Developing Robust Methods for Evaluating Policies in the Markets for Food and Nutrition

Lead Research Organisation: Institute for Fiscal Studies
Department Name: IFS Research Team

Abstract

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Description The research was a collaboration between researchers at the Institute for Fiscal Studies and the University of Toulouse. As part of the project we held regular workshops and research visits. One of the most important outcomes of the project has been the development of close and long lasting research ties between the two institutions, which we expect to last well beyond the life of this specific project.
The most significant academic achievement from this project so far have been:
• We compared the food purchasing behaviour of households in the UK with households in France and the US. We documented important differences in the foods purchased and their nutritional quality. We developed a new demand system that allowed us to separately identify the importance of economic factors (prices and characteristics) from preferences in explaining these cross country differences.
• We improved our ability to carry out ex ante evaluation of policy interventions that change prices, advertising or other aspects of the economic environment characteristics. We extended random utility models in ways that have relaxed the restrictive distributional assumptions that are commonly made. We have done this in a number of important ways across several different papers. In one paper we consider consumer demand for junk foods and we paid careful attention to the way that advertising affects demand, allowing advertising of one brand to potentially increase or decrease demand for other brands, and for past advertising to influence current demand, meaning firms play a dynamic game. In another paper we allow for income effects. We also considered the supply side, and allowed for the possibility that firms might respond to policy interventions by changing prices, advertising and other characteristics. We applied these models to the analysis of a number of existing and potential policy interventions in the area of food and nutrition, including the 5-a-day program, proposals to ban advertising of junk foods and nutrient taxes. We pointed out effects that were sometimes surprising and not what one would initially expect.
• We acquired and set up new data on food-on-the-go to look at how individuals take decisions when choosing for immediate consumption. These new data open up an exciting new avenue of research that we did not foresee when we wrote the proposal. They allow us to observe individual purchasing behaviour, and relate it to behaviour of the household as whole.
• We wrote a series of papers that documented how the recent recession affected households food budgets and the consequences this had for nutritional outcomes and that documented how household purchasing behaviour and nutrition have changed over the last three decades in the UK. Important contribution of this work have been to: (i) demonstrate how many households are able to maintain the nutritional quality of their diet despite having to make severe cuts to food spending, and (ii) show that diet has changed in some surprising ways, for example, with the data showing a reduction in total calories purchased. These two results run counter to what a number of other papers in the literature have shown, and if they prove to be robust could have important implications for both academic and policy work going forward.
Exploitation Route We expect the research collaboration between IFS and Toulouse to continue and we are planning further research collaborations and applications.
The new model of demand and the extensions to random utility models will be useful to academics working in the area of demand estimation and consumer choice.
The empirical results from our work on ex ante policy evaluation have already been presented to policy makers in the UK and will be presented in the EU; these have been of direct interest and we expect that they will be used further in future. The researchers have made presentations on this work to the general public, to various policy organisations, given evidence to select committees and been reported in the media.
The data on food-on-the-go will be of potential interest to a wide range of academics and policy makers; we believe we are amongst the first academics to make use of these data and we believe our experience will prove useful to others.
The work on understanding long term trends in food purchasing behaviour and on the impact of recessions will be of interest and use to academics working on self-insurance and to policymakers working in health or social policy.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Retail

URL http://www.ifs.org.uk
 
Description The findings from our research have been used by the Department of Health (DoH) to inform policy (e.g. IFS Briefing Note No. 138, "Price-based measures to reduce alcohol consumption"). We have developed this work, and have had several meetings with DoH officials and Public Health England (PHE) to discuss our new findings (8 September 2014, 17 February 2015, 20 July 2015, 30 July 2015). PHE officials told us that they planned to use our results as a complement to research that they had commissioned. We have also met with other officials at the DoH to discuss our research on food reformulation. Our finding that the decline in dietary salt intake was almost all due to product reformulation by firms (IFS Working Paper W14/15) was of interest to the team currently deciding how to reduce people's sugar consumption. We ran a Festival of Social Science event (November 2013) which was covered on Sky News, BBC Scotland and Voice of Russia. In August 2015 we released a new set of results which were covered by the BBC and in the print media. Following this coverage, Martin O'Connell was invited to Parliament (second hearing of the Fabian Commission on Food and Poverty) to talk about food spending over the recession.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Healthcare,Retail
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Consumer demand with unobserved stockpiling and intertemporal price discrimination 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The paper 'Consumer demand with unobserved stockpiling and intertemporal price discrimination', by Pierre Dubois and Thierry Magnac was presented at the following conferences:
- Workshop on Econometrics and I.O. of Food and Nutrition, Toulouse, December 17-18, 2012
- EARIE Conference, Munich, August 28-31, 2015
- EEA Conference, Mannheim, August 24-27, 2015
- IFS Demand Conference, London, June 20, 2015


