One step ahead: Prediction of other people's behavior in healthy and autistic individuals.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Plymouth
Department Name: Sch of Psychology

Abstract

Humans are masters in predicting others' behavior. By watching the facial expression of our child, we know exactly which toy she will go for. When seeing someone frown at an open window, we are not surprised when she gets up and closes it. We make these predictions so readily and automatically, that athletes, magicians and pickpockets have developed elaborate feints to hide their true intentions from us. A breakdown of this predictive capacity might be one reason why social interactions are so confusing to those with autism or schizophrenia.

Despite the importance of these predictions in social interactions, not much is known about how they come about, why we can make them with so little conscious effort and often without being aware of them. Our research aims to resolve these questions. We believe that there is a sophisticated mechanism in our brains that 'knows' which cues signal the intentions of others (e.g., looking at something signals interest, a smile signals the tendency to approach) and uses this knowledge to predict these people's actions. Importantly, we do not believe that the resulting predictions are abstract, but that they take the form of actual projections of the predicted movements through space (i.e. toward a desired object). Seeing somebody else longingly glance at a glass of water may therefore generate a projection of the course her reach will take towards it. Such concrete projections of others' future actions would be of immense benefit to social interactions. They would help you, for example, both to plan your own reach towards the glass if you wanted to snatch it away from her, but also allow you to preemptively steady the glass should you believe your hasty friend would knock it over.

The present research has three aims. The first aim is to demonstrate that such predictions of other's behavior are indeed generated when we watch others act. We will therefore test whether various social cues - where other people are looking, their emotional expression, what we know about their prior intentions - affect how their subsequent actions are represented, and whether their path through space is predicted. A second aim is to find out how these predictions come about. Recent research suggests that when we observe someone perform an action we perform it in our own mind at the same time. This allows people to use their own experiences to find out of how another's action will look and feel, and how it will unfold in the future. We will therefore test whether our own action knowledge contributes to the prediction of others' actions. A third and final aim is to establish whether such predictions are indeed crucial for social interactions. We will test a special population - those suffering from autism or related disorders - who find social interactions very challenging, often despite normal or even superior intelligence. These individuals might therefore be impaired in reading social cues and generating the predictions of others' actions that we can so readily rely on.

We hope that our research will provide the first insights into the sophisticated predictive processes that help us navigate our social environment. It will link our understanding of others' behavior very closely to our understanding of our own actions in the world, providing a foundation for empathy and joint action without which human civilization would not be possible. Finally, it will highlight a cause of the social deficits in autism and create both a better understanding of these individuals, and may ultimately lead to the development of successful learning programs.

Planned Impact

The present work bridges research in neuroscience, visual perception, social psychology, attention, emotion and the embodied representation of action, and integrates it under the banner of social predictive processes. Its results should have far reaching implications for researchers in each of these fields. It will resolve how understanding others' action goals can affect ones own planning processes, a question for which almost no empirical evidence is available so far, but which is directly linked to main research thrusts in social and clinical psychology, such as Theory of Mind and intention reading. It will make paradigms developed in the field of embodiment and action control usable to address questions from social psychology. The results will be disseminated in national and major international conferences and in high-impact international journals in experimental, social and clinical psychology. At least eight high-ranking publications are expected.

The work will contribute to the public's understanding of science. It will reveal the automatic mechanisms that translate our knowledge about other people into predictions of their behavior. The presence of such mechanisms challenges views of rational, consciously controlled accounts of social interactions by highlighting mechanisms that act as 'auto-pilots' of social behavior and which support (and sometimes undermine) our interactions with others, without us being aware of their presence. Elucidating these mechanisms may have long-term implications for clinical disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Even though it is clear that sufferers have deficits in the social domain, it has been hard to pinpoint the nature of the impairments. Identifying the mechanisms guiding social interactions in healthy individuals may therefore provide a yardstick to measure what, specifically, is impaired in these disorders, and may help to develop training programs that improve functioning in social situations. By highlighting what happens if these processes are disrupted in autism, the present work may lead to a better understanding of this disorder, allowing family members and caregivers to interact with affected individuals in a more productive manner.

The comprehensive test of cues used in predicting others' behavior is of relevance for emerging technologies, particularly the burgeoning field of human computer interactions. It may help to develop devices that are sensitive to others' goals and emotions, so that human-machine interactions become more 'in tune' and natural, which is a key factor in driving the adoption of such systems. Devices that 'understand' the cues that signal others' intentions have strong applications for behavior profiling and surveillance. They allow potentially harmful acts to be detected before completion, support computer-based pre-screenings of the data masses accumulated by surveillance systems, and may play a direct role in alerting caregivers to problems with patients living independently (e.g., those suffering from dementia). Knowledge about the cues that humans use to read others' intentions is also relevant for 3d virtual environments that increasingly permeate our online lives, and which depend on the naturalness of avatars for an immersive experience. However, the actions of such avatars are still represented in a very naive fashion and often appear puppet-like to observers. We believe that utilizing the subtle cues that signal the goal of another's action will make the communication of intentionality more effective and may thereby have a direct effect on the immersiveness of such systems and thereby on their economic value.

