Pushing the Boundaries: New Dynamics of Forced Migration and Transnational Responses in Latin America

Lead Research Organisation: University of London
Department Name: School of Advanced Study

Abstract

1. This project uses multi-disciplinary methodology to investigate and influence the ways in which Latin American States use transnational structures and interventions to address new security and justice challenges resulting from forced migration flows.

2. The recent trend of increasing arrivals of 'extra-continental' migrants and refugees, many from conflicts in Africa and the Middle East, are raising substantive challenges of security and justice for Latin American societies. At the same time, particularly in Central America, novel patterns of gang- and drug-related generalised violence are producing extensive forced displacement. As States in the region seek to balance societal fears about terrorism and criminality against their international obligations to protect refugees and displaced persons, they look to develop new forms of transnational cooperation on asylum and migration. This international cooperation builds on existing regional initiatives. However, despite the potentially positive model that Latin America offers, no recent or comprehensive studies exist on this topic.

3. This research analyses these regional responses to forced migration in Latin America. Among the far-reaching questions to be addressed are: What are the implications for security and justice of the new dynamics of forced migration in Latin America? How do Latin American States respond to such challenges, and how can their responses be strengthened in future? What roles do civil society groups, inter-governmental bodies, and powerful North American States play in these processes? How does the Latin American model compare or interact with the European and African models, and what lessons can be drawn? What are the implications for States' allocation of international responsibility for flows of refugees and asylum-seekers?

4. This multi-disciplinary project combines social science and legal research methodologies to address the identified knowledge gap through library, archival and field research. It also creates a 'contact group' of Latin American States as an innovative technique for gathering research data and feedback. It further facilitates the co-production of knowledge in this area through a range of knowledge exchange activities, such as the following proposed conferences and workshops:

- 2013 Geneva Workshops with key international humanitarian stakeholders.
- 2013 London Refugee Law Initiative Public Seminar Series.
- 2014 Conference in Bogotá with academic-practitioner stakeholders.
- 2015 Panel at 15th IASFM Conference with academic-practitioner stakeholders.
- 2015 London Conference for States and regional stakeholders.

Further practical and academic impact will be secured through targeted follow-up activities with different beneficiary and 'user' stakeholders participating in these events.

5. The project seeks to generate mid-long term impact 'through people' to address the security and justice challenges that new forced migration patterns bring in Latin America by:

(a) Changing State practice by improving regional law and policy on forced migration;

(b) Improving the policy of the third sector institutions working on forced migration; and

(c) Helping to promote an informed public debate on forced migration.

The project will also yield mid-to-long term 'international leadership' and 'partnerships' impacts by promoting academic-practitioner collaborations and increasing the international visibility of UK academic research.

6. The project has innovative in-built training and is mentored by two leading academics from different but related disciplines. A structured programme of research skills development has been jointly designed with the host institution as a core component of the project, focusing on the skills needed to lead the future research agenda in this field.

Planned Impact

1. The project's main practical objective is to contribute to resolving the justice and security challenges that new forms of forced migration present to Latin American societies. This long-term impact will be realised through the fulfilment of five short-to-medium term impacts 'through people'. These impacts will be secured through targeted activities to maximise the opportunities for users in the public sector (State), third sector (international agencies, civil society) and the wider public to benefit maximally from the research. These pathways are grounded in my robust networks of contacts from research in South America in 2005-2012.

(a) Law, policy and practice: Latin American States

The initial pathway for achieving positive changes in this area is through the directors of the government refugee offices in the relevant States. A 'contact group' of key officials from ten selected Latin American States will be created to feed informally into the research during 2012-2014 and maximise its exposure to users. This participation will also provide the basis for further impact during the 2015 State conference in London, which will share the research outputs and targeted legal submissions for improvements to laws etc. Follow-up will be conducted remotely from the UK.