This paper was presented at conferences in London and Europe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/7985
 
Description A cross disciplinary discussion of public policy and food choices 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on A cross disciplinary discussion of public policy and food choices, given at University of Pennsylvania
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description A new year, a new you? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article on VoxEU
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/10350
 
Description A new year, a new you? Temptation and self-control in food purchases 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on 'A new year, a new you? Temptation and self-control in food purchases' given at the Association of South European Theorists Annual Conference in Algiers and a presentation given in honour of Leonid Hurwicz
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description An empirical study of supermarket demand and equilibrium pricing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Martin O'Connell at the Workshop on econometrics and IO of food and nutrition, Toulouse School of Economics.



Presentation by Martin O'Connell at the Workshop on econometrics and IO of food and nutrition, Toulouse School of Economics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Article - Fixing the UK's alcohol taxes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Blog post for Institute of Alcohol Studies on Fixing the UK's alcohol taxes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/9053
 
Description Article - Gluttony and Sloth 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact VoxEU article on Gluttony and Sloth
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/8362
 
Description Assessing the impact of '5-a-day' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation to the Royal Economic Society by Martin O'Connell.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Banning junk food ads 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Video by VoxEU on Banning junk food ads
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://voxeu.org/content/banning-junk-food-adverts
 
Description Blog - Food choices and public policy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog on British Academy website on Food Choice and Public Policy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/10251
 
Description Bodyweight, nutrition and physical activity in England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rodrigo Lluberas and Rachel Griffith for the Work in Progress seminar.


Presentation by Rodrigo Lluberas and Rachel Griffith for the Work in Progress seminar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Bounding Demand Elasticities with Unobserved Choice Set Heterogeneity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on Bounding Demand Elasticities with Unobserved Choice Set Heterogeneity, given at the University of Oslo, Norway and the Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Consumer demand and retail price competition in the grocery market 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Michael O'Connell for the European Economic Association contributed session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Consumer demand and retail price competition in the grocery market 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Martin O'Connell at the 2013 Barcelona GSE Summer Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Consumer demand and supermarket pricing in the food market 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Martin O'Connell at the Royal Economic Society special session:'Pricing in the retail food market'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Corrective taxes and consumer heterogeneity in the alcohol market 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on Corrective taxes and consumer heterogeneity in the alcohol market given at CREST, Paris
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Demand for fruit and vegetables: the impact of 5 a day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Martin O'Connell for the Work in Progress seminar.


Presentation by Martin O'Connell for the Work in Progress seminar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Demand for nutrients: a cross-country comparison 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith at a departmental seminar at the University of Lancaster.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Demand for nutrition: a cross country comparison of US, UK and France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The paper 'Demand for nutrition: a cross country comparison of US, UK and France', by Pierre Dubois, Rachel Griffith and Aviv Nevo was presented at the following conferences:
- American Economic Association Meeting, Chicago, January 6, 2012
- Royal Economic Society, Cambridge, March 28, 2012
- INRA IDEI Conference, Toulouse School of Economics, June 21, 2012
- ESEM Malaga, August 27-31 2012
- EARIE, Roma, September 2-4, 2012
- French Econometrics Conference, Rennes, November 23, 2012

The paper was also presented at seminars at these institutions:
- Paris School of Economics, March 12, 2012
- Research Institute of Industrial Economics - IFN, Stockholm, November 14, 2012
- CREST seminar, Paris, September 20, 2012

This paper was presented at conferences in the UK and Europe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/6788
 
Description Design of optimal corrective taxes in the alcohol market 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Video by VoxEU on Design of optimal corrective taxes in the alcohol market
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/8868
 
Description Design of optimal corrective taxes in the alcohol market 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on Design of optimal corrective taxes in the alcohol market given at University of Sheffield
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Design of optimal corrective taxes in the alcohol market 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on 'Design of optimal corrective taxes in the alcohol market' given at LAGV conference, RES Annual Conference, University of Vienna, University of Sheffield, University of Oxford, demand workshop in Boston, Econometric Society Winter Meetings and IFS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2016,2017
URL https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/9093
 
