Resource Constrained Innovation and Inclusive Growth: A Research and Practice Agenda

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Imperial College Business School

Abstract

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

Publications

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George G (2011) The Business Model in Practice and its Implications for Entrepreneurship Research in Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice

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George G (2012) New solutions in service design and delivery are necessary to combat disease burden. in The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

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Howard-Grenville J (2014) Climate Change and Management in Academy of Management Journal

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Roehrich JK (2014) Are public-private partnerships a healthy option? A systematic literature review. in Social science & medicine (1982)

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George G (2014) Big Data and Management in Academy of Management Journal

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Kulik C (2014) Aging Populations and Management in Academy of Management Journal

 
Description I co-developed a theoretical framework and research agenda for inclusive innovation by critically evaluating extant theories and methodological issues as well as empirical regularities. We identified areas of future theory and research development and elaborated a synthesised view of inclusive innovation.

We developed a multi-dimensional framework providing new directions for further research, testing PPPs across different countries and sectors. Further research will examine the performance of health PPPs, offering grounded empirical evidence on whether and how PPP arrangements may succeed in achieving benefits.

We analysed 500 interviews of those in serviced and non-serviced slums in India to understand infrastructure provision and poverty alleviation. Our approach establishes the centrality of the water and sanitation components of infrastructure in bringing about positive socio-economic change, and how gender sensitive and integrated infrastructure provision can reap educational and health benefits. Published in Energy Policy, World Development (under review).
Several working papers are in development, including work on India and China as sources of innovation, knowledge sharing in online communities within firms, and the delivery of healthcare services in India, all due in late 2014.
Exploitation Route My findings are already being put to use, for example in my work on the Energy for Development partnership a survey revealed a noticeable transformation in activities around the trading centre and the lives of the villagers, which generated useful data so the research team could replicate in East Africa. The project is now a beacon in Africa having many local and international visitors from Japan, Germany, UK, Zambia, the World Bank and other funding agencies.

My pilot project with UNAIDS and the Global Fund for pregnant mothers in India and Sub-Saharan Africa examines the HIV protection of new born babies via an injection given to mothers within hours of birth. A report was submitted to UNAIDS on redesign of service delivery issues. A working paper is under development.

And using the insights drawn from my work with the World Intellectual Property Organization we are exploring the infrastructure and institutional costs of participating in international open collaborative networks, to pilot and promote the development of collaborative innovation technologies as a platforms for open collaborative innovation and engagement across boundaries, and development of the role of public data to support and encourage collaboration for innovation, e.g. use of public data in stimulating provisions of new services from which IP may be developed.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Energy,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/people/g.george
 
Description My fellowship proposal outlined a 'research and practice' agenda, bringing innovation for inclusive growth to the forefront of management studies. I explored two thematic areas: The Organisation of Innovation including business models, processes and open innovation: 12 published and 3 working papers, looking at innovation in developed world contexts and how processes could be improved to enhance firm performance and entrepreneurial outcomes. Inclusive Innovation or Innovation under extreme resource constraints: 9 published and 6 working papers tackling how innovation occurs in contexts with limited institutional structures and resources. With the funding provided by ESRC through this Fellowship as its basis, The Rajiv Gandhi Centre was able to establish a valuable research programme and continues to forge ahead with its world-class investigation into the nature of the innovation landscape for UK and Indian firms. With my fellowship at its heart as Director of the RGC I was able to attract leverage funding to study the role of energy in the socio-economic development of emerging economies, the integration of low-cost innovation into core markets and the effect of limited resources on organisational growth, ensuring clear impact on industry practice in the development of Indian and UK business, as well as tangible improvements to infrastructure in Africa. Now the RGC has an established reputation for high quality insight, the Centre's impact will continue to build on the ESRC-funded foundations and is in the hands of a new generation of researchers since I took up Deanship at Singapore Management University. Inclusive Innovation - I co-developed a theoretical framework and research agenda for inclusive innovation by critically evaluating extant theories and methodological issues as well as empirical regularities. We identified areas of future theory and research development and elaborated a synthesised view of inclusive innovation. Published in JMS, 2012 (56 citations in 2 years). Resource Constraints in Africa Our fieldwork research and report explored performance effects of resource assembly in Africa, finding that social capital, primarily kinship or family ties, helped entrepreneurs raise resources, but at a cost. Using small firm data in Uganda, we showed that shared identity among the entrepreneur's social network moderates this relationship, and, developed training programmes for Ugandan SME's. Research is ongoing and is now being extended to Kenya which will be reported on at a future date. A paper from this project has already been published in the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Entrepreneurship within Communities - We explored social structure, affordable loss and entrepreneurship in Africa, using data from 1061 households in rural Kenya, find the disintegration of social structure negatively impacts the decision to engage in entrepreneurship. Preliminary results indicate that energy provision has created over 20 new micro-enterprises, with the final survey due in late 2014. This paper is under revision in the Strategic Management Journal. Business Models - I published my last book 'Models of Opportunity' in 2012, and by linking research on business models and organisational design to the reality of building entrepreneurial firms it offers actionable advice for practitioners. The book has sold over 3,000 copies, and continues to influence the content of Imperial's Executive Education programmes, used with companies such as: Vodafone, Unilever, BT, and the London Stock Exchange among others. Health - A case study (published in Asia Pacific Journal of Management) examined GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute, an Indian public-private partnership (PPP), bringing emergency medical response to remote and urban settings. We showed how the organization established itself through institutional entrepreneurship and findings were disseminated to practitioners and scholars in China and India. In the Western context, we conducted a literature review of public-private partnerships, analysing over 1400 publications from multiple disciplines over a 20-year period, establishing that despite its significance, there is limited conceptualization and in-depth empirical investigation. We developed a multi-dimensional framework providing new directions for further research, testing PPPs across different countries and sectors. Further research will examine the performance of health PPPs, offering grounded empirical evidence on whether and how PPP arrangements may succeed in achieving benefits. Energy - We analysed 500 interviews of those in serviced and non-serviced slums in India to understand infrastructure provision and poverty alleviation. Our approach establishes the centrality of the water and sanitation components of infrastructure in bringing about positive socio-economic change, and how gender sensitive and integrated infrastructure provision can reap educational and health benefits, Published in Energy Policy, World Development (under review). Several working papers are in development, including work on India and China as sources of innovation, knowledge sharing in online communities within firms, and the delivery of healthcare services in India. The ESRC fellowship has helped to cement my reputation as a leading scholar, which led to my appointment as the first non-US Editor in Chief of the Academy of Management Journal (AMJ) in January 2014. Since assuming this role, I have implemented a number of improved processes that have resulted in noticeably higher article submissions than in previous years. As Editor I am able to determine trends and areas of focus for the management community as well as demonstrate my commitment to the championing of high quality research with real-world impact among fellow researchers. Since leaving Imperial College London, I have secured a position as Visiting Professor (to be confirmed later this year), which enables me to continue the work begun with my ESRC-funded projects and develop my new links with the College to support the exploitation of the work we did there as well as the careers of my postdoctoral research assistants. Finally, I will be collecting my Fellowship from the City & Guilds Institute in April 2015, further demonstrating how the ESRC funding has elevated my profile as a world-leading researcher. ********************************************************* I have given a keynote speech and acted as panel moderator on the 'Research with Impact' Dean's Conference at AACSB, Miami, February 2nd 2016.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description Energy for Development 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The ambitious Energy for Development (E4D) project is considering a co-operative society with the Ministry of Energy, to manage the trading centre microgrid. A location for the deployment site was decided, and a strategy was developed with local government officials and banks.
Collaborator Contribution TBC
Impact In September 2013, we celebrated the Kitonyoni project's first year in operation and a survey revealed a noticeable transformation in activities around the trading centre and the lives of the villagers, which generated useful data so the research team could replicate in East Africa. The project is now a beacon in Africa, having many local and international visitors from Japan, Germany, UK, Zambia, the World Bank and other funding agencies.
Start Year 2011
 