(b) Policy and practice: Regional organisations

The regional nature of the problem requires a coordinated response from international organisations such as the OAS. The State-related activities mentioned above constitute one impact pathway at this level, which will be utilised also by the project for this purpose. However, the key OAS, EU and AU officials in this field will also be invited to participate fully in the activities of the contact group 2012-2015. This represents a pathway for impact on these international organisations parallel to the State route, and discussions between the regional organisations would also be encouraged as an additional pathway for fortifying the research impact.

(c) Policy and practice: International agencies

UNHCR and the ICRC require research on this topic to orient policy and practice with governments and victims. Workshops will be organised with each agency as a platform for engaging these agencies on certain research questions, participation in the 2015 State conference and academic conferences/workshops, and dissemination of the research outputs in the relevant divisions. Since these agencies advise States and fund civil society organisations in this field, impact upon these agencies will be extended considerably as a result of their influence upon States and local partners in the field.

(d) Practice: Civil society in Latin America

Civil society is crucial to refugee protection in Latin America but lacks research resources. My strong contacts in this sector enable me both to influence their engagement in the knowledge exchange processes described above and help strengthen their internal policies in this area. Participation from relevant civil society will take place in the academic knowledge exchange activities.

(e) Perceptions in Latin American society

The media presentation of forced migrants in Latin America can be shallow and unrepresentative. Using my UK, Latin American and international media contacts and those of my mentors, I will seek to promote a more informed debate through writing newspaper and web articles, giving interviews on radio and television, and speaking at selected public events.

2. Impact through these pathways will be mutually reinforcing, e.g. impact on the policy of international agencies, which influences State policy.

3. The project also yields 'international leadership' and 'partnerships' impacts by fortifying academic-practitioner collaboration, stimulating the co-production of knowledge, and increasing the visibility of UK academic research. Such collaborations will form the basis for further research and dialogue on security, conflict and justice.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This interdisciplinary research project generated a range of significant new knowledge outcomes about forced migration in Latin America and transnational responses by States in that region. As such, it has begun to redress the long-standing neglect by scholars of refugee law and protection in Latin America.

The main research findings can be summarised under the following thematic headings:

1. Organised crime: the new motor of forced displacement in Latin America

Based on field research carried out across Central America and Mexico, the research project produced the first serious study of the dynamics of forced migration provoked not by war or government persecution but by the activities of organised criminal groups. This research, including an open access article that is now the 'most read' article in the Refugee Survey Quarterly journal, showed how the range of violent organised criminal groups in Central America and Mexico have generated different forms and patterns in both the displacement in these countries and the protection and security challenges faced by those who flee their violence. The project has spearheaded the study of this 'new' cause of forced displacement in the wider field of refugee and forced migration studies.

2. Governmental responses to cross-border environmental displacement in Latin America

Based on legal research and expert interviews, and set against the frequently-bemoaned silence of international law relating to environmental displacement, the research project produced a ground-breaking analysis of how governments in a region such as Latin America actually use a range of little-known national laws and policies to respond to cross-border displacement caused by natural disasters and climate change. In the field of environmental migration, law and governance, this Americas-based study has shifted attention beyond a narrow focus on the realm of international law and onto a more fine-grained consideration of governmental practices at the domestic level in particular regions of the world.

3. Legal protection of refugees in Latin America

Based on archival and legal research, and expert interviews, the research project has shifted three traditional notions concerning the legal protection of refugees in Latin America. Firstly, through an historical study this project developed a simpler and more elegant interpretation of the famous Latin American expanded refugee definition in the 1984 Cartagena Declaration. Secondly, it uncovered and elucidated an expansive and progressive human rights-based framework for the protection of asylum-seekers and refugees in the doctrine of the Inter-American Human Rights System. Finally, it interrogated the purported 'liberal tide' of immigration law and policy in this region in light of more restrictive practices by some Latin American States that are influenced by European approaches to asylum. Collectively, these findings show how Latin American cooperation in the field of refugee protection offers an alternative regional model to other models currently applied in Europe and elsewhere in the world.