Description Designing Alcohol Taxes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on Designing Alcohol Taxes given at the Home Office
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Do prices and attributes explain international differences in food purchases? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation to the Royal Economic Society by Pierre Dubois and Rachel Griffiths.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Do sin taxes work? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on 'Do sin taxes work?' given as part of the Richard Musgrave visiting professorship and at the RES PhD Symposium
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Eating Less but Putting on Weight | Presidential Address, EEA Mannheim 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Eating Less but Putting on Weight | Presidential Address, EEA Mannheim 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Eating less but putting on weight 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Why has obesity risen despite us eating less? Rachel Griffith and Pierre Dubois talk about her work, which showed how the amount of exercise we get from modern life has played a massive role.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/8038
 
Description Excise duties 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This presentation was given at the launch of the Green Budget 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Food expenditure and nutritional quality 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at the Festival of Social Sciences by Kate Smith, Martin O'Connell and Rachel Griffith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Food for thought? Household spending in the Great Recession 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Britain in 2013 article by Cormac O'Dea and Kate Smith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Food purchases and Nutritional Outcomes in the US, UK and France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact This paper was presented by Pierre Dubois at the conference of the American Economic Association in Chicago.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Food purchases and nutrition over the recession 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk by Rachel Griffith to the heads of the food industry hosted by Drayton partners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Food spending over the recession 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to the Fabian Society by Martin O'Connell.


Presentation to the Fabian Society by Martin O'Connell.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Getting a healthy start? Nudge versus economic incentives  
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact seminar
Presented at : Manchester
Presented at : Oxford
Presented at : York
Presented at : Paris
Presented at : Edinburgh
Presented at : Toulouse
Presented at : Bristol
Presented at : Newcastle
Presented at : Duisburg-Essen
Presented at : Essen
Presented at : Dublin
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Gluttony and sloth 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation to Women in Economic Network event by Rachel Griffith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Gluttony and sloth: long-run changes in bodyweight, diet and activity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The paper 'Gluttony and Sloth: long-run changes in bodyweight, diet and activity' was presented by Rachel Griffith at the following institutions:
- Seminar at the University of Southern California
- Seminar at the University of Oxford
- Keynote presentation to the Spring Meeting of Young Economists

The last was an invited address to young economists; the meeting was held in Ghent.


The last meeting was an invited address to young economists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://smye2015.weebly.com/keynote-lectures.html
 
Description Gluttony in England? Long term change in diet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation by Melanie Luhrmann, Rodrigo Lluberas and Rachel Griffith at the Festival of Social Sciences event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Gluttony or Sloth: what are the driving forces behind obesity? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact This lecture was given to the Manchester Statistical Society in March 2015 by Rachel Griffith.

The paper presented was entitled 'Gluttony or Sloth: what are the driving forces behind obesity?'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Gluttony or sloth? Bodyweight, diet and activity in English households 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lecture at a food industry dinner at the University of Manchester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Gluttony or sloth? EAA Presidential address 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Rachel Griffith gave the Presidential address at the conference of the European Economic Association in Mannheim. The title of the talk was 'Glutton or sloth? Labour market nonseparabilities and the rise in obesity'.

This paper was presented at the 2015conference of the EEA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.eeassoc.org/index.php?site=EEA2015&page=231&trsz=239
 
Description Government intervention in food markets 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to BIS by Rachel Griffith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Government intervention in food markets 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Seminar at the University of East Anglia by Rachel Griffith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Government intervention in food markets when firms react 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith at the Keynote presentation at Irish Economic Association Annual Conference, Limerick.


Keynote presentation by Rachel Griffith at the Irish Economic Association Annual Conference, Limerick.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Government intervention in food markets when firms react 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation to the Australian Conference of Economists by Rachel Griffith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Household Food Purchasing Behaviour, Income, Prices and Nutrition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Workshop on resource allocation within households for ANR-ESRC Open Research Area project by Martin O'Connell and Kate Smith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Household food purchasing behaviour, income and diet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Martin O'Connell at the Applied Microeconometrics and Public Policy Conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Household food purchasing behaviour: income, prices and nutrition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation to the Sustainable Consumption Institute, University of Manchester, by Rachel Griffith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description How significant is a minimum unit price for alcohol of 40p? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact IFS observation by Andrew Leicester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014
URL http://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/6084
 
