Space, Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development: Case Studies from Southern Africa

Lead Research Organisation: University of the Western Cape
Department Name: Inst for Poverty Land & Agrarian Studies

Abstract

This project is directed at the Agriculture and Growth theme.

In this project we will investigate how agricultural development can contribute to non-farm employment in rural areas in low-income and developing countries. A strong non-farm sector is a key aspect of sustainable rural development - especially when many do not have land and are not involved in agricultural production, and where land investments or productivity increases may lead to people being displaced out of agriculture. Yet while policymakers have long been aware of the importance of non-farm employment, they often press ahead with agricultural development plans without considering these impacts, and regularly simply assume that people who are leaving the land will automatically find employment elsewhere. It is however becoming clear that such automatic re-employment does not happen, and that increases in agricultural productivity, even where they lead to greater incomes for farmers, do not automatically stimulate non-farm employment.

The links between agricultural growth and non-farm employment are not clearly understood. It has long been assumed that agricultural growth benefits non-farm employment by increasing the local demand from farmers and farm workers for goods and services, but history shows that this is not always the case. The employment benefits of agricultural growth depend on many factors -- including, crucially, the spatial organization of production, processing and marketing, and the nature of the value chains that link farmers to local and distant markets, as consumers and as producers. If these forms of organization bypass local markets, agricultural development can lead to links with distant markets being strengthened, while not contributing to the local economy. In the context of increased pressure on agricultural land, these questions are becoming increasingly important in many parts of the world. This is so particularly in Southern Africa where rural development is being affected by a host of pressures, including competition for agricultural land, the political saliency of land reform and small farmer development, and the increasing power of supermarkets. A better understanding is needed of the spatial and institutional factors that support employment-intensive rural development.

PLAAS aims to address these questions by doing case study research in three countries where these issues are pressing: South Africa, Malawi and Zimbabwe. It will consider dynamics both of low-income countries (Zimbabwe and Malawi) and more 'advanced' ones (South Africa). Here, it will apply an innovative methodological approach: instead of trying to capture all these complex linkages by constructing a social accounting matrix (which has expensive data requirements and cannot capture the spatial linkages involved) the study will focus on carefully mapping actual resource flows between economic actors, 'following the money' by identifying the upstream and downstream connections that link households and enterprises to one another, and iteratively building a map of social and economic networks. It will analyse these networks using software developed for mapping social networks. In a second phase of the study, a household livelihood survey will measure the impact on employment, incomes and food security of women and men. We will use this data to build a detailed understanding of how local economic networks and value chains shape the prospects for non-farm employment.

This research will be done in close co-operation with policy-making bodies and planners. The research agenda set out here touches on key issues central to the South African government's new economic growth path as well as NEPAD's Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Plan, and PLAAS will use the data and findings to increase policymakers' understanding of how to support non-farm employment through appropriate approaches to the spatial design of agricultural development.

Planned Impact

The most important groups to be impacted by the research includes (1) rural people who are at risk of being displaced off land and out of agriculture by inappropriately designed policies or agriculture investment models, and (2) other groups, already landless or outside agriculture, who would benefit from more inclusive approaches to growth. By promoting more inclusive and appropriate models, we aim to prevent or ameliorate such impacts, and to promote their wellbeing through inclusive and employment-intensive growth.

We will seek to achieve these aims primarily by engaging with the models and approaches of policymakers and planners. By highlighting the differential impacts on non-farm employment of different agricultural development paths, we aim to put broad-based and employment-rich growth at the centre of the agricultural development agenda. At the same time, we seek to contribute concretely by highlighting the central role of the spatial organization of linkages, networks and institutions, and by helping policymakers to identify guidelines that can promote employment-rich growth in rural areas

The study will be particularly useful to three groups of end-users. Firstly there are those charged with developing an overarching and integrated understanding of the issues involved in supporting inclusive economic growth in general. This includes include policymakers in relevant line departments (Agriculture, Rural Development and Land Reform), but also in in other ministries with central macroeconomic planning responsibilities, or policymakers in regional structures such as SADC and those implementing CAADP in NEPAD. All these groups need information that helps them to understand the differences between different spatial architectures of regional integration and the different relationships between agriculture, markets, and employment opportunities that result. These users will be a key target of our work, and will be addressed through policy briefs, research reports, and workshops as outlined in our plan of Activities and Outputs.

Secondly there are officials engaged with the realities of implementation and economic development at local and district level, and who need practical approaches. They need to develop an understanding of practical issues involved in spatial planning for inclusive growth; often they also need support in engaging with competing and complex 'integrated plans' emanating from different line ministries. These groups are not a direct target because they are better reached through in-depth training programmes than through overarching policy guidelines. We plan to design such short courses at a later stage, but this will not be part of the present project. However, they will be consulted in the design phase of the project to include their concerns.

The third group consists of those who operate in the public realm and who to engage in public debate and democratic policy formulation on desirable directions for healthy economic policy and rural development. This includes, for example, advocacy organizations, interest groups representing small enterprises, farmers and the informally employed. We will address their needs through ensuring that research findings are accessibly disseminated in public media, including electronic and web-based media.

We will engage with all these groups throughout the course of the project: they will be invited to make inputs during the methodological and design phases; their interest will be kept 'warm' through the dissemination of emergent issues and interesting case studies; their views will be engaged in a midterm 'emergent findings' workshop; and at the end of the project they will be targeted in a wide ranging dissemination process that will be focussed both on national policy processes and on international policy frameworks (e.g. CAADP and NEPAD). All in all, some 13% of the project budget is dedicated towards end-user engagement.
 