Finally, on methodology, a key finding of the project concerned the unexpected challenge that, owing to the controversial nature of the subject matter, no single interviewee was willing to consent to their interview data being uploaded to a data repository.
Exploitation Route My findings have already generated substantial impact among users in the public sector, third sector and wider public, as well as helping to shape academic debate in the areas identified above. Even so, the potential exists for additional impact in the coming months through new pathways.

1. Organised crime

Governments and UNHCR and currently developing programmes in Latin America to protect persons displaced by organised crime (2014 Brazil Plan of Action). This presents a diverse range of new opportunities to put my research findings to practical use in aiding the design of these programmes.

2. Environmental displacement

The 2015 Paris climate agreement offers new impetus and opportunities to cement and extend disaster displacement policy frameworks - such as the global Nansen Initiative Protection Agenda and efforts by Latin American governments to develop sub-regional instruments - in which my research findings have the potential to play a key role.

3. Refugee law

Governments, humanitarian actors and NGOs are currently scaling up their legal protection work with refugees in Latin America (driven mainly by a concern for Central American refugees). Their renewed interest and presence in the region provides many openings for using my research findings to influence future refugee law development there.
Sectors Chemicals,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description Here follows a brief summary of some of the main non-academic impacts of this project. A. Governmental responses to cross-border environmental displacement in Latin America 1. I presented my research on this topic at a workshop organised by the Nansen Initiative (an intergovernmental initiative led by the Governments of Norway and Switzerland) and the Regional Conference on Migration (RCM, an international organisation comprised of eleven North and Central American governments, i.e. Canada, USA, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama), hosted by the Government of Costa Rica, in February 2015. Following that workshop, the RCM requested that a set of guidelines on the protection of persons displaced across a border by natural disasters be drafted for their consideration, based on my research and other workshop input. I produced the first drafts of these guidelines, which are now under consideration by the eleven RCM government (Belize, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, United States, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Dominican Republic) for adoption in November 2016 as a regional framework for the RCM. If adopted, they will be the world's first ever international or regional guidelines on the protection of persons displaced across a border by natural disasters. 2. Through the Refugee Law Initiative (of which I am Director), I organised a similar meeting for South American governments jointly with the Nansen Initiative, hosted by the Government of Ecuador, in July 2015. The presentation of my research and that carried out by other research project members resulted in an interest on the part of governments in taking forward a similar initiative to the RCM guidelines within the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR, an international organisation comprised of Southern Cone and some Andean governments). This is being followed-up by the successor organisation to the Nansen Initiative (called the Platform on Disaster Displacement and led by the Governments of Germany and Bangladesh) with my input during 2016-17. 3. My project research on this topic equally underpins the key legal status section of the Agenda for the Protection of Cross-Border Displaced Persons in the Context of Natural Disasters and Climate Change, a framework of best practices presented at its October 2015 Global Consultation in Switzerland, and endorsed by 109 governments. 4. I also presented my closely-related project research on migrants and displaced persons in Latin American countries affected by natural disasters or armed conflict at the regional consultation of the Migrants in Countries in Conflict (MICIC, an initiative of the International Organisation for Migration led by the Governments of the Philippines and the USA), hosted by Government of Costa Rica, in February 2016. This research on Latin America feeds into the final guidelines on this issue adopted by the MICIC process in 2016. 5. Both the Nansen Initiative Protection Agenda and the MICIC Guidelines were cited positively in the report prepared by the UN Secretary General for the summit on Large-Scale Movements of Refugees and Migrants held by the UN General Assembly in September 2016. B. Organised crime: the new motor of forced displacement in Latin America 6. My project research on current dynamics of displacement caused by organised crime in Latin America, alongside the project expert workshop organised by the Refugee Law Initiative jointly with the Universidad Centroaméricana in El Salvador in May 2014, fed directly into the Cartagena+30 Process. This process is organised every ten years by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to commemorate the 1984 Cartagena Declaration and involves Latin American States adopting a Declaration and ten-year Plan of Action on Refugees and Displacement in the region. My project recommendations were adopted in full by the sub-regional Mesoamerican consultation (Mexico and Central America) where I presented them and incorporated into the first draft of the plan of action. The 2014 Brazil Declaration and Plan of Action, adopted by all Latin American and Caribbean governments in December 2014, retains a number of recommendations resulting from my project. Partly as a result of my project, this is also the first ever international instrument to officially recognise the issue of displacement caused by organised crime. 7. In the inter-governmental implementation meeting following the adoption of the Brazil Declaration/Plan, held in Italy in January 2015, I was invited by UNHCR to present recommendations on the chapter of the Plan dealing with displacement caused by organised crime. My recommendations - based on my project research - provided the framework for both governments and UNHCR to move forward on this issue. 