Finally, impact will be realized through students. The proposed work will directly support the careers and future career choice of the named RA and of project students, Masters students, apprentices and placement students working in the lab and enthuse them for work in research and psychology.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Fluent social interactions rely on people's ability to predict their interaction partner's future behaviour. This research program tested how social predictions come about, which cues they rely on, and whether they differ in people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC).
The main hypothesis (Objective 1), derived from recent predictive coding models of (social) perception (8), was that any idea about others' goals and intentions would be immediately translated into mental images of what they would do as a consequence. We indeed showed that people make such predictions, which take the form of mental images of others' forthcoming actions, and which affect how their actual behaviour is perceived and interpreted (reviewed in 12). We showed, for example, that participants reported that a hand moved further towards an object than it really did, if they thought the actor wanted to reach for the object, and further away when anticipating withdrawals (1). Similarly, hands are seen to reached higher when approaching an obstacle, but lower when the path is clear (13). Other studies generalized these effects (Objective 2), showing that they are elicited by both an actor's own statements ("I'll take it!") and instructions by the observer (1,2), by objects in the environment (9, 13), prior action history (10, 11) as well as by emotional expressions (e.g. disgust vs. smiles), obstacles in the way of an action, and hand shapes that match a potential goal object (forthcoming publications).
The prior literature assumes that perceptual predictions emerge from the observer's own motor system, allowing them to plan actions for the other person (Objective 3). We should then find cross-over effects: the observer's own action goals should induce similar perceptual distortions as inferred goals of others. However, despite several attempts, no such effects were found (1). Nevertheless, we did demonstrate that, in the tactile domain, prediction effects were larger when actions were viewed from a 1st person than a 3rd person perspective (3), suggesting at the very least common mechanisms for predicting own and others' action. Moreover, we confirmed that predicted actions affect own motor output, showing gaze following for predicted gaze of others (4,7), and that automatic imitation is larger for actions that are expected because they produce positive outcomes (12). Together, these findings suggest a revision of prior theorizing: that predictions first occur perceptually, and that motoric activation follows as a second step, supporting efficient coordination of behaviour (4,5,6,9).
Finally (Objective 4), we tested whether social predictions are made differently in those with an ASC. Surprisingly, we found that goal-based predictions are, if anything, stronger in ASC than neurotypicals (forthcoming), suggesting an over-reliance on high-level conceptual knowledge at the expense of actual sensory input. These findings may explain why those with ASC tend to avoid social situations, which cannot be made predictable by prior information.
Together, our findings suggest that people constantly predict others' behaviour. The resulting mental images can then help perception (e.g. if actions are only half seen) and action (either competitive or cooperative), but also learning, when the person's actual behaviour either confirms or challenges our preconceptions about them. They therefore provide novel insights into the mechanisms underpinning social interaction, and how this differs in ASCs.


References

1. Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Simpson, W., Ellis, R., & Bach, P. (2016). One step ahead: the perceived kinematics of others' actions are biased towards expected goals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(1), 1-7.

2. Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Ellis, R., & Bach, P. (2016). I see what you say: Prior knowledge of other's goals automatically biases the perception of their actions. Cognition, 146, 245-250.

3. Bach, P. Fenton-Adams, W., Tipper, S.P. (2014). Can't touch this: the first-person perspective provides privileged access to predictions of sensory action outcomes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(2), 457-64.

4. Joyce, K., Schenke, K., Bayliss, A. & Bach, P. (2015). Looking ahead: Anticipatory cuing of attention to objects others will look at. Cognitive Neuroscience, 1-8.

5. Bach, P., Nicholson, T., & Hudson, M. (2014). The affordance-matching hypothesis: how objects guide action understanding and prediction. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8.

6. Bach, P., Nicholson, T., & Hudson, M. (2015). Pattern completion does not negate matching: a response to Uithol and Maranesi. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00685

7. Hudson, M. & Skarratt, P.A. (2016). Peripheral cues and gaze direction jointly focus attention and inhibition of return. Cognitive Neuroscience, 7, 67-73.

8. Bach, P. & Schenke, K. (in press). Predictive social perception: towards a unifying framework from action observation to person knowledge.

9. Nicholson, T., Roser, M. Bach, P. (2017). Understanding the Goals of Everyday Instrumental Actions Is Primarily Linked to Object, Not Motor-Kinematic, Information: Evidence from fMRI. PLOS One, 12(1), e0169700.

10. Schenke, K. C., Wyer, N. A., & Bach, P. (2016). The Things You Do: Internal Models of Others' Expected Behaviour Guide Action Observation. PLoS One, 11(7), e0158910.

11. Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., & Bach, P. (2018). You Said You Would! The Predictability of Other's Behavior from their Intentions Determines Predictive Biases in Action Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. epub ahead of print.

12. Bach, P. & Schenke, K. (2017). Predictive social perception: towards a unifying framework from action observation to person knowledge. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 11(7), e12312.

13. Hudson, M., McDonough, K.L., Edwards, R., & Bach, P. (in press). Perceptual Teleology: Expectations of Action Efficiency Bias Social Perception. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.
Exploitation Route The findings of this research program are expected to have large academic impact. They are part of the current "predictive coding" revolution in cognitive neuroscience, and provide new avenues for understanding social processes in neurotypical and autistic populations. Frameworks such as ours might explain why people are able to so effortlessly interact with each other, and why our knowledge about other people is so fluently updated by new information. Several results have already been published in high impact peer reviewed articles, both theoretical and empirical, and further publications are forthcoming. One of the theoretical articles emerging from the grant (5) has already spawned two peer reviewed commentaries by important researchers in the field.
Our findings are of particular interest for those with an autism spectrum condition and their carers, and we have already started to present them at some of their community events. Further impacts are expected in other, more applied, fields, such as sports psychology, where predicting others' behaviour is crucial ("skate where the puck is going"), and computer vision, aiding the development of biologically inspired algorithms for behaviour prediction, with the goal of creating robots that are able to interact with humans as fluently as other humans do.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Other