Title Film: BEEF- Making Markets: Land reform, Agriculture and New Local Economies in Zimbabwe 
Description This film is part of a series emerging from a research project looking at the relationships between space, markets, employment and agricultural development in southern Africa. This film focuses on the livestock sector. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The film garnered significant interest, getting more than a thousand hits within days of being released, and having been viewed more than 4505 times. 
URL http://youtu.be/PxZAKit5h50?list=PL635r9PRXs6ck636y61cmtWZiLBp-iYzC
 
Title Film: Cultivating Unemployment 
Description A video detailing interim findings from the South African case study, highlighting the lack of employment intensive growth resulting from agricultural development. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The 'trailer' for a short (18 minute) film or documentary flagging many of the studies conceptual and policy questions particularly in relation to South Africa entitled 'Cultivating unemployment' had 108 views. But the documentary itself had 1317 views (steadily increasing by approximately 150 views a month). The film is shared on the website of African Association of Agricultural Economics, and in the e-newsletter of the Local Economic Development Network of Africa. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qM9xcJrs7-c
 
Title Film: HORTICULTURE - Making Markets: Land Reform, Agriculture and New Local Economies in Zimbabwe 
Description This film is part of a series emerging from a research project looking at the relationships between space, markets, employment and agricultural development in southern Africa. This film focuses on horticulture. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The film has received more than 1071 views 
URL http://youtu.be/Z7UT6-mJplw?list=PL635r9PRXs6ck636y61cmtWZiLBp-iYzC
 
Title Film: Making Markets: Land Reform, Agriculture and New Local Economies in Zimbabwe 
Description This film is part of a series emerging from a research project looking at the relationships between space, markets, employment and agricultural development in southern Africa.The films focus on the impacts of new farm production following land reform in Zimbabwe on the local economy. This is the first, introductory film. . 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The series has had a large number of views in a short time, although this video has only garnered 360 views. 
URL http://youtu.be/5eJkBEQc6b8?list=PL635r9PRXs6ck636y61cmtWZiLBp-iYzC
 
Title Film: OVERVIEW - Making Markets: Land Reform, Agriculture and New Local Economies in Zimbabwe 
Description This film is part of a series emerging from a research project looking at the relationships between space, markets, employment and agricultural development in southern Africa. The films focus on the impacts of new farm production following land reform in Zimbabwe on the local economy. This is an overview of the key questions and findings of the study. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact This video has received more than 1296 views. 
URL http://youtu.be/aRLbYQ9CAKY?list=PL635r9PRXs6ck636y61cmtWZiLBp-iYzC
 
Title Film: TOBACCO - Making Markets: Land Reform, Agriculture and New Local Economies in Zimbabwe 
Description This film is part of a series emerging from a research project looking at the relationships between space, markets, employment and agricultural development in southern Africa. This film focuses on tobacco and has received more than 1761 views 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The video has received more than 1761 views 
URL http://youtu.be/M9yOzANSaMA?list=PL635r9PRXs6ck636y61cmtWZiLBp-iYzC
 
Title Film: TOBACCO - Making Markets: Land Reform, Agriculture and New Local Economies in Zimbabwe 
Description This film is part of a series emerging from a research project looking at the relationships between space, markets, employment and agricultural development in southern Africa. This film focuses on tobacco. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact None yet - the films have just been released. 
URL http://youtu.be/M9yOzANSaMA?list=PL635r9PRXs6ck636y61cmtWZiLBp-iYzC
 
Title Photographs: Policymaker Workshop, 13 February 2013 
Description Pictures from a workshop with policymakers and practitioners in Centurion, on 13-14 February 2013. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2013 
Impact N/A 
URL https://plus.google.com/photos/+PlaasUwc/albums/5905976238294701521?banner=pwa
 
Title Photographs: Weenen fieldwork 
Description A collection of pictures depicting scenes from the fieldwork in one of the research sites: Weenen, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact This is a stock of images for use in presentations, documents, etc; it is available for public use. 
URL https://plus.google.com/photos/+PlaasUwc/albums/5905988171959869697?banner=pwa&authkey=CNjsvb-urKu00...
 
Description (1) The spatial pattern of farm/non-farm linkages plays a key role in shaping the nature and (pro-poor) inclusiveness of the rural-non-farm economy (RNFE).

Supporting employment and livelihoods in the rural non-farm economy depends, not only on the extent and volume of agricultural production and the ability of farmers to profit from external markets, but also on the spatial characteristics of the forward and backward linkages to and from agriculture. Depending on the nature of these networks, agriculture can either be disconnected from the local economy (with upstream and downstream connections bypassing local entrepreneurs and exacerbating exclusion and marginalization) or connected to it in ways that maximise the positive local spin-offs of agriculture.

(2) The ability of these networks to support a diverse and resilient RNFE is connected to four high-level characteristics:

Density: Networks with large numbers of linked activities concentrated fairly close together are more likely to support the RNFE, firstly by reducing local transactions costs, and secondly through agglomeration effects.

External Connectedness: Under the right conditions, connection with metropolitan markets downstream from agriculture can benefit employment. Upstream external connection to highly concentrated input markets (e.g. seeds, agrochemicals) is however likely to lead to the leakage of income out of the RNFE.

Local Embeddedness: The RNFE benefits where entrepreneurs, markets and arrangements are strongly socially embedded via formal and informal institutions, regulatory frameworks, cultural identities and political commitments.

Inequality and power: The RNFE's ability to reduce vulnerability and support pathways out of poverty is affected by the extent of inequality in resource distribution and social power relations.

Strategies for a resilient and diverse RNFE should seek to promote agricultural linkages that are spatially dense, externally connected downstream, socially embedded, and not subject to elite or exclusionary capture.

(3) Many different factors shape the development of such networks. The three most important ones identified in this project were the extent of concentration and vertical integration in output markets, the scale of agriculture itself, and the terms of integration into the broader non-agricultural economy.

Large scale agriculture is relatively poor at promoting beneficial local linkages or at stimulating the RNFE. Small scale farmers are much more likely to incur production, investment or consumption expenditure locally, and therefore create forward linkages that support local entrepreneurs. But small farmers struggle to access distant markets and vertically integrated value chains.

A vital factor for the health of the RNFE is the presence in local markets of a diversity of informal sector and independent entrepreneurs. These are vital to smaller farmers and promote rich and complex forward and backward linkages.

Concentrated output markets organized through vertically integrated value chains tend to exacerbate patterns of inclusion and exclusion. But when distribution systems and marketing arrangements are appropriate, external connection with distant markets can benefit local farmers and local economies.

But market connections are not the only factor supporting the RNFE. Evidence showed the importance of other (often disregarded) distributive systems such as remittances, public sector salaries and social grants in supporting the RNFE.
Exploitation Route The findings emphasise the continuing salience of pro-smallholder land reform in promoting diverse and resilient rural economies. Land reform of this nature should not be aimed primarily at linking farmers tightly to distant, formal markets. Rather, smallholder farming should be supported as part of diverse household portfolios that include non-farm activities. Renewed attention is also required on land reform, particularly in the South Africa context.