Description How well targeted are soda taxes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on 'How well targeted are soda taxes', given at Policy Discussion in Washington DC, RES Conference in Brighton, Health Economics Workshop, Imperial College London, University of Bristol, National Tax Association annual conference in Philadelphia, a conference in honour of Richard Blundell's Nemmers Prize, Queen Mary University, the RES Annual Conference, University of Venice and CREST
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description How, and should the government tackle diet-related disease? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Cambridge Public Economics lecture by Kate Smith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description How, and should the government tackle diet-related disease? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Oxford Public Economics lecture by Kate Smith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description How, and should the government tackle diet-related disease? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation by Kate Smith for the Cambridge Public Economics lectures.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description How, and should the government tackle diet-related disease? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Oxford Public Economics lecture by Kate Smith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description How, and should, the government tackle diet-related disease? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture by Kate Smith for the Public Economics Lectures, Cambridge University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description How, and should, the government tackle diet-related disease? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture by Kate Smith for the Public Economics Lectures, University of Oxford.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Income effects and the welfare consequences of tax in a differentiated product oligopoly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Lars Nesheim at a workshop on nonparametric demand.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Individual preference heterogeneity, targeting and welfare effects of soda taxes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on Individual preference heterogeneity, targeting and welfare effects of soda taxes, given at the University of Lisbon, a seminar at the University of Toulouse and University of Pennsylvania
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Kate Smith on alcohol duty 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this podcast, Kate Smith talks about duties on alcohol to the Institute of Alcohol Studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/8193
 
Description Measuring the quality of people's diets: a comparison of intake and purchase data 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Kate Smith and Rachel Griffith at the Workshop on econometrics and IO of food and nutrition, Toulouse School of Economics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Measuring the quality of people's diets: a comparison of intake and purchase data 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Michal Krol and Kate Griffith at the Workshop on econometrics and IO of food and nutrition, Toulouse School of Economics.


Presentation by Michal Krol and Kate Griffith at the Workshop on econometrics and IO of food and nutrition, Toulouse School of Economics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Microeconomic analysis of prices, food and nutrition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation to Food and Drink Federation steering group by Rachel Griffith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Minimum unit pricing of alcohol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation to the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs by Andrew Leicester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013
 
Description Oral evidence to select committee 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Kate Smith gave oral evidence to health select committee
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Parental investment in child nutrition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Workshop presentation on resource allocation within households for ANR-ESRC Open Research Area project by Rachel Griffith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Parental investment in child nutrition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith and Valerie Lechene for the IZA Seminar series.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Parental investment in child nutrition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation on parental investment in child nutrition by Valerie Lechene at the Workshop on the economics of gender.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Press release - Proposed 50p minimum unit price for alcohol would increase prices of around 70% of off-trade alcohol purchases 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release for briefing note on minimum pricing for alcohol
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/10252
 
Description Product reformulation effective in reducing dietary salt intake 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was an Observation on the IFS website.

The Observation was quoted in the press and by bloggers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/7330
 
Description Product reformulation effective in reducing dietary salt intake 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article in 'Britain in 2015', published by the ESRC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Public economics: corrective taxes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact This presentation was given by Kate Smith at the Public Economics Lecture Day on 6 January 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Public policy and food choices 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation given at Wellcome Trust seminar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Public policy to lower sugar intake 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on 'Public policy to lower sugar intake' given at the Westminster Food & Nutrition Forum Keynote Seminar and a sugar reduction event in Westminster
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Relative prices, consumer preferences and the demand for food 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Editorial seminar to the OxREP editorial board by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Kate Smith.


Editorial seminar to the OxREP editorial board by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Kate Smith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Shopping around? How consumers adjust to economic shocks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation at Toulouse TIGER forum by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Kate Smith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Shopping around? How consumers adjust to economic shocks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Kate Smith for a IFS work in progress seminar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Shopping around? How consumers adjusted food spending over the Great Recession 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Kate Smith at the Workshop on Understanding Changes in Income Inequality in the Austerity Period.


Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Kate Smith at the Workshop on Understanding Changes in Income Inequality in the Austerity Period.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Small beer? Assessing the government's alcohol policies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact IFS observation written by Andrew Leicester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/5923
 
Description Store brand penetration: the role of advertising 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Michal Krol and Kate Smith at a Royal Economic Association contributed session.


Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Michal Krol and Kate Smith at a Royal Economic Association contributed session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Taxing unhealthy foods 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk to the Food Ethics Council Business Forum by Martin O'Connell.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Temptation and Sugar Consumption 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to the IIPF Annual Conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description The design of corrective taxes under nonlinear externalities and heterogeneous tastes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This presentation was given at the Ce2 workshop in Warsaw
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The distributional effects of a soda tax 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This presentation was held at the Annual Congress of the International Institute of Public Finance in Lake Tahoe, USA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The effects of banning advertising in junk food markets 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The paper, "The Effects of Banning Advertising in Junk Food Markets" by Pierre Dubois, Rachel Griffith and Martin O'Connell was presented at the following conferences:
- CSIO/IDEI Workshop, Toulouse, April 5-6, 2013
- EARIE Conference Evora, August 30-31, 2013
- Boston College, Demand Estimation and Modelling Conference, December 12-14, 2013
- Keynote, ADRES Conference, Paris Dauphine, February 3-4, 2014
- LAMES Sao Paulo, November 20-22, 2014