URL http://actionprediction.org/
 
Description The first research question tested in the grant was one of basic science, trying to characterize the mechanisms that allow humans to predict so effortlessly how their interaction partners will behave and use this information to better coordinate their own actions. The central finding was that predictions of others' behaviour are imaginistic and that these predictions affect how their actual actions are perceived, such that our perceptual experience of others' behaviour reflects both, the incoming sensory input and our preconceptions about the acting individuals and their goals and beliefs. The findings already had major academic impact, being published in a number of empirical and theoretical high impact articles and presented at both invited talks at other universities, as well as at major national and international conferences. Due to the basic science focus, non-academic impact activities were geared, first, on increasing public understanding of science, as specified in the proposal. In 2015, we developed an exhibition, under the moniker "Imagery in Action" for the ESRC Festival of Social Science (FoSS), with stands, interactive exhibitions, and demonstrations that showcase these imaginistic effects and make their effects on behaviour them experiencable for a lay audience. It ran on two occasions on two separate locations (the Plymouth Museum, and the Plymouth University Marquee), and allowed participants to explore alleged "magical" phenomena such as the Ouija board, Chevreul's pendulum and the Automatograph. It showed how these devices, while appearing initially surprising and magical, capture nothing else than the participants' own involuntary (and unconscious) body movements that are elicited by whatever they were currently imagining. Further demonstrations and talks then linked these phenomena both to automatic social coordination processes (e.g., interpersonal mimicry) but also to issues of long- term behavior change, which are increasingly seen to be guided by similar imagery processes. Audience feedback for the event has been exceedingly positive and it has been repeated and extended, with more focus on the implications on behaviour change ("Creating purpose"), in the 2017 ESRC FoSS. In two further public understanding of science events in 2015 and 2016, PI Bach presented the research at the Plymouth (https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/whats-on/plymouth-psychology-in-the-pub-talk-4) and Exeter Psychology in the Pub lectures, focussing specifically on the findings about imitation (Work package 2 of the proposal). These events were designed to make our and others' current research on automatic imitation and how it acts as "social glue" understandable to a lay audience. Audience feedback has again been very positive and has led to us being approached by two therapists for advice how to implement imitation techniques in their therapeutic practice. Moreover, PI Bach has accepted further invitations to speak at two Sceptics in the Pub events later this year, specifically about the link between imagery and magical perception and involuntary behaviour developed for the ESRC FoSS demonstrations. A large impact has been made through media uptake of our findings. Our research published in the paper Hudson, McDonough, Edwards & Bach, 2018 has been featured in several news report in the popular media, both locally (Plymouth Herald) and internationally (Business Standard, Deccan Chronicle (India), The University Network, Medical Express, IFL Science Blog). It even made the Reddit Frontpage, generating massive public discussion with over 600 comments. One further pathway for impact identified in the proposal was visual arts, for which the insights about the role of imagery in shaping perception is of key importance. We had begun a collaboration with lecturer and artist Martha Blasnigg to further exploit these links to visual arts (http://www.trans-techresearch.net/research/contributing-researchers/convenors/dr-martha-blassnigg/), focussing on the implications on film and cinema, but the work has sadly been cut short by the unexpected death of Dr. Blasnigg in 2015. Since then, another artist of Martha's group, Hannah Drayson (http://cargocollective.com/hannahdrayson/) joined the supervisory team of a PhD student working on these topics, and she collaborated with us on the ESRC FoSS event and made her self-built Automatograph available. Finally, as described in the proposal, we have started approaching researchers in robotics and computing with our research findings. While these links are in their initial stages, PI Bach has presented at a Plymouth meeting for research overlaps between robotics and psychology, and entered discussions with one of the researchers (Dr. Tony Belpaeme) over potentials applications of imitation to robotics. Having established how predictions in social situations occur in typically developing individuals, a second research aim was to test whether they proceed differently in individuals with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and whether the well-known social difficulties of these individuals can be explained by these differences. The impact from this final strand has been slower to materialise as it was the last to be completed, and the findings are currently being submitted for publication. However, using our novel methodologies, we were indeed able to demonstrate that the sources of predictions are differently weighted in autism, such that they rely more heavily on explicit information when predicting others' actions (what the individuals are saying about their intentions) rather than more direct but implicit information provided by their behaviour (e.g. the direction of their movement). This specific underweighting of visual action information can explain many of their difficulties, for example their insistence that people do as they say, or their aversion to open places were people move in unpredictable ways and rarely announce their intention. While journal publication of these findings is currently in the pipeline, we have presented them at the 2017 Concepts, Actions, Objects conference in Rovereto, Italy, which draws next to researchers in action science also researchers from the field of autism. Moreover, the findings have already been presented in invited talks to researchers at other universities and lead to discussions with those working with autistic individuals (e.g. University of Stirling, University of Exeter), and at the British Association for Neuroscience meeting. Moreover, in several talks, PI Bach presented the findings to local support groups of autistic individuals (Dimensions for living, www.dimensionsforliving.org. Newton Abbot; Plymouth group of the National Autistic Society, http://nasplymouth.org.uk/). The individuals have given very positive feedback, very much valuing this research, and specifically highlighting their satisfaction about research on adults with ASC (not just children), and how well they felt that differences in predictions would capture their particular difficulties. We will further develop these links in the future.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Creative Economy,Education,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description BA/Leverhulme Small Research Grants Scheme
Amount £9,715 (GBP)
Funding ID SG132164 
Organisation The British Academy 
Department BA/Leverhulme Small Research Grants
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2014 
End 12/2016
 
Description Department-Internal pump priming fund
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Plymouth 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 11/2018
 
Description Department-Internal pump priming fund
Amount £2,398 (GBP)
Organisation University of Plymouth 
Department Psychology Plymouth
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 12/2016
 
Description PhD Studentship for Eleanor Ward
Amount £55,989 (GBP)
Organisation University of Plymouth 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2019
 
Description PhD Studentship for Eleonora Parrotta
Amount £55,989 (GBP)
Organisation University of Plymouth 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 10/2021
 
Description PhD Studentship for Katrina McDonough
Amount £55,989 (GBP)
Organisation University of Plymouth 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description PhD studentship for Helen Sharps
Amount £55,989 (GBP)
Organisation University of Plymouth 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description PhD studentship for Toby Nicholson
Amount £55,989 (GBP)
Organisation University of Plymouth 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 10/2015
 
Title Alternative psychophysical method to measure predictive processes in social perception 
Description We developed a second novel technique that makes the classic representational momentum-like paradigm usable to test predictive coding in social perception, a current research focus in social neuroscience. Participants are asked to observe actions. At some point, the body part carrying out the action (e.g. the hand) disappears, and participants have to judge where they have last seen it, by pointing on a touch screen. This method is a significant advance to the other method described here. It is highly usable even by participants that struggle with the relative difficult first paradigm (such as children, participants with an autism spectrum disorder). As before, the results reveal a perceptual distortion: participants report the hand to have travelled further than it actually has, in line with the idea that perception itself is not a veridical representation of reality, but includes a prediction of what will happen in the future. Importantly, we were able to show that this prediction is affected by the participants' knowledge of the environmental constraints.. For example, actions are distorted away from an obstacle if it blocks the way, or towards a straighter path towards a goal if there is no obstacle.. This paradigm can therefore reveal (a) not only that predictive processes do take place in social perception, but (b) that these processes are not only stimulus-driven by directly influenced by high level information about the other person's goals, and (c) with reference to the current environmental constraints. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This procedure is not published yet, but we have demonstrated our novel procedure in talks and posters at conferences, and at invited talks at other universities. We struck up several collaborations that are currently in progress. 
 