The findings highlight the importance of an inclusive retail, distribution and processing sector that provides opportunities for would-be rural entrepreneurs. Local authorities and planners are often ambivalent about informal activity, seeking to regulate or formalize it in inappropriate ways, or creating an adverse business environment through punitive by-laws and extortionate fines. Instead, planning should enable local and informal markets through the provision of appropriate zoning, infrastructure and enterprise support.

Policymakers should note the importance of distributive systems other than monetized and market-based trade. Remittances, household strategies that straddle urban/rural divides, and fiscal flows (public sector salaries and social grants) also are in keeping the rural economy afloat, but often not within the purview of policymakers.

Planning, and competition authorities should consider the risks posed to rural economic development by the incursion of international supermarket chains. Measures need to be taken (either through strict zoning or by regulation that ensures local inclusiveness) to ensure that the spread of these chains in Africa do not harm local economies.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Retail,Transport

URL http://www.plaas.org.za/plaas-publications/SMEAD2015-pres-findings
 
Description In the years since the close of the Space, Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development (SMEAD) project in March 2015 the team members have continued to engaged in a range of activities to disseminate project outcomes and generate impact. These have activities have been concerned with prioritising key policy questions, advancing conceptual understandings, connecting with relevant constituencies, responding to strategic opportunities and engaging in a small number of selected capacity-building activities. These engagements have primary focused on one of two very different domains. (1) The first domain is located within the three respective national contexts (South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi). In these, face-to-face engagements and textual dissemination have been undertaken in ways that have spoken directly to decision makers concerned with particular national policy questions. On a few other occasions, inputs been directed at members of regional organisations and of bilateral funding and development agencies, typically based within one of the three national country contexts. (2) The second broad approach by which impact has been sought is via a range of web-based outputs (reports, policy briefs, blogs and films) directed at 'public space', and which will continue to garner interest and views in future. ENGAGEMENT WITH POLICY MAKERS In the South African context, the strategy was to engage with policymakers and stakeholders early in the life of the project and to keep them engaged with updates while research continued. This was intended to ensure that an interested audience was cultivated for the dissemination of findings and results. The engagement process thus began with an initial policy engagement workshop on 14 February 2013. This workshop was intended to 'sell' the central policy question - the centrality of the rural non-farm economy and the role of agriculture within it - to policy makers. This workshop garnered significant interest, particularly from NGO and civil society stakeholders interested in thinking outside the silos of government departments. After this, stakeholders were informed of the project's progress, and were kept up to date through electronic means (mailing list and web). These updates included information about the progress of fieldwork and 'nuggets' (emergent findings from the field). During this same time, additional interlocutors were reached and impact was amplified through media outputs (including radio and TV). Towards the conclusion of the project the participants in the original launch workshop and additional interested groupings were invited to the project's closing dissemination event, 'Changing Countrysides in Southern Africa: Land and Agricultural Commercialisation and Rural Employment', a regional workshop hosted in Pretoria, South Africa on 17 June 2015. Participants in this final workshop included Members of the Pan African Parliament and policy makers, select members of civil society, and University-based researchers from five Southern African countries. Also present were representatives of regional and national bodies (NEPAD and the FAO), and development agencies (DFID, Belgian Technical Co-operation, GIZ etc.) concerned with aspects of rural and agricultural development. Many of the regional delegates reflected on their own country contexts and juxtaposed details with others in the group. These reflections were diverse, but included agreement on the need to support smaller scale farmers (and the constraints on this). Several of the participants also made the connection between trajectories of land commercialisation in their own country context, and critical questions foregrounded in the SMEAD project, including the prospects for inclusive agricultural growth and development. Beyond these dissemination events, linked to the timeline of the project itself, researchers took part in events with the aim of putting the research findings on the regional policy agenda. This included a series of engagements in Zimbabwe (2014-2015), participation in a Netherlands embassy roundtable, and informal briefings to DFID, the World Bank and USAID representatives. However, the project research findings speak to a number of more contextually grounded country-based concerns, and additional engagement efforts have been focused on the national level. Within South Africa this included engagement with civil society organisations. In October 2014, we participated in a SANI symposium on aspects of inequality and the agro-food system, and an Oxfam-organised event sharing the stage with the then General Secretary of South African's largest trade union confederation, Mr Zwelinzima Vavi. Moreover we engaged with rural social formations affiliated to the Alliance for Rural Democracy (February 2016), as part of a larger workshop on the political economy of land, mining and rural democracy in South Africa, hosted in conjunction with the Rural Women's Action Research (RWAR) Programme in the Centre for Law and Society at the University of Cape Town. This event formed part of a programme of learning and community organisation meant to inform the practices of rural organisers and civil society organisations. In addition, SMEAD findings informed presentations and face-to-face engagement with policymakers from a number of national ministries within the South African government on the enabling platform of the Programme to Support Pro-Poor Policy Development (PSPPD), starting in 2015. The PSPPD platform was located first within the Office of the President, and more recently the Department of Performance, Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME). Members of the SMEAD team in South Africa also sought to respond to the opportunities presented by emergent domestic priorities. An example of this is our engagement (via verbal presentations and submission of a memorandum) to South Africa's statutory Competition Commission, in terms of its inquiry into the grocery retail sector (Notice 580 of 2015, Government Gazette No. 38863) in late 2015 and early 2016. Here, SMEAD team members presented research revealing the implications of the concentration of corporate and financial power throughout the South African agro-food system. Their input noted the way in which the current structure of the agro-food system, including retail, has negative impacts on local rural economic multipliers, to the detriment of forms of inclusive or pro-poor economic growth. At the end of 2015, our focus was on the need for the Commission to expand its terms of reference. A strong argument was thus made to the Commission of the need to examine the structure of the agro-food system expansively, in order to understand both the impacts on and consequences of, concentration in the grocery retail sector. These arguments seem to have been successful, as these considerations were included in the final TOR of the Commission. We continued to engage with the activities and the hearings of the Commission into 2016. Here, our work is being taken forward by the research and policy engagement activities of the National Research Foundation funded Centre of Excellence in Food Security (COE-FS), established in 2016, and the Southern African FoodLab (SAFL). Recent (2017) policy engagement activities, within South Africa, drawing very specially on the SMEAD project included a paper on 'Space Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development:Agro-food system development and the non-farm rural economy in Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa' presented to the conference on Value Chains in the Global South (in Stellenbosch) and a colloquium presentation at a Province of KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, and the finalisation for an in-print peer-reviewed edited book chapter ('Informal sector employment and the rural non-farm economy). In Zimbabwe engagement activities included the cross-country, regional workshop described above (viz. 