8. My project research serves as a basis for the development of global protection policy by UNHCR for displaced persons fleeing organised criminal violence in the Northern Triangle of Central America. This impacts not only on UNHCR's own activities but also those of governments in the region who receive claims for protection from persons from these countries. Between October 2015 and February 2016, I was asked by UNHCR to work with them in developing such protection policy relating to El Salvador. Between January and March 2016, I have been helping UNHCR to develop protection policy relating to Honduras. Between March and May 2016, I have committed to helping UNHCR to develop protection policy relating to Guatemala. 9. Between June and July 2016, I was asked by UNHCR to draft a regional policy for addressing the displacement crisis in and from the Northern Triangle of Central America that would delineate new actions to be taken for the protection of internally displaced persons, asylum-seekers and deportees with protection needs by governments (including the Governments of Canada, USA, Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama and other observer Governments from the region and beyond), international agencies and civil society in the countries of origin, transit and destination. This proposal was then presented at an inter-governmental meeting convened by UNHCR and the Organization of American States in July, hosted by the Government of Costa Rica, named the 'Call to Action'. The participants in this meeting discussed the proposed policy approach and adopted a public statement of principles called the 'San José Action Statement', to which were appended a range of specific concrete commitments for action in favour of the different vulnerable population groups in these countries. 10. My project research on this topic also provided a baseline/conceptual point of reference for the first ever official profiling study on displacement caused by organised crime that was carried out by the Government of Honduras in collaboration with the Joint IDP Profiling Service in 2014 and 2015 and published in December 2015. 11. Throughout the project, I gave interviews and provided background to a range of international print, radio and television journalists on refugee issues in Latin America, particularly on the flight from Central America of large number of children and adults towards the USA in 2014 and 2015. 12. Anecdotally from conversations and email exchanges with refugee law practitioners, especially in the USA, I understand that my research is relied upon extensively as a core piece of background evidence submitted in legal proceedings when litigating claims for asylum by persons from Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. I have also acted as an expert witness in several such claims before the courts. This is combined with other activities in the region. For instance, in September 2016, I provided targeted specialist advice to various Salvadorian NGOs who are preparing a draft law for the protection of internally displaced persons in El Salvador that will be put before the legislature for consideration. C. Legal protection of refugees in Latin America 13. My project research (with project research assistant Diana Trimiño) proposing an alternative approach to interpreting the extended Latin American refugee definition in Conclusion III of the 1984 Cartagena Declaration (which has been incorporated into the national law of 16 Latin American countries) was presented in front of a special UNHCR-convened workshop of national and other experts in Uruguay in 2013 on the 'Interpretation of the Expanded Refugee Definition included in the 1984 Cartagena Declaration on Refugees'. It is reflected in the resulting UNHCR Summary Conclusions on the interpretation of the extended refugee definition in the 1984 Cartagena Declaration. D. Upcoming future impact on refugee/displaced person protection in Latin America 14. I recently accepted an invitation from the Director of the UNHCR Americas Bureau (which covers all of the Americas from Canada to Chile/Argentina) to take up a one-year part-time secondment from October 2016 as the Senior Adviser (Policy and Strategy) to the Americas Bureau. This invitation is based partly on recognition of my research expertise and knowledge of forced displacement and refugee situations in the Americas accumulated during this research project. Below the Bureau Director, this will be the most senior policy-development role in the Americas Bureau (reflected in its P-5 grading on the UN professional staff scale) and will involve drawing on this expertise to draft such key policy as the UNHCR multi-year strategy 2017-20 for the whole region, as well as legal and operational policies and parameters in relation to new and developing situations of forced displacement in this region. 15. I accepted an invitation from the Platform on Disaster Displacement and UNHCR to undertake the study on cross-border disaster displacement requested by the governments of Latin America and the Caribbean in the 2014 Brazil Declaration and Plan of Action. This study was completed in by me in 2018 and is currentl awaiting publication and dissemination by both institutions. 2016. My research on environmental displacement was used by the Platform on Disaster Displacement to work with South American governments to create a regional framework on this issue for South America by the South American Conference on Migration (CSM) in 2018. It was also used to begin work towards that end with governments in the Caribbean region through the forum of the Caribbean Migration Consultations in 2019.
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Comments to UNHCR on its Draft Legal considerations on claims for refugee status related to the adverse effects of climate change and the impact of disasters
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Provided comments in response to a request from UNHCR for feedback on its December 2019 draft of the new Legal considerations on claims for refugee status related to the adverse effects of climate change and the impact of disasters. The comments were partially reflected in the final document for which the URL is provided below (October 2020), which also cited my work as a point of reference.
URL https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/5f75f2734.pdf
 