Title First psychophysical paradigm to investigate predictive processes in social perception 
Description We developed a novel technique that makes the classic representational momentum-like paradigm usable to test predictive coding in social perception, a current research focus in social neuroscience. Participants are asked to observe actions. At some point, the body part carrying out the action (e.g. the hand) disappears, and participants have to judge where they have last seen it, by comparing it to probe stimuli (in the same, future, or prior position). The results reveal a perceptual distortion: participants report the hand to have travelled further than it actually has, in line with the idea that perception itself is not a veridical representation of reality, but includes a prediction of what will happen in the future. Importantly, we were able to show that this prediction is affected by what the participant believes the goal of the action to be. For example, actions are distorted towards the object if the participant believes the actor wants to pick it up, and distorted away from it, if they believe that the actor wants to avoid it. This paradigm can therefore reveal (a) not only that predictive processes do take place in social perception, but (b) that these processes are not only stimulus-driven by directly influenced by high level information about the other person's goals. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Since 2013, we have described the rough procedure in talks and posters at conferences and when invited as speaker at other universities. Since then, the procedure has been published (advance online access) in high impact journals. Several further papers using this method are in various stages of the publication process. Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Simpson, W., Ellis, R., & Bach, P. (2015). One step ahead: the perceived kinematics of others' actions are biased towards expected goals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ xge0000126. Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Ellis, R., & Bach, P. (2016). I see what you say: Prior knowledge of other's goals automatically biases the perception of their actions. Cognition, 146, 245-250. 
 
Title Data accompanying hte paper: Joyce, K., Schenke, K., Bayliss, A. & Bach, P. (2015). Looking ahead: Anticipatory cuing of attention to objects others will look at. Cognitive Neuroscience, 1-8. 
Description full trial by trial dataset for the experiments reported in: Joyce, K., Schenke, K., Bayliss, A. & Bach, P. (2015). Looking ahead: Anticipatory cuing of attention to objects others will look at. Cognitive Neuroscience, 1-8. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact n/a 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/852384/
 
Title Dataset accompanying the paper: Bach, P., Fenton-Adams, W., & Tipper, S.P. (2014). Can't touch this: the first-person perspective provides privileged access to predictions of sensory action outcomes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception an 
Description Full trial by trial dataset for: Bach, P., Fenton-Adams, W., & Tipper, S.P. (2014). Can't touch this: the first-person perspective provides privileged access to predictions of sensory action outcomes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact n/a 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/852384/
 
Title Dataset accompanying the paper: Hudson, M., McDonough, K.L., Edwards, R., & Bach, P. (in press). Perceptual Teleology: Expectations of Action Efficiency Bias Social Perception. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 
Description Full trial by trial dataset for: Hudson, M., McDonough, K.L., Edwards, R., & Bach, P. (in press). Perceptual Teleology: Expectations of Action Efficiency Bias Social Perception. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact n/a 
URL https://datadryad.org/handle/10255/dryad.187286
 
Title Dataset accompanying the paper: Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Ellis, R., & Bach, P. (2016). I see what you say: Prior knowledge of other's goals automatically biases the perception of their actions. Cognition, 146, 245-250. 
Description full trial by trial dataset for the studies reported in : Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Ellis, R., & Bach, P. (2016). I see what you say: Prior knowledge of other's goals automatically biases the perception of their actions. Cognition, 146, 245-250. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact engagement with other researchers that want to use similar methods in their research (Gethin Hughes, Essex University; Dominic Dyer, Cardiff University). 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/852384/5/2016_Hudson_et_al_Cognition.zip
 
Title Dataset accompanying the paper: Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Simpson, W. A., Ellis, R., & Bach, P. (2016). One step ahead: The perceived kinematics of others' actions are biased toward expected goals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(1), 1-7 
Description Trial by trial dataset for the studies reported in: Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Simpson, W. A., Ellis, R., & Bach, P. (2016). One step ahead: The perceived kinematics of others' actions are biased toward expected goals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(1), 1-7 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact n/a 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/852384/
 
Title Dataset for the paper: Nicholson. T., Roser, M., Bach, P. (2017). Action goal understanding is primarily driven by object (not motor) information: evidence from fMRI. PLOS One, 12(1), e0169700. 
Description Nicholson. T., Roser, M., Bach, P. (2017). Action goal understanding is primarily driven by object (not motor) information: evidence from fMRI. PLOS One, 12(1), e0169700. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact n/a 
URL https://figshare.com/projects/fmri_dataset/17603
 
Description Anticipative gaze cuing effects in social interaction (with Dr. Andrew Bayliss, University of East Anglia) 
Organisation University of East Anglia
Department School of Psychology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design and implementation of research study testing of participants analysis of data write-up and submission of resulting paper
Collaborator Contribution help with design of experiment help with research background (Andrew is an expert in gaze cuing effects which this study investigated) contributed to write-up of research paper
Impact Joyce, K., Schenke, K., Bayliss, A. & Bach, P. (2015). Looking ahead: Anticipatory cuing of attention to objects others will look at. Cognitive Neuroscience, 1-8. DOI: 10.1080/17588928.2015.1053443
Start Year 2013
 
Description Tactile prediction processes in social interactions (with Prof. Steven Tipper, University of York) 
Organisation University of York
Department Department of Psychology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Help in design of study Additional analysis Write-up and submission of resulting research paper
Collaborator Contribution Design of study & implementation Testing of participants Main analysis Initial draft of the research paper
Impact Bach, P. Fenton-Adams, W., Tipper, S.P. (2014). Can't touch this: the first-person perspective provides privileged access to predictions of sensory action outcomes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(2), 457-64.
Start Year 2013
 
Description McDonough, K. L., Costantini, M., Hudson, M., & Bach, P. (2018). Getting to grips with action understanding: Affordance understanding: Affordance matching predictively shapes the perceptual representation of others' actions. Poster presentation at MeeTo 2018, University of Turin, Italy. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presenting our research, plus public speaking/networking training for the PhD student K. McDonough.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.intobrain.it/en/projects-2/meeto-2018/meeto-conference/?cn-reloaded=1
 
Description Nicholson, T., McDonough, K., Hudson, M., Schendan, H., & Bach, P. (2015, September) Perceptual predictions during social perception: Tracking the ERP correlates of action prediction. Poster presented at British Association for Cognitive Neuroscience Conference and Annual meeting, Essex, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presented at British Association for Cognitive Neuroscience Conference and Annual meeting, Essex, UK. Several academics saw the poster and engaged in questions and debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bacn.co.uk/
 