'Changing Countryside in Southern Africa: Land and Agricultural Commercialisation and Rural Employment'). The Zimbabwe SMEAD team has distributed results of the research to local government, development, partners working in Zimbabwe, and to relevant national ministries including those for Agriculture; Finance and Economic Development, Economic Planning and Investment Promotion and Labour and Social Welfare. Starting in 2015, members of the SMEAD Zimbabwe team held discussions with many of these officials. In addition, part of the focus of the Zimbabwe SMEAD team has included engagements related to the commodity chains and geographical regions in which the case studies were developed. For instance, at the 2015 Annual Tobacco Conference, the Zimbabwean Minister of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation Development, Dr Joseph publicly lamented the lack of data on how the growth of the tobacco industry has impacted on livelihoods. Dr Sukume of the SMEAD team used this opportunity to present the report, policy briefs and film material to the attention to the minster, much to the Minister's interest. In 2016 in Zimbabwe, the Economics and Markets Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation worked on a CAADP stocktaking exercise of recent agricultural and rural development research and initiatives, to guide their programmes to achieve CAADP objectives. The highlights presented by SMEAD team members has informed this process and draws explicitly on its results. In this way, the project findings are continuing to inform ongoing research and policy interventions. In Malawi, apart from participation by Malawian policy makers (and a member of Parliament) at 2015 SMEAD workshop mentioned above, much of the engagement has centred on the work of Prof Ephraim Chirwa and his team. His work continues to focus on aspects of agricultural development (e.g. the fertilizer subsidy), but also includes reference to the evidence about the non-farm linkages found by the SMEAD's project. Instances of the SMEAD Malawi team's engagement activities includes Prof Chirwa's inaugural professorial lecture delivered at Chancellor College, University of Malawi (in Zomba) in late 2014. Entitled 'Smallholder Agricultural Development in Malawi in the Past 50 Years: Has Public Policy Resulted in Unsuccessful Transformations' his lecture synthesised a range of research including the SMEAD-funded enquiry. The presentation garnered much interest on the part of both the general public and alumni. Many of the latter are policymakers in Government or prominent within civil society organisations. Finally, efforts to generate policy impact within Malawi have also been augmented by the production of hard copies and the circulation of printed policy briefs. This is a useful approach to overcome the limitations of internet penetration especially in rural areas. PUBLIC DISSEMINATION In addition to direct engagement with policymakers and interested parties, the SMEAD findings have also been disseminated more widely via web-based, electronic and traditional print means. As of 2017 the SMEAD webpage hosted on PLAAS website has been visited by over 1600 unique users views. Furthermore the SMEAD web-page has links elsewhere: for example, the SMEAD webpage on the Future Agricultures Consortium site was visited by several hundred unique users. The 'trailer' for a short (18 minute) film or documentary flagging many of the studies conceptual and policy questions particularly in relation to South Africa entitled 'Cultivating unemployment' had 134 views. But the documentary itself had over 1600 views on YouTube. The film is furthermore shared on the website of African Association of Agricultural Economics, and in the e-newsletter of the Local Economic Development Network of Africa. Four short films, presenting and examining the findings in relation to Zimbabwe have similarly gleaned much attention. These short and accessible films, have been posted to YouTube, and tied to blog entries on 'Zimbabweland'. They include: 1. Overview- Making Markets: Land Reform, Agriculture and New Local Economies in Zimbabwe documentary - 3132 views 2. Short Introduction - Making Markets: Land Reform, Agriculture and New Local Economies in Zimbabwe - 415 views 3. Horticulture - Making Markets: Land Reform, Agriculture and New Local Economies in Zimbabwe - 2442 views 4. Tobacco - Making Markets: Land Reform, Agriculture and New Local Economies in Zimbabwe - 2243 views 5. Beef- Making Markets: Land reform, Agriculture and New Local Economies in Zimbabwe -14297 views Due to the limits of Internet penetration and connectivity in rural Zimbabwe (and Malawi) these web-based electronic modalities have been augmented with the distribution of 'hard copies' of various materials. In Zimbabwe 300 DVDs and 1250 booklets were distributed, the booklets are printed in both English and Shona. The SMEAD project has also sought to build and sustain impact through various blogs, many of which have several hundred unique visitor views, and will continue to garner interest for the foreseeable future. These include: 1. "Rural economies: It's not only about farming" - shared over 750 times; visited by over 790 unique users - key search terms include: impact on the rural economy, place of agriculture in rural economy, rural economy, rural economic development in south Africa, rural economy in south Africa, south african rural economies 2. New documentaries telling promising stories about Zimbabwe land reform ¬- blog shared over 140 times; visited by 165 unique visitors 3. Blog: Three new films on Zimbabwe's markets after land reform, visited by 860 visitors 4. Agricultural development and the local: the case of South Africa, Local First blog. 5. With regards to the Zimbabwe-related blogs, all of which are available on Zimbabweland blog. Disaggregating the views for individual blogs is difficult, but in 2015 alone Zimbaweland had over 55 000 views. (With 52 blogs this averages out at approximately 1000 view per blog). Moreover much of the impact of these blogs, and the largest number of views come from reposting, usually to the site www.Zimbabwesituation.com. Furthermore this content has been been picked up and reproduced within other blogs and the traditional mass media including The Chronicle, The Zimbabwean, African Arguments and others. Finally these blogs also automatically appear on the IDS site, which has a very large number of views. Downloads, especially from unique page visitors also enable impact for specific SMEAD project-generated texts to be quantified. These include: 1. Policy Brief 36: Space, Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development: Malawi - Shared 6 times, 16 unique page visitors; 10 downloads 2. Policy Brief 37: Space, Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development: Zimbabwe - Shared 2 times, 43 unique visitors, 28 downloads 3. Policy Brief 38: Space, Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development: South Africa - Shared 8 times, 30 unique visitors, 16 downloads 4. Policy Brief 45: Can agriculture contribute to inclusive rural economies? - Shared 10 times, 15 unique visitors, 5. Research Report 45: Space, Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development: Malawi country report - shared 21 times; 50 unique page visitors; 27 downloads 6. Research Report 46: Space, Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development: Zimbabwe Country Report - shared 48 times; 52 unique page visitors; 41 downloads 7. Research Report 47: Space, Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development: South Africa Country Report.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Agricultural Policy Research in Africa, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Cultivating unemployment: the SA agricultural economy, Alliance for Rural Democracy Short Course - An introduction to the political economy of land, mining and rural democracy in South Africa, Johannesburg, 24 February 2016
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Input into KZN Dept of Agriculture and Rural Development planning workshop and colloquium
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Inputs into planning undertaken by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, both a planning workshop (2016) and departmental colloquium (2017). These inputs foregrounded findings from the SMEAD project, and enabled the department's officials to incorporate a better understanding of the considerable constraints on agricultural as a driver of rural employment, into their planning.
 