Description Commissioned to co-produce an Expert Review of the Home Office Country of Origin Information on El Salvador
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Expert Review of the Home Office Country of Origin Information on 'El Salvador: Gangs' (February 2020); and Three Response to Information Requests (for the Independent Advisory Group on Country Information, part of the UK Office of the Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration), with Ainhoa Montoya. Changes recommended by my co-author and I were agreed for a revised version of this Home Office document that sets out the country evidence to be considered by their official decision-makers when making decisions on asylum claims from El Salvador.
 
Description Contributed to UNHCR Expert Meeting process on 'Interpretation of the expanded Refugee Definition included i the 1984 Cartagena Declaration on Refugees' and influenced resulting Summary Conclusions
Geographic Reach South America 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
 
Description Contributed to UNHCR-organised Cartagena+30 Sub-regional meeting of Mesoamerican States and States adopted the recommendations that I put forward on issue of organised crime generated displacement in the region
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Contributed to final form of 2014 Brazil Declaration and Plan of Action, a ten-year framework of principles and action plan adopted by all Latin American governments concerning the protection of refugees and displaced persons
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description Contributed to final form of legal section of Nansen Initiative Protection Agenda, as adopted by 109 governments in October 2015
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.nanseninitiative.org/global-consultations/
 
Description Contributing to UNHCR policy formation relating to the protection of refugees/displaced persons from Central America
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description Contribution to UNHCR draft policy on legal considerations on claims for refugee status related to the adverse effects of climate change and the impact of disasters
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Drafted GUIDE TO EFFECTIVE PRACTICES FOR RCM MEMBER COUNTRIES Protection for persons moving across borders in the context of disasters, which was adopted by the RCM (2016)
Geographic Reach South America 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://disasterdisplacement.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/PROTECTION-FOR-PERSONS-MOVING-IN-THE-CON...
 