Description - Nicholson,T., Bach, P., Roser, M. (2012, June). Where is the goal? Identifying goal processing regions in the action observation network. Talk presented at Beyond the Science of the mind¹ the 4th School of Psychology Postgraduate and Staff Conference, P 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Training of the PhD student in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the PhD student.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description - Nicholson,T., Solbrig, L., Hudson, M., Tipper, S.P. & Bach, P. (2014, June) I feel what you are doing: differential effects of observed and predicted touches. Talk presented at Minefield? the 5th School of Psychology Postgraduate and Staff Conference, P 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Training of the PhD student in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the PhD student.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description A talk or presentation - P. Bach. One step ahead: towards a predictive coding view of social perception. Invited talk at the Future of Social Cognition conference. University of East Anglia, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to give a talk at the Future of Social Cognition conference at East Anglia University, Norwich
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://thefutureofsocialcognition.weebly.com/
 
Description Bach, P. & Hudson, M. (2014) Talk and the Plymouth support group for adults with an autism spectrum condition. Plymouth, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact 20 to 30 adults with an autism spectrum condition attended the event. We informed them about our research plans, the general topic (predictive processes in autism) asked them for their participation in our experiment. We had a very engaging discussion, discussed several instances of prediction related phenomena in their daily lives, and several of the attendants expressed interest to take part in our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Bach, P. & Nicholson, T. (2015) Talk and the Plymouth support group for adults with an autism spectrum condition. Plymouth, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact 20 to 30 adults with an autism spectrum condition attended the event. We informed them about the (preliminary) findings that were obtained testing them, and how they might relate to their everyday experiences. We had a very engaging discussion, and several of the attendants expressed interest to further take part in our research, and be informed about any write-ups and materials. We were invited for a further meeting in 2016 to discuss the study results when data analysis is complete.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bach, P. (2013). Action understanding in an object context: the affordance matching hypothesis. Invited talk at University of Budapest, Hungaria. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

increased access to publications resulting from our work, as measured, for example by Research Gate, Academia.edu
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Bach, P. (2013). Action understanding in an object context: the affordance matching hypothesis. Invited talk at University of York, U.K. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards
Lead to a future collaboration (with Prof. Steven P. Tipper).
Increased networking and promoted the research program to academics.

Raised interest in the research program (indicated by the email correspondence by audience members, and requests for slide materials, and the papers discussed).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Bach, P. (2013). Objects as scaffolding for simulation processes during action observation. Keynote presentation at the Lure of the New Symposium, Plymouth University. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

Requests for further information
Raised awareness for our research program
Networking with Prof. Guy Orban (http://www.fens.org/People/Orban-Guy-A/)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www1.plymouth.ac.uk/research/cognition/events/Pages/Conference.aspx
 
Description Bach, P. (2014). Talk and the Newton Abbot support group for adults with an autism spectrum condition. Newton Abbot. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact 20 to 30 adults with an autism spectrum condition attended the event. We informed them about our research plans, the general topic (predictive processes in autism) asked them for their participation in our experiment. We had a very engaging discussion, and several of the attendants expressed interest to take part in our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.naspaab.org.uk/aboutus/information
 
Description Bach, P. (2015). How Imitation connects us with other people. Talk given for the Plymouth Psychology in the Pub series. Plymouth, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to give a lecture in Plymouths "Psychology in the Pub" series. The talk covered the topic of action observation, and how people make sense of - and empathise - with the behaviour of others. About 30 people attended and engaged in debate and questions after the event. I was approached by two attendants afterwards via email on suggestions on how to incorporate the findings into their therapeutic settings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/whats-on/plymouth-psychology-in-the-pub-talk-4
 
Description Bach, P. (2015). Predictions in action observation. Invited talk at Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was Invited to give a talk at Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at their Donders Research seminar series. The talk spawned question and debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bach, P. (2015). Predictions in action observation. Talk at the Annual Meeting of the Psychonomics Society, Chicago, USA. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk sparked further questions and lively debate, as well as potential collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.psychonomic.org/past-future-meetings
 
Description Bach, P. (2016). How imitation connects us to other people. Talk held at the Exeter Psychology in the Pub series, Exeter, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to give a lecture in Plymouths "Psychology in the Pub" series. The talk covered the topic of action observation, and how people make sense of - and empathise - with the behaviour of others. About 30 people attended and engaged in debate and questions after the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.bps.org.uk/events/swb-exeter-hub-psychology-pub-how-unconscious-imitation-connects-us-ot...
 
Description Bach, P. (2016). One step ahead: towards a predictive coding view of social perception. Invited talk at the University of Essex, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to give a talk at the University of Essex, UK, about our research on the ESRC grant. The talk spawned question and debate, as well as further collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/news_and_seminars/seminars.aspx
 
Description Bach, P. (2016). One step ahead: towards a predictive coding view of social perception. Invited talk at the University of Hull, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to give a talk at the research colloquium series at the University of Hull, UK. The talk spawned questions and debate, and lead to further collaboration (with Dr. Paul Skarratt and Dr. Igor Schindler).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www2.hull.ac.uk/science/psychology/seminars.aspx
 
Description Bach, P. (2016). Seeing the future: Predictions in when watching other people. Invited talk at the Symposium for Perspective, Imitation and Prediction in Perception and Action. University of Louvain, Belgium. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I was invited to give a talk at the Symposium for Perspective, Imitation and Prediction in Perception and Action. University of Louvain, Belgium. the talk spawned questions and debate, and inspired a potential collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Bach, P. (June 2014). Action understanding in an object context: the affordance matching hypothesis. Invited keynote lecture at the "Vision Leads to Action" summer school, hosted at University of Birmingham. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked question and discussion afterwards, and lead to one potential collaboration,

Highlighted our current research to national academic audiences.
Increased networking with related researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://sites.google.com/site/visionleadstoactionconference/
 
Description Bach, P. Hudson, M., Nicholson, T. (2017). Attributing goals to others induces predictive biases in action observation: differential effects in autistic and typically developing individuals. Poster presentation at the Concepts, Actions, Objects workshop, Rovereto, Italy. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The poster sparked questions and discussion afterwards, as well as email request for electronic versions of the poster. Email contact with researchers in related topics Extensive discussion at the poster and afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Bach, P., McDonough, K.L., Solbrig, L. (2015). Imagery in Action, Day 1 (Rolle Building, Plymouth University). Workshop/demonstrations for the 2015 ESRC Festival of Social Science (FoSS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We designed a whole day public engagement event, held in the new Plymouth Library, in which members of the general public could experience the effect of imagery on their own actions. Staff included myself and two students that worked on the grant, Katrina McDonough and Linda Solbrig. The demonstrations included Ouija Boards, Hypnotic Suggestions, automatic imitation demonstrations, as well as behaviour-change related impacts. Attendants really enjoyed the event and asked many questions about the research and general topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/research/esrcfestival/imagery-in-action-how-mental-imagery-supports-actio...
 