Description Presentation on Cultivating unemployment - understanding the changing South African agricultural economy at Alliance for Rural Democracy Short Course entitled An introduction to the political economy of land, mining and rural democracy in South Africa, Johannesburg, 24 February 2016
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Zimbabwe, Economics and Markets Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation, CAADP stock taking
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact The government's review of CAADP programmes explicitly highlights the work of the SMEAD project
 
Title UK data archive 
Description In accordance with ESRC conditions SMEAD case study materials are lodged with the UK data archive. Access to the anonymised materials are subject to the protocols of the UK Data Archive. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The development of this research database allows the dataset / case studies to be accessed by other researchers in future. 
URL http://www.data-archive.ac.uk/
 
Description 2015 Annual Tobacco Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact At Zimbabwe's 2015 Annual Tobacco Conference, the Zimbabwean Minister of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation Development, Dr Joseph expressed a desire for input on the impacts of fast track land reform and we were able to present him with the research publications (report, policy brief, copy of DVD) which appeared to be well-received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bilateral discussion: Zimbabwe Department of Agriculture 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The discussion reflected on the Zimbabwe research findings and the implications of these finding for agricultural policy in Zimbabwe. The research was well-received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bilateral discussion: Zimbabwe Department of Economic Planning and Investment Promotion 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The meeting shared the research findings with the Department of Economic Planning and Investment Promotion, reflecting on the relevance of agriculture and on-farm activities for economic planning in Zimbabwe. The findings were well-received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bilateral discussion: Zimbabwe Department of Finance and Economic Development 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The meeting reflected on the Zimbabwe findings of the research and how these were pertinent to Economic Development in Zimbabwe. The research was well-received by participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bilateral discussion: Zimbabwe Department of Labour and Social Welfare 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The meeting informed policy makers and practitioners in the Department of Labour and Social Welfare about our findings, and the implications of these for employment and poverty alleviation in Zimbabwe. The meetings were well-received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Blog: Access to $1000 credit: would this help unleash agricultural commercialisation in Zimbabwe? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog explores how Zimbabwe's farmers might achieve more with better access to credit. In addition to about 1000 views on the blog itself, the article was picked up by The Zimbabwean newspaper and shared on the blog - the Zimbabwe Situation, where it was highlighted as one of the top blogs about Zimbabwe in 2014. The blog also received a number of comments, with mostly positive reviews.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2014/05/12/access-to-1000-credit-would-this-help-unleash-agricult...
 
Description Blog: Agricultural development and the local: the case of South Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog, on the influential Local First website, explored the initial South African case study findings, and reflected on the prospects for and constraints on rural development and employment, within present day South Africa. It reflected explicitly on rural employment under conditions of agricultural job shedding. The blog elicited comments and led to contact from other practitioners concerned with rural development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://actlocalfirst.org/2014/01/agricultural-development-and-the-local-the-case-of-south-africa/
 
Description Blog: Beef value chains in Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The blog explored positive efforts for Masvingo beef producers and businesses; the blog was shared on www.newsafrica.co.uk and a number of readers indicated that the blog was inspiring (in the comments).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2013/11/04/beef-value-chains-in-masvingo-province-zimbabwe/
 
Description Blog: Booming agricultural markets and the politics of control in Zimbabwe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog looked at the booming informal markets in Zimbabwe and highlighted the project films produced on the different case studies. The blog was quite popular and was picked up by emKambo - a site for co-ordinating people's markets in Zimbabwe, was highlighted by the ACI Scholarly Blog Index, and re-blogged by Emma Hurst on her blog, Zimbabwe. The Africa Hub online news site also picked up the article and redistributed it.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2015/02/09/booming-agricultural-markets-and-the-politics-of-contr...
 
Description Blog: Land and commercial agriculture in Zimbabwe: new findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The blog highlighted the key finding from the Zimbabwe case study and proposed fruitful policy directions for Zimbabwe's agricultural sector. The blog post received comments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2015/11/09/land-and-commercial-agriculture-in-zimbabwe-new-findin...
 
Description Blog: Land and commercial agriculture in Zimbabwe: new findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The article appeared on The Zimbabwe Situation blog and received a large number of comments, although these were largely negative, with people ignoring the evidence
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.zimbabwesituation.com/news/zimsit_w_land-and-commercial-agriculture-in-zimbabwe-new-findi...
 
Description Blog: Making markets: land reform, agriculture and new local economies in Zimbabwe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog highlights the Zimbabwe video series and the implications for Zimbabwe's development trajectory.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2014/12/15/making-markets-land-reform-agriculture-and-new-local-e...
 
Description Blog: Making markets: local economic development following land reform 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog highlighted the videos made from our Zimbabwe case studies and looks at blossoming entrepreneurship in the A1 farming area, and the resulting local economic development. The blog was also shared on twitter, where it received positive attention from South Africa's land activists and critical attention from South Africa's AfriForum.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2014/11/17/making-markets-local-economic-development-following-la...
 
Description Blog: New documentaries telling promising stories about Zimbabwe land reform 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog highlights video/youtube outputs from the Zimbabwe case study, arguing that the documentaries paint a very rich picture of agricultural development, both on- and off-farm, and policy-makers should certainly take note of them in thinking through how to enhance and develop rural economies in the region. The blog was shared 133 times; visited by 160 unique visitors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.plaas.org.za/blog/new-documentaries-telling-promising-stories-about-zimbabwe-land-reform
 
Description Blog: Retail revolutions: the rise and rise of butcheries and informal food selling in Zimbabwe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog looks at alternative paths for meat marketing in Zimbabwe. The blog received extended technical engagement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2013/11/11/retail-revolutions-the-rise-and-rise-of-butcheries-and...
 