The paper was also presented at the following seminars:
University of Manchester, October 24, 2013
Duke University, October 29, 2013
North Carolina State University, October 30, 2013
London School of Economics, November 11, 2013
PUC Rio de Janeiro,pril 28, 2014
EPGE/FGV Rio de Janeiro,pril 24, 2014
University of Zurich,pril 16, 2014
Tilburg University, February 12, 2014
University of Chile, Santiago, May 7, 2014
CREST Paris, November 12, 2014
Oxford University, November 11, 2014
Harvard University, February 2, 2015
University of Maryland, February 10, 2015
Boston College, March 17, 2015
University of Virginia,pril 2, 2015
University of Rochester,pril 7, 2015
Stanford University, May 1, 2015
New York University, May 5, 2015
Northwestern University, May 18, 2015


The paper was presented at conferences and seminars in the UK, Europe and the Americas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/7185
 
Description The effects of banning advertising on crisps 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Talk at the University of Edinburgh by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Pierre Dubois.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The effects of banning advertising on crisps 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Pierre Dubois at the European Economic Association contributed session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The effects of banning advertising on demand, supply and welfare: structural estimation on a junk food market 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Departmental seminar at St Andrew's University by Martin O'Connell, Rachel Griffith and Pierre Dubois.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The effects on demand, supply and welfare of banning junk food advertising 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Pierre Dubois at a seminar at Leicester University.


Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Pierre Dubois at a seminar at Leicester University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The effects on demand, supply and welfare of banning junk food advertising 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Pierre Dubois at a Seminar at York University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The effects on demand, supply and welfare of banning junk food advertising 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Pierre Dubois at an IFS seminar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The effects on demand, supply and welfare of banning junk food advertising 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Talk by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Pierre Dubois at a seminar at Tilburg University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The effects on demand, supply and welfare of banning junk food advertising 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Pierre Dubois at a seminar at Zurich University.


Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Pierre Dubois at a seminar at Zurich University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The effects on demand, supply and welfare of banning junk food advertising 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Pierre Dubois at a Seminar at Bristol University.


Presentation by Rachel Griffith, Martin O'Connell and Pierre Dubois at a Seminar at Bristol University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The growth of diet related disease: when, and how, should governments intervene? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Economic Review article written by Kate Smith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The impact of banning advertising on crisps 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Rachel Griffith and Martin O'Connell at the Workshop at University of East Anglia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The impact of banning advertising on crisps 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Workshop presentation by Rachel Griffith and Martin O'Connell at Cardiff University.


Workshop presentation by Rachel Griffith and Martin O'Connell at Cardiff University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The impact of banning advertising on the market for crisps 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Seminar by Martin O'Connell and Rachel Griffith at Toulouse School of Economics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The impact of food taxes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation to the National Heart Forum (now UK Health Forum) on "What is the role of food taxes?".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The socioeconomic gradient in diet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Kate Smith and Rachel Griffith at the 2013 Royal Economic Society general session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description The socioeconomic gradient in diet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to the NBER summer institute by Martin O'Connell.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The socioeconomic gradient in diet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation to the EEA Annual Congress by Kate Smith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The soft drinks levy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This presentation was given at the IFS post-Budget presentation on 17 March 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Understanding changes in the British diet: conclusions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation by Martin O'Connell at the Festival of Social Sciences event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Understanding changes in the British diet: introduction 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press Release for Festival of Social Sciences event written by Kate Smith, Martin O'Connell and Melanie Luhrmann.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Understanding changes in the British diet: introduction 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation by Martin O'Connell at the Festival of Social Sciences event.


Presentation by Martin O'Connell at the Festival of Social Sciences event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Using public policy to improve diet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation given at the Scottish Government Strategy Unit Seminar Series.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Variation in own brand penetration: the role of advertising 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Kate Smith, Rachel Griffith and Michal Krol at the European Association of Research into Industrial Economics contributed session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Variation in own brand penetration: the role of advertising 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation by Kate Smith, Rachel Griffith and Michal Krol at the European Economic Association contributed session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description What do we know about the quality of in-home scanner data? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Conference on "Consumption and Prices: Investigation of Homescan Data" by Andrew Leicester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2012