Description Bach, P., Nicholson, T., Hudson, M. (2014). The right tool for the job: Action goal understanding is primarily driven by object-related information. Poster presented at the FENS Social Minds conference, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Requests for electronic versions of the poster
email contact with researchers in related topics
extensive discussion at the poster and afterwards

networking
increased visibility of the research program
audience reported change in views
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.fens.org/Meetings/Brain-Conferences/The-Social-Brain/
 
Description Bach, P., Nicholson, T., Solbrig, L. (2015). Imagery in Action, Day 1 (Rolle Building, Plymouth University). Workshop/demonstrations for the 2015 ESRC Festival of Social Science (FoSS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We designed a whole day public engagement event, held on the top floor of the Rolle Building of Plymouth University, in which members of the general public could experience the effect of imagery on their own actions. Staff included myself and two students that worked on the grant, Toby Nicholson and Linda Solbrig. The demonstrations included Ouija Boards, Hypnotic Suggestions, automatic imitation demonstrations, and others. Attendants really enjoyed the event and asked many questions about the research and general topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/whats-on/imagery-in-action
 
Description Bach, P., Nicholson, T., Solbrig, L. (2015). Imagery in Action, Day 2 (Plymouth City Museum). Workshop/demonstrations for the 2015 ESRC Festival of Social Science (FoSS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We designed a whole day public engagement event, held in the lobby of the Plymouth Museum, in which members of the general public could experience the effect of imagery on their own actions. Staff included myself, as well as Toby Nicholson and Linda Solbrig, two PhD students involved in the grant work. The demonstrations included Ouija Boards, Hypnotic Suggestions, automatic imitation demonstrations, and others. Attendants really enjoyed the event, took part in various activities, and asked many questions about the research and general topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/whats-on/imagery-in-action
 
Description Bach. P. (2016). One step ahead: towards a predictive coding view of social perception 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to give a talk at the research colloquium series at the University of Stirling, UK. The talk spawned questions and debate, and lead to further collaboration with Professor Magdalena Ieetswart
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.stir.ac.uk/natural-sciences/research/seminars/psychology/autumn_research_seminar/
 
Description Hudson (2017). Prior knowledge of an actor's intention biases the perceived kinematics of their actions. Talk at the Italian Institute of Technology, Genoa, Italy on 21st September 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The post-doc on the grant, Matthew Hudson, was invited to present his grant research at the Italian Institute of Technology, Genoa,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Hudson, M. (2015, Sep). Predictive coding and social perception. Talk presented at the EASP meeting on Social Neuroscience, Graz, Austria. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk presented at the EASP meeting on Social Neuroscience, Graz, Austria on challenges of investigating questions of social psychology with neuroscience methods. The postdoctoral research officer presented our novel task, and potentials to translate this into a neuroscience setting. The talk spawned questions and discussions afterwards and increased the standing of the research officer.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://easpsocneuro2015.lt-harris.info/
 
Description Hudson, M. McDonough, K., Bach, P. (2016). Perceptual teleology: assumptions of rational action bias the perception of others' actions. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster at the Cognition Institute conference, Plymouth, UK. the event drew researchers beyond the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Hudson, M. Prior knowledge of an actor's intentions biases the perceived kinematics of their actions. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk presented at Aalto University, Finland. 25th January, 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Hudson, M., McDonough, K., Edwards, R., Nicholson, T. & Bach, P. (2015, Aug). Predictive social perception corrects others actions towards expected trajectory. Poster presented at Social Cognition Workshop: From Evolution to Applications, Bangor, Wales. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presented at Social Cognition Workshop: From Evolution to Applications, Bangor, Wales. Poster sparked debate and questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://sonicsocialcognition.weebly.com/2015-meeting.html
 
Description Hudson, M., Nicholson, T. & Bach, P. (2015, May). Grasping the future: Mislocalisation of action trajectories based on predicted action effects. Talk presented at The Annual Plymouth University School of Psychology Conference, Plymouth, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk presented at The Annual Plymouth University School of Psychology Conference, Plymouth, UK. The talk was aimed at postgraduates and other academics at Plymouth University and spawned questions and debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://mindfieldconference.webs.com/
 
Description Hudson, M., Nicholson, T. & Bach, P. (2015, October) Take it or Leave it: Other's intentions automatically influence our prediction of their actions. Poster presented at the Psychonomic Society Annual Conference, Chicago, USA. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster was given by the PhD student Nicholson as the post doctoral researcher could not attend. The poster sparked further questions and lively debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.psychonomic.org/past-future-meetings
 
Description Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Bach, P. (2014, Jun) I expect you to do as I say! Prior intentional attributions bias the perceived kinematics of other's actions. Poster presented at From DNA to Social Minds, York, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact poster sparked questions and discussion afterwards, as well as email request for electronic versions of the poster.

Training of the PhD student in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the PhD student.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Bach, P. (2014, Jun) I expect you to do as I say! Prior intentional attributions bias the perceived kinematics of other's actions. Poster presented at Vision Leads to Action Summer School, Birmingham, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

Training of the RA in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the RA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Bach, P. (2014, Jun). I expect you to do as I say! Prior intentional attributions bias the perceived kinematics of other's actions. Talk presented at MINDFIELD: 6th Annual School of Psychology Conference, Plymouth, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards, as well as potential collaboration of named RA Hudson with Dr. Stephen Hall.

Training in public speaking and audience engagement of the RA Hudson.
Making local researchers aware of the research program and the results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Bach, P. (2014, May). I expect you to do as I say! Prior intentional attributions bias the perceived kinematics of other's actions. Poster presented at Workshop on Concepts, Actions and Objects, Rovereto, Italy. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Training of the RA Hudson in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the RA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.fens.org/Meetings/Brain-Conferences/The-Social-Brain/
 
Description Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Bach, P. (2014, May). Take it or Leave it? Other´s intentions automatically influence our prediction of their actions. Poster presented at FENS Social Mind conference in Copenhagen, Denmark 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact questions and discussions at the poster
sparked interest from relevant researchers in the field
requests for electronic versions of the poster, as well as requests to be kept in the loop about future publications.