Description Blog: Rural cattle marketing in Zimbabwe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog describes the changes in rural cattle marketing in Zimbabwe. The blog received comments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2013/11/25/rural-cattle-marketing-in-zimbabwe/
 
Description Blog: Rural economies: It's not only about farming 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog highlights issues discussed at our initial policy engagement workshop, and focuses on the commonalities and gaps explored at the workshop. The blog was shared 709 times; visited by 763 unique users - key search terms include: impact on the rural economy, place of agriculture in rural economy, rural economy, rural economic development in south Africa, rural economy in south Africa, South African rural economies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.plaas.org.za/blog/rural-economies-it%E2%80%99s-not-only-about-farming
 
Description Blog: Sharing results, generating impact: experience from Zimbabwe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog reflects on the project and thinks through what impact has meant in terms of the project - it also provides links to the range of outputs. There were no comments on the blog.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2016/02/08/sharing-results-generating-impact-experience-from-zimb...
 
Description Blog: The new irrigation entrepreneurs: commerical horticulture in Masvingo 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This article highlights the research studies on vegetable production in Masvingo, Zimbabwe and the associated irrigation schemes, which while creating employment and impacting on local economies, also presents challenges for the Zimbabwe government in terms of water access and use.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2014/12/01/the-new-irrigation-entrepreneurs-commerical-horticultu...
 
Description Blog: Tobacco: driving growth in local economies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog sought to highlight our project video on tobacco production in Mvurwi - it discusses some of the opportunities and problems with tobacco production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2014/11/24/tobacco-driving-growth-in-local-economies/
 
Description Blog: Transforming Zimbabwe's agrarian economy: why smallholder farming is important 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The blog engages with South African media articles about the smallholder farming situation in Zimbabwe, referring to a case study from our research. It argues that there have been important successes of Zimbabwe's land reform, and this needs to lead to new thinking. The piece created quite some debate, as is evidenced in the comments on the blog. The blog was picked up by an online newspaper, Mmegi Online, and by African Arguments - a comment and analysis website run by the Royal African Society, so it reached an even wider audience than the approximately 1000 viewers reached by the blog itself.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2013/06/03/transforming-zimbabwes-agrarian-economy-why-smallholde...
 
Description Blog: Transforming beef markets in Zimbabwe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog looks at the radically transformed beef production and retail sector in Zimbabwe, with the whole value-chain having transformed in ways that resulted in employment and more locally-based, inclusive growth. The blog was also re-blogged on The Zimbabwe Situation http://www.zimbabwesituation.com/news/zimsit-m-making-markets-local-economic-development-following-land-reform-zimbabweland/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2014/12/08/transforming-beef-markets-in-zimbabwe/
 
Description Blog: Zimbabwe's new agricultural entrepreneurs I: pig production 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog highlights an emerging group of business-minded agricultural entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe - focussing on pig production. The blog received interest from potential entrepreneurs who wanted to engage in pig farming.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2015/05/18/the-new-agricultural-entrepreneurs-i-pig-production/
 
Description Blog: Zimbabwe's new agricultural entrepreneurs II: Poultry 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog spoke about the emerging, business-minded poultry entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe. Unlike other blogs, this one did not elicit much response.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2015/05/25/zimbabwes-new-agricultural-entrepreneurs-ii-poultry/
 
Description Blog: Zimbabwe's new agricultural entrepreneurs III: irrigators 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This blog looks at the rise of the small-scale horticulturist entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe. The blog received comments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2015/06/01/zimbabwes-new-agricultural-entrepreneurs-iii-irrigator...
 
Description Briefing memorandum: Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS) input into Competition Commission inquiry into the grocery retail sector (Notice 580 of 2015, Government Gazette No. 38863, 12 June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This document was written in response to a solicitation from the South African Competition Commission to inform its Terms of Reference into their research on the impact of the concentration of companies in the food retail sector. Our research found that this concentration had negative impacts on rural economies, and the briefing outlines these findings. The document was well-received influenced the Terms of Reference of the Commission in their investigation into the food retail sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Contribution to United Nations Expert Group Meeting on "Eradicating Rural Poverty to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We presented findings from this project to a UN Experts Group constituted to he Division for Inclusive Social Development (DISD) of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs to inform the report that this body will draw up in the process of giving effect to the resolution on "Eradicating rural poverty to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" (A/RES/73/244) adopted by the UN General Assembly, at its seventy-third session, adopted a new resolution entitled. This resolution highlights the imperative to eradicate poverty in rural and remote areas to ensure that no one is left behind and reiterates the urgent need to accelerate the pace of rural poverty eradication. The inputs would be fed into a report that would be presented at the next meeting of the UN General Assembly.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.un.org/development/desa/dspd/egm-rural-poverty.html
 
Description Dialogue presentation: Food security and inequality in South Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation was made at an Provincial Dialogue on Food and Inequality on 7 October, hosted by the South African Network on Inequality (SANI) in Port Elizabeth. The presentation had a mixed audience, primarily Eastern Cape-based members of civil society organisations. The presentation discussed the relationship between the food system, food security and patterns of inequality in South Africa. It foregrounded the constraints on agricultural related impacts on the rural non-farm economy. Many of the civil society activists expressed interest and spoke of the manner in which it would inform their subsequent engagements.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Dissemination Workshop: Changing Countrysides in Southern Africa: Land and Agricultural Commercialisation and Rural Employment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact There was a great deal of interest in the presentations at the dissemination event, and robust discussion concerning the precise policy implications that emerged. Many of the delegates (including key figures such as Members of Parliament and regional organizations) reflected on their own country contexts, juxtaposing details with others in the group discussion. Reflections included the need to (and constraints on) supporting smaller scale farmers, in order to growth the rural non farm economy. There was a clearly articulated request for copies of the presentations and details of the on-line versions of the policy briefs, by participants as resources for further engagement in their organizations and governments. Finally, several of the civil society participants readily made the connection between the trajectory of land commercialization in their country contexts, and critical questions around the prospects for inclusive agricultural growth and development.

It is too early to attribute impacts at this stage - the event happened only a few days ago. We will update this entry as an when impacts become clear.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.plaas.org.za/event/changing-countrysides-southern-africa-land-and-agricultural-commercial...
 
Description Formal Submission on TORs of Competition Commission Hearings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Representation concerning the terms of reference on the Competition Commision's Grocery Retail Sector Market Inquiry (Notice 580 of 2015, Government Gazette No. 38863, 12 June 2015).

Impacts are still unclear. This is an intervention into a Competition Commission enquiry into supermarket presentation, including into rural areas. Research findings are being used to engage with the TOR of the commission, arguing for a focus on the impact on rural multipliers and employment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Inception Workshop: Space, Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development. Policy maker workshop. Pretoria (Centurion). 14 Feb 2013. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The purpose of this activity was to initiate our engagement with the users of our research, identify other potential users, initiate a discussion about the key policy and research questions being addressed and build up interest in the project, in anticipation of later dissemination activities.

