ESRC on the 'Psychology of the Newborn'.

Stimulate thinking, collaboration, reach out to a wide range of professionals, practitioners and the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Workshop Organization, 'Psychology of Newborn International Workshop', Dundee, 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a workshop we organized on the 'Psychology of the Neonate'. This was the first such workshop in this topic. It brought together a wide range of professionals and the public working with the newborn infant: academics, pediatricians and other physicians, neuroscientists, psychologists, educational psychologists, teachers, midwives, nurses, parents as well as international experts working with the newborn.

Reached a large number of professionals to change the view on the social abilities of the newborn infant.
We are seeking for funding to continue this forum in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014