Description Drafted Study on Cross-border Disaster Displacement in the Americas for PDD/UNHCR, as requested by governments of Latin America and Caribbean
Geographic Reach South America 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Drafted guidelines on humanitarian protection of persons displaced across a border by natural disasters for the Regional Conference on Migration, currently under discussion
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description Formed basis for regional policy adopted by governments of South American Conference on Migration on 'Lineamientos regionales en materia de protección y asistencia a personas desplazadas a través de fronteras y migrantes en países afectados por desastres de origen natural'
Geographic Reach South America 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact This is the first regional framework in South America, adopted by South American governments, that addresses and finds solutions for the challenges posed by cross-border displacement in the context of environmental crisis.
URL https://disasterdisplacement.org/portfolio-item/csm-lineamientos
 
Description My research was presented as main point of reference in inter-governmental meeting in Caribbean on developing a regional framework to deal with cross-border displacement due to disasters
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://disasterdisplacement.org/portfolio-item/cmc-report
 
Description Development Award: Interdisciplinary Network on Internal Displacement, Conflict and Protection
Amount £56,105 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/T005351/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 06/2020
 
Description Institute for Study of the Americas conference grant
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
Department Institute for Study of the Americas
Sector Academic/University
Country United States
Start 02/2013 
End 03/2013
 
Description Joint webinar series on 'Human Mobility, Natural Hazards and Policy Responses' 
Organisation Platform on Disaster Displacement
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Jointly developing the concept for the webinar series, identifying and contacting presenters and organising, advertising and running the six seminars in the series.
Collaborator Contribution Jointly developing the concept for the webinar series, identifying and contacting presenters and organising, advertising and running the six seminars in the series.
Impact Six seminars, recorded and uploaded to RLI and PDD websites as podcasts. A range of disciplines involved in collaboration, including climate science, government, law, politics, sociology, development, public health, migration studies, as well as participants from across a range of practitioner/policy institutions at national, regional and global levels. • 'Conceptualising policy - do 'climate refugees' or 'environmental migrants' really exist?', presentations by Professor Walter Kälin (PDD), Dr Koko Warner (UNFCCC), Professor Francois Gemenne (Hugo Observatory) and Dr Max Martin (Sussex) , moderated by David Cantor (RLI) • 'Data and knowledge on human mobility in the context of natural hazards', presentations by Justin Ginnetti (independent), Dr Caroline Zickgraf (Hugo Observatory), Dr Kanta Kumari Rigaud (World Bank) and Luiza de Moura Pallone (RESAMA), moderated by Atle Solberg (PDD) • 'Global policy debates, mobility and natural hazards', presentations by Dr Saleemul Huq (International Centre for Climate Change and Development), Dina Ionesco (IOM), Andrew Harper (UNHCR) and Ezekiel Simperingham (IFRC), moderated by Nina Birkeland (NRC) • 'Internal displacement, migration and planned relocation in the context of natural hazards', presentations by Elena Correa (independent), Dr Tasneem Siddiqui (University of Bangladesh), Dr Matthew Scott (RWI) and Dr Romola Adeola (Pretoria), moderated by Greta Zeender (UNSG HLP) • 'Legal responses to cross-border 'environmental' mobility', presentations by Professor Jane McAdam and Sanjula Weerasinghe (UNSW), Professor Richard Bedford (Waikato), Professor David Cantor (RLI) and Lucy Daxbacher (IGAD), moderated by Atle Solberg (PDD) • 'Implications for policy of a (post-?) COVID-19 world', presentations by Professor Paul Spiegel (Johns Hopkins), Dr Mihir Bhatt (All India Disaster Mitigation Institute) and Dr Aimée-Noël Mbiyozo (ISS Africa), moderated by David Cantor (RLI) and Walter Kälin (PDD
Start Year 2020
 
Description Advice to Associated Press Central America and Mexico Correspondents (Displacement in Central America) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Quotation in resulting publication

Contribution to wider debate on Central American migrant flows
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://bigstory.ap.org/article/un-pushes-migrants-be-called-refugees
 
Description Advice to Austrian Broadcasting Corporation Journalists (Displacement in Central America) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Resulting broadcast of interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Advice to Avvenire (Italian national newspaper) Journalist (Displacement in Central America) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Background contribution to published article.

Contribution to debate on Central American migrant flows.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.mclvoghera.it/public/2014/06/la-grande-fuga-dei-bimbi-dalla-guerra-delle-bande.pdf
 
Description Advice to Colombian Journalist (Silla Vacia) (Displacement in Central America) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Mention in news article published online.