Several of the organizations and policy makers present at the discussion expressed an interest in the research and requested to be kept informed about progress and outcomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.plaas.org.za/smead
 
Description Input on generating inclusive rural economic growth, at Operation Phakisa: Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development workshop. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation and discussant input by David Neves at a high level workshop jointly called by the (South African) national ministries of Rural Development and Land Reform, and Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries as part of 'Operation Phakisa' workshop process. The presentation was delivered to over 50 national and provincial mid to high level technical experts and managers within the aforementioned two departments. The presentation (and panel discussion that followed it explicitly described the project findings concerning the prospects for generating inclusive rural economic growth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.gov.za/speeches/agriculture-land-reform-and-rural-development-operation-phakisa-23-feb-20...
 
Description Lecture: Smallholder Agricultural Development in Malawi in the Past 50 Years: Has Public Policy Resulted in Unsuccessful Transformations?, 16th Professorial Inaugural Lecture delivered at Chancellor College, University of Malawi (in Zomba), by Prof Ephraim Chirwa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The lecture reflected on 50 years of Agricultural Development in Malawi, and informed academics and policy makers of what had been achieved and what gaps need to be filled.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Newspaper article: Land and commercial agriculture in Zimbabwe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This article argues that despite many challenges, Zimbabwe's agrarian economy is generating new economic activity and new employment because it is more locally rooted following land reform. The Zimbabwean is an independent, tabloid newspaper and online publication: www.thezimbabwean.co. It leverages the funding received from donors to distribute the newspaper mainly to rural communities, where 80% are women and young people who have hardly any access to independent media or vital information sources. The full contents of each issue are available on the website and include: news based on information and reports from a wide range of NGOs and civil society organizations, a roundup of general news, news analysis, feedback from readers via SMS, email and letters, profiles, features as well as some entertainment and sport to ensure a well-rounded publication that is credible, attractive and readable.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thezimbabwean.co/2015/11/land-and-commercial-agriculture-in-zimbabwe/
 
Description OPINION: CAN AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA SUSTAIN A NOURISHING RURAL NON-FARM ECONOMY? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The article, originally written for The Conversation, was picked up by Eyewitness News news agency which provides content online and to radio shows. The fact that the article was picked up by this new agency, suggests that the article is gaining media traction, but it is too early to tell what impact it will have.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://ewn.co.za/2016/03/09/OPINION-Can-agriculture-in-Africa-sustain-a-nourishing-rural-non-farm-ec...
 
Description Online magazine: Land and Commercial Agriculture in Zimbabwe: New Findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Povertist is a prospective leading magazine specialising in poverty issues in developing countries. Our article highlighted how development might support rural economies in Zimbabwe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.povertist.com/land-and-cmmercial-agriculture-in-zimbabwe/
 
Description OpEd: Abattoirs and the Zimbabwe meat trade 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This newspaper OpEd in the Zimbabwe Chronicle outlines the challenges for abattoirs and Zimbabwe meat trade, and arguing for a simplified bureaucratic system. The Chronicle is distributed in Zimbabwe cities and large towns, as well as online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.chronicle.co.zw/abattoirs-and-zim-meat-trade/
 
Description OpEd: Access to $1000 credit: would this help unleash agricultural commercialisation in Zimbabwe? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This is a blog that was subsequently shared as an OpEd in The Zimbabwean, Zimbabwe's largest independent newspaper. The article was also shared by Africa News Hub where it received 197 views.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.africanewshub.com/news/1386451-access-to-1000-credit-would-this-help-unleash-agricultural...
 
Description OpEd: Booming agricultural markets and the politics of control in Zimbabwe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a blog that was subsequently shared as an OpEd in The Zimbabwean, the largest independent newspaper in Zimbabwe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thezimbabwean.co/2015/02/booming-agricultural-markets-and-the/
 
Description OpEd: Can agriculture in Africa sustain a non-farm economy? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The article was picked up by from The Conversation and shared in the print version of The New Age newspaper (which is seen as aligned to the ruling ANC party). The fact that the article has been picked up by various news outlets shows that it is an influential piece, though it is too early to tell what impact it might have.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description OpEd: Can agriculture in Africa sustain a nourishing rural non-farm economy? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Conversation is an independent source of news and views from the academic and research community, delivered directly to the public. The article tackles the issue of agricultural development in Africa, with a particular focus on Zimbabwe, Malawi and South Africa. The article particularly aims to discuss how agricultural can support the development of off-farm jobs, for example in supplying to the agricultural sector, or post- harvest in the processing and retail sectors. The article was shared 37 times within 24 hours of being released, including being tweeted by the Head of Evaluation and Research in the Department of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation within the SA Presidency. The article was also picked up by the national public broadcaster, SABC News and reshared on their website, as well as the news agency Eyewitness News, and a national newspaper, The New Age (which is popular with ruling party government officials).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://theconversation.com/can-agriculture-in-africa-sustain-a-nourishing-rural-non-farm-economy-55...
 
Description OpEd: Can agriculture in Africa sustain a nourishing rural non-farm economy? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This item was originally sent out in The Conversation, and the next day was picked up by the national public broadcaster, SABC News and shared via their website - with a much larger footprint, indicating that the research is of interest and dissemination is gaining momentum.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sabc.co.za/news/a/f17079004bf47e4fb647be1f0c850adb/Can-agriculture-in-Africa-sustain-a-no...
 
Description OpEd: Transforming Zimbabwe's agrarian economy: why smallholder farming is important 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a blog that was subsequently picked up by African Arguments and shared through their networks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://africanarguments.org/2013/06/03/transforming-zimbabwe%E2%80%99s-agrarian-economy-why-smallhol...
 