Training of the RA Hudson in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the RA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.fens.org/Meetings/Brain-Conferences/The-Social-Brain/
 
Description Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Ellis, R. & Bach, P. (2015, Oct). Grasping the Future: Prior Knowledge of Other ´s Goals Predictively Biases the Perception of Their Actions. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Social Neuroscience, Chicago, USA. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presented at The Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago, USA. Poster was held by the PhD student Nicholson, as the postdoctoral researcher could not attend. It sparked questions and debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2015
URL http://www.psychonomic.org/past-future-meetings
 
Description K. McDonough, Hudson, M., Bach. P. (2016). Missing in Action: Prior expectations bias perception of vanishing goal-directed hand actions. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given by PhD student Katrina McDonough at the Cognition Institute conference, Plymouth, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/research/institutes/cognition/cognition-institute-conference
 
Description Lab and project website: actionprediction.com 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact People downloaded papers from the website
request for information via email
students asked to be part of the research team as research apprentices
internship student from Germany will visit the lab in Summer 2015

increased visibility of the research program, and the members of the research team. This is specifically relevant for the postdoc and Phd students.
easy access to outputs of the research program
engagement with the public
internship student from Germany will visit the lab in Summer 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://actionprediction.com/
 
Description Lab/project twitter stream 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact increased visibility of the research program, and the members of the research team. This is specifically relevant for the postdoc and Phd students.
engagement with the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://twitter.com/actpredictlab
 
Description McDonough, K. L., Costantini, M., Bach, P. (2017). Getting to grips with action understanding: Affordance matching predictively shapes the perceptual representation of others' actions. Poster presentation at the British Association for Cognitive Neuroscience Annual Meeting. Plymouth University, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation at the British Association for Cognitive Neuroscience Annual Meeting. Plymouth University, UK. Presenting our research, plus public speaking/networking training for the PhD student K. McDonough.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description McDonough, K. L., Costantini, M., Hudson, M., & Bach, P. (2018). Getting to grips with action understanding: Affordance understanding: Affordance matching predictively shapes the perceptual representation of others' actions. Poster presentation at the Future of Social Cognition conference. University of East Anglia, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presenting our research, plus public speaking/networking training for the PhD student K. McDonough.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://thefutureofsocialcognition.weebly.com/
 
Description McDonough, K. L., Hudson, M. & Bach, P. (2017). Seeing is Believing? Prior knowledge of others' beliefs biases perception of their actions. Poster presentation at the British Association for Cognitive Neuroscience Annual Meeting. Plymouth University, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation at the British Association for Cognitive Neuroscience Annual Meeting. Plymouth University, UK. Presenting our research, plus public speaking/networking training for the PhD student K. McDonough.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description McDonough, K. L., Hudson, M. & Bach, P. (2017). Seeing is Believing? Prior knowledge of others' beliefs biases perception of their actions. Poster presentation at the 9th Annual School of Psychology Conference. Plymouth University, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenting our research, plus public speaking/networking training for the PhD student K. McDonough.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description McDonough, K. L., Hudson, M. & Bach, P. (2017). Seeing is Believing? Prior knowledge of others' beliefs biases perception of their actions. Poster presentation at the Concepts, Actions and Objects: Functional and Neural Perspectives Workshop. University of Trento, Italy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenting our research, plus public speaking/networking training for the PhD student K. McDonough.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description McDonough, K. L., Hudson, M., Bach, P. (2018). Expectations of Action Bias Social Perception. Talk at MeeTo 2018, University of Turin, Italy. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presenting our research, plus public speaking/networking training for the PhD student K. McDonough.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.intobrain.it/en/projects-2/meeto-2018/meeto-conference/
 
Description McDonough, K. L., Hudson, M., Bach, P. (2018). Expectations of Action Bias Social Perception. Talk at the Cognition Institute Conference. University of Plymouth, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presenting our research, plus public speaking/networking training for the PhD student K. McDonough.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Nicholson, P., Hudson, M., Bach, P. (May 2014). I feel what you are doing: the link between tactile prediction and tactile perception. Poster at the Concepts, Actions and Objects (CAOs) workshop in Rovereto, Italy. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Poster sparked questions and discussions
Increased networking of our team and other researchers (as indicated by email correspondence)


Highlighted our research to international academic audiences
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Nicholson, T., Solbrig, L., Hudson, M., Tipper, S. and Bach, P. (2015, October) Seeing or knowing: dissociating bottom-up and top-down predictions of others' sensory action outcomes. Poster presented at Society for Social Neuroscience, Chicago, USA. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Poster presented at Society for Social Neuroscience, Chicago, USA. Talk spawned further questions and debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.s4sn.org/2015-scientific-program/
 
Description Nicholson,T., Bach, P., Roser, M. (2013, June). Action goal understanding is primarily driven by object, not motor, information. Poster Presented at the 3rd European Workshop on Social Neuroscience, Gent, Belgium. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards. people emailed for handouts and asked to be kept in the loop about publication of the paper.

Training of the PhD student in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the PhD student.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.vub.ac.be/ESAN/2013Workshop/Workshop2013.html
 
Description Nicholson,T., Bach, P., Roser, M. (2013, May). Action goal understanding is primarily driven by object, not motor, information. Poster presented at Concepts, Actions, Objects, Centre for Mind and Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Rovereto, Italy. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact poster sparked questions and discussion. Attendants asked for handouts, and for the paper when published.

Training of the PhD student in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the PhD student.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://events.unitn.it/en/cimec-caos2013
 
Description Nicholson,T., Solbrig, L., Hudson, M., Tipper, S.P., Bach, P. (2014, May). I feel what you are doing: differential effects of observed and predicted touches. Poster presented at Workshop on Concepts, Actions and Objects (CAOS), Rovereto, Italy. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Training of the PhD student in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the PhD student.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://events.unitn.it/en/cimec-caos2014
 
Description P Bach. One step ahead: predictive coding view of action observation and its impairment in autism. Exeter Research Seminar. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact P Bach was invited to give a presentation of his research at the research seminar of the Sports and Kinesiology department at the University of Exeter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2018
 
Description P Bach. Perceptual anticipation foundation for intentional action and social perception. Research Seminar Aberdeen 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to give a talk at the research colloquium series at the University of Aberdeen, UK. The talk spawned questions and debate, and lead to further collaboration with Dr. Margaret Jackson.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Peeps Newsletter for Hudson et al. 2016 I see what you say 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Particularly Exciting Experiments in Psychology newsletter of the American Psychological Association (APA) reported our study:
Hudson, M., Nicholson, T., Simpson, W. A., Ellis, R., & Bach, P. (2016). One step ahead: The perceived kinematics of others' actions are biased toward expected goals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(1), 1-7.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.apa.org/pubs/highlights/peeps/issue-61
 
Description Perceptual teleology - media report: Business Standard 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Business Standard an (online) news article about our study
Hudson, M., McDonough, K. L., Edwards, R., & Bach, P. (2018). Perceptual teleology: expectations of action efficiency bias social perception. Proc. R. Soc. B, 285(1884), 20180638
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/what-we-see-is-distorted-by-what-we-expect-stu...
 