Description HIV Treatment Improvement 
Organisation Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
Country Global 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution A pilot project with UNAIDS and the Global Fund for pregnant mothers in India and Sub-Saharan Africa examined the HIV protection of new-born babies via an injection given to mothers within hours of birth.
Collaborator Contribution TBC
Impact A report was submitted to UNAIDS on redesign of service delivery issues. A working paper is under development.
Start Year 2012
 
Description World Intellectual Property Organization 
Organisation World Intellectual Property Organization
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This report was based on an extensive literature review and analysis of different forms of openness and appropriability regimes.
Collaborator Contribution TBC
Impact Using its insights we developed collaborative innovation and IP infrastructures: to explore the infrastructure and institutional costs of participating in international open collaborative networks, to pilot and promote the development of collaborative innovation technologies as a platform for open collaborative innovation and engagement across boundaries, and development of the role of public data to support and encourage collaboration for innovation, e.g. use of public data in stimulating provisions of new services from which IP may be developed.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Energy 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We analysed 500 interviews of those in serviced and non-serviced slums in India to understand infrastructure provision and poverty alleviation. Our approach establishes the centrality of the water and sanitation components of infrastructure in bringing about positive socio-economic change, and how gender sensitive and integrated infrastructure provision can reap educational and health benefits.

Several working papers are in development, including work on India and China as sources of innovation, knowledge sharing in online communities within firms, and the delivery of healthcare services in India, all due in late 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Entrepreneurship within Communities 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Using data collected from 673 households in a comprehensive effort in two regions in rural Kenya, we found the disintegration of social structure negatively impacts the decision to engage in entrepreneurship, the effect being moderated by income loss, gender of the household head and access to community resources. We discussed the implications for theories of entrepreneurship in extreme poverty, especially the role of social structure, affordable loss and effectuation.

Our results clearly show that occupational change intentions to entrepreneurship are driven by income seeking and risk tolerance whereas these attitudes do not predict other occupational changes from current occupation.

Preliminary results indicate provision of energy has created 20 new micro-enterprises, with the final survey scheduled to take place in November 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Resource Constraints in Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact We conducted fieldwork research and a subsequent report exploring performance effects of resource assembly in Africa, examining the relationship between structural social capital, resource assembly and firm performance of entrepreneurs in Africa.

We found that social capital primarily composed of kinship or family ties helped the entrepreneur to raise resources, but it does so at a cost. Using data drawn from small firms in Kampala, Uganda, we explored how shared identity among the entrepreneur's social network moderates this relationship.

Using this knowledge we have designed and developed training programmes for SME's in Uganda, which has now been extended to Kenya.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013