Description Paper presented to the conference on Value Chains in the Global South: Challenges of the Integration in the Global Economy, Stellenbosch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Du Toit, A 2017 Space Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development:Agro-food system development and the non-farm rural economy in Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. Paper presented to the conference on Value Chains in the Global South: Challenges of the Integration in the Global Economy, Stellenbosch 31 October 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at World Nutrition Conference (Cape Town) entitled In the shadow of the agro-food system: food security and livelihoods within small town South Africa. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at an international (World Nutrition Conference) Cape Town, by David Neves, highlighting key findings from the research in a presentation entitled In the shadow of the agro-food system: food security and livelihoods within small town South Africa. This (nutrition/food system focused) audience is not normally a key set of interlocutors in our research. They expressed interest in the presentation and posed several incisive questions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.wncapetown2016.com/
 
Description Presentation of findings concerning rural development policy in the in the Eastern Cape, to the Eastern Cape Economic Development Cluster Committee, convened by the Eastern Cape Office of the Premier (Bisho). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation by David Neves to senior public officials (HoDs) in the Eastern Cape Economic Development Cluster Committee, convened by the Eastern Cape Office of the Premier, on rural development policy and the former homeland communal areas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Radio Interview with John Maytham, Cape Talk Radio, 18 February 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact ...
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Radio Interview with Tashreeq Truebody Radio 786 on ANC NEC's land proposals - 30 January 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact It was a radio interview. Presumably it informed the public's understanding of agrarian and other issues.

none
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Radio Interview: Social Protection and unemployment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This radio interview on Radio Islam reached an audience of about 44,000 people and included a segment for the audience to call in. While the focus was on social protection, the broad rubric of the interview topic allowed for discussion of the constraints to rural or land based employment, and how this both reflect and exacerbates poverty and inequality. The show's producer indicated that the volume of income telephone calls indicated high levels of interest in the topic and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Radio interview with Masechaba Mtolo, SAFM, 26 November 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The presentation on a talk show elicited a range of comments and questions from a wide, policy-interested public

No notable impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Reconfigured agrarian relations following land reform 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog entry on the widely read Zimbabweland blog
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2018/02/26/reconfigured-agrarian-relations-following-land-reform/
 
Description Seminar Presentation: More jobs in Agri! The structure of South Africa's rural economy and its prospects for 'inclusive' rural employment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The university-based seminar presented a somber picture of South Africa's rural economy, given that small rural towns in South Africa appear profoundly disconnected from agriculture and agricultural economy. The seminar was followed by an engaging discussion with the general public and provincial government policy makers on the options available to enhance the job creation and economic impact of agriculture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.plaas.org.za/event/seminar-more-jobs-agri-structure-south-africa%E2%80%99s-rural-economy-...
 
Description Seminar presentation. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) on 'Post-agrarian' livelihoods & rural development in South Africa. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact David Neves, talk given on 'Post-agrarian' livelihoods & rural development in South Africa. Seminar presentation. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU). 18 September 2017 Uppsala Sweden.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar presentation: Space, markets and rural employment, 19 June 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The presentation was made at the event hosted by the Department of Economics, University of Cape Town as part of their seminar "Informal Sector Employment Project";. the presentation on the project included methods and emergent findings to a group of approximately 30 policymakers (including from StatSA - the official statistics agency), and researchers (primarily economists) from various universities, all part of a larger initiative funded by South Africa's National Treasury - a key policy player. The discussion sparked by the presentation, and concerns particularly regarding the potential place of the Rural Non-Farm Economy in rural employment, have arguably helped inform subsequent utterances by National Treasury officials regarding the rural economy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Symposium panel: Agricultural growth and development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A panel discussion was held at The Inaugural Research Symposium of the Economics Association of Malawi, held in Lilongwe from 8th to 10th October, 2014. The panel discussion explored Constraints to agriculture finance in Malawi, Agricultural growth and multiplier effects of consumption spending in rural and urban Malawi, and Economic Analysis of tractor and labour use in tobacco production. The Symposium allowed for some engagement with policymakers about how agriculture can contribute to achieving Inclusive sustainable economic growth in Malawi.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://massp.ifpri.info/files/2014/06/Final-Symposium-Report.pdf
 
Description Symposium presentation: Poverty, inequality and food 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation at this high profile event - the Oxfam Inequality Symposium, 30 October, Johannesburg, was attended by a large number (100+) of civil society activists, where input and discussion entailed sharing the stage with The General Secretary of South African's largest trade union federation (COSATU) Mr Zwelinzima Vavi. The served to foreground several of the issues elicited by SMEAD, including the relationship between agriculture, poverty and inequality, within this influential civil society group. Audience responses were very engaged and generally in agreement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.africa-platform.org/sites/default/files/oxfam_in_south_africa_inequality_symposium_concep...
 
Description Telephonic Communication with Competition Commission inquiry into grocery retail sector (Notice 580 of 2015, Government Gazette No. 38863, 12 June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In a telephonic communication initiated by the Competition Commission inquiry into grocery retail sector (Notice 580 of 2015, Government Gazette No. 38863, 12 June 2015) we shared how the findings reflected on the work of the Commission in assessing the impact of food retail concentration, which the research found to have a negative impact on rural economies. The evolution of the initial TOR, and the feedback of members of the Competition Commission confirmed that they were inclined to formulate their market inquiry far more broadly (upstream of food retail) in order to understand the impact of concentration in the grocery retail sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Television broadcast of panel discussion on Land Reform in South Africa on SABC Channel Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Andries du Toit participation in television broadcast panel discussion on Land Reform in South Africa with Benjamin Moshatama of African Dialogue on SABC's Channel Africa at 11 AM on 3 August 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Television interview on ENCA News on Food Security in South Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Andries du Toit interview with Joanne Joseph of ENCA News on Food Security in South Africa at 16h30 on 7 July 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Television panel discussion: eNEWS Channel Africa panel on Rural development. 24 February 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact National television appearance as part of a three-person panel, to discuss a news 'insert' (narrated film material) regarding rural development. The appearance foregrounding several of the concerns examined as part of SMEAD. It garnered greater attention for the project, including an enquiry from a national policy maker.

None that we are aware of
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The priorities for getting agriculture moving in Zimbabwe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post in the widely read Zimbabweland blog
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2018/01/29/ten-priorities-for-getting-agriculture-moving-in-zimba...
 
Description Tobacco and contract farming in Zimbabwe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog on widely read Zimbabweland blog
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://zimbabweland.wordpress.com/2017/05/01/tobacco-and-contract-farming-in-zimbabwe/
 
Description Workshop talk: In the shadow of structural poverty, 23 September 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation to a group of about 40 participants (civil society and state officials) from across the region at a Green School on Climate change & food security. While the focus was on climate change, SMEAD-derived data and concerns regarding the nature of the rural economy were foregrounded. Through this workshop, we made connections with government employees working on Economic Development in the Eastern Cape, and this was useful for sharing project knowledge with them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014