Description Perceptual teleology - media report: Deccan Chronicle (Indian) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Deccan Chronicle (in India) ran an (online) news article about our study,
Hudson, M., McDonough, K. L., Edwards, R., & Bach, P. (2018). Perceptual teleology: expectations of action efficiency bias social perception. Proc. R. Soc. B, 285(1884), 20180638
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.deccanchronicle.com/lifestyle/health-and-wellbeing/080818/study-reveals-what-we-see-is-d...
 
Description Perceptual teleology - media report: IFL Science Blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The IFL Science Blog ran an (online) news article about our study
Hudson, M., McDonough, K. L., Edwards, R., & Bach, P. (2018). Perceptual teleology: expectations of action efficiency bias social perception. Proc. R. Soc. B, 285(1884), 20180638
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.iflscience.com/brain/our-perception-of-reality-is-distorted-by-our-expectations-new-rese...
 
Description Perceptual teleology - media report: Medical Xpress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact The Medical XPress ran an (online) news article about our study
Hudson, M., McDonough, K. L., Edwards, R., & Bach, P. (2018). Perceptual teleology: expectations of action efficiency bias social perception. Proc. R. Soc. B, 285(1884), 20180638
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-08-images-distorted.html
 
Description Perceptual teleology - media report: Reddit Frontpage 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our press release for the following study was picked up by the Reddit Science, and made the Reddit Frontpage, spawning extensive discussion (with over 600 comments from members of the general public).
Hudson, M., McDonough, K. L., Edwards, R., & Bach, P. (2018). Perceptual teleology: expectations of action efficiency bias social perception. Proc. R. Soc. B, 285(1884), 20180638
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.reddit.com/r/science/comments/95hkdd/new_research_shows_that_humans_see_the_actions_of/
 
Description Perceptual teleology - media report: The University Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The University Network ran an (online) news article about our study, and conducted an interview with the first author Matthew Hudson
Hudson, M., McDonough, K. L., Edwards, R., & Bach, P. (2018). Perceptual teleology: expectations of action efficiency bias social perception. Proc. R. Soc. B, 285(1884), 20180638
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.tun.com/blog/personal-expectations-distort-reality/
 
Description Perceptual teleology - press release: Eureka Alert 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Eureka Alert picked up a press release about our study
Hudson, M., McDonough, K. L., Edwards, R., & Bach, P. (2018). Perceptual teleology: expectations of action efficiency bias social perception. Proc. R. Soc. B, 285(1884), 20180638
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-08/uop-ain080718.php
 
Description Presentation at the Robotics and Computational Neuroscience away day/workshop at Plymouth University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked question and discussion afterwards
We discussed potential collaborations


This was the first step towards linking our project with research in Robotics and Computer vision. The goal was to make our research visible to the local researchers in this area, with the hope of uptake by these fields. So far, the exchange has been very positive, and we are optimistic about future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Schenke, K. C., Wyer, N., & Bach, P. (2016). The things you do: observers implicitly predict actions based on past behaviour patterns. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster given at the ESCAN conference, Porto, Portugal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://escaneurosci.eu/
 
Description Schenke, K. C., Wyer, N., & Bach, P.(2015). I know what you will do. Observers implicitly predict behaviour based on past actions in a person and object specific manner. Outcome prediction in attention, learning and cognitive control, University of Oxford, Oxford. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research poster presentation at a conference with a topic very much related to our grant work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/upcoming-events/oxford-workshop-outcome-prediction-in-attention-lea...
 
Description Schenke, K. C., Wyer, N., & Bach, P.(2015). I know what you will do. Observers implicitly predict behaviour based on past actions in a person and object specific manner. Staff and postgraduate conference, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at an internal conference to share expertise and findings among staff and postgraduates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Schenke, K., Bach, P., Wyer, N. The Social Anticipation Model. Integration of person, situation and action-specific knowledge to make predictions. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact PhD student associated with the grant gave a talk at the PsyPag PhD conference, University of York, York, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://psypag2016.wordpress.com/
 
Description Schenke, K., Bach, P., Wyer, N. The things you do: Implicit person-models guide action predictions. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presented at the British Association of Cognitive Neuroscience, The Research Centre for Natural Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bacn.co.uk/2016_conference.html
 
Description Schenke, K., Bach, P., Wyer, N. The things you do: observers implicitly predict actions based on past behaviour patterns. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Poster at the The Cognition Institute conference, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/research/institutes/cognition/cognition-institute-conference
 
Description Schenke, K., Wyer, N., Bach, P. (2012). How does embodied knowledge affect our ability to predict others' behaviour and through what mechanisms? Talk at the Plymouth University Postgraduate conference. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

practice in public speaking for the Phd student Schenke.
networking for the Phd student Schenke.
increasing visibility of the research program.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Schenke, K., Wyer, N., Bach, P. (2013). Do we use prior knowledge to predict the behaviour of others? Poster presented at the Concepts, Actions and Objects (CAOs) workshop in Rovereto, Italy. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Training of the PhD student in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the PhD student.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Schenke, K., Wyer, N., Bach, P. (2014, Jun). I know what you will do. Observers implicitly predict future actions from past behaviour patterns. Poster presented at Vision Leads to Action, Birmingham, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact poster sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Training of the PhD student in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the PhD student.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Schenke, K., Wyer, N., Bach, P. (2014, Jun). I know what you will do. Observers implicitly predict future actions from past behaviour patterns. Talk presented at MINDFIELD: 6th Annual School of Psychology Conference, Plymouth, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked question and discussion afterwards, and lead to a collaboration with Dr. Jeremy Goslin.

Training of the PhD student in audience engagement and public speaking
increasing the visibility of our research program.
networking for the PhD student.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014