Contribution to raising profile of relevant themes in Colombia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://lasillavacia.com/queridodiario/bogota-capital-mundial-del-desplazamiento-48162
 
Description Advice to Freelance Journalist (Displacement in Mexico) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Resulting article
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ozy.com/fast-forward/these-victims-of-gang-and-cartel-violence-are-making-surprising-move...
 
Description Advice to Independent Journalists (Displacement in Mexico) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Fed into resulting report for WOLA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://jameslfredrick.com/2015/01/22/full-report-forgotten-on-la-frontera/
 
Description Advice to NRC Handelsblad (Netherlands national newspaper) Journalist (Displacement in Central America) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Quoted in published piece.

Contribution to debate on Central American migrant flows.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nrcreader.nl/artikel/6206/de-reis-is-verschrikkelijk-maar-thuis-blijven-is-onmogelijk
 
Description Advice to Production Company behind New BBC Documentary Series on Central America 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Informal background advice relating to history of refugee movements in the region and current tendencies relating to organized criminal groups

Programme broadcast on BBC
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Advice to Thomson Reuters Mexico Correspondent (Displacement in Central America) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Information used as background in researching story

Contribution to debate on Central American migrant flows.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Co-organised and ran Workshop on Human Mobility in Contexts of Disasters and Climate Change in South America 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Governmental representatives from most nations of South America attended this Refugee Law Initiative / Nansen Initiative Workshop, which was formally hosted by the Ecuadorian government in Quito, Ecuador. The workshop promoted the issue of regional approaches to the challenges posed by persons displaced across borders in the region by climate change and the effects of natural disasters. Government representatives participated actively, making presentations and debating the issues in depth, and concluded that such proposals should be taken forward further in the context of certain regional organisations and in national legislation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Colombia: Cross-border Displacement, Returns and Solutions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited presentation on Seeking Durable Solutions in Post-peace Agreement Colombia public panel discussion at Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, Geneva, Switzerland, which sparked reported increase in interest afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Contexto general: estudio de antecedents - región de las Américas 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited keynote presentation to governments at Conferencia Suramericana sobre Migraciones/Platform on Disaster Displacement workshop Taller regional para el desarrollo de Lineamientos y/o Guía de prácticas para la protección de personas desplazadas entre fronteras en el contexto de desastres, Santiago, Chile, which facilitated decision on their part to create and adopt a relational instrument on environmental displacement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Contribution to international court submission - publication was Annex 3 to 'Application for Thematic Hearing before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights on Practices, Processes and Problems in Refugee Status Determination in the Americas' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The application refers to the article authored by the Principal Investigator David Cantor (jointly with Stefania Barichello) entitled 'Protection of Asylum-Seekers under the Inter-American Human Rights System', which is also included as Annex 3.

The application was submitted to the Inter-American Commission on 23 August 2013 by the following Latin American non-governmental organisations: Asylum Access Ecuador (AAE), U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Sin Fronteras I.A.P, Centro por la Justicia y el Derecho Internacional (CEJIL), Refugee Council U.S.A. (RCUSA), Instituto Migrações e Direitos Humanos (IMDH), International Detention Coalition (IDC), Observatorio Migrantes del Caribe (OBMICA), Clínica de Derecho Internacional de Derechos Humanos de American University Washington College of Law en Washington, D.C. y la Consultoría para los Derechos Humanos y el Desplazamiento (CODHES). On 1 October 2013, the application was granted by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and a hearing listed for 31 October 2013.

On 1 October 2013, the application was granted by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and a hearing listed for 31 October 2013.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Framing Violence in the Countries of the North of Central America 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited expert presentation before UN and third sector policymakers at Social Science Research Council/UN Department of Political Affairs Reunión sobre violencia en los países del norte de Centroamérica, New York, USA, which generated significant discussion and follow-up.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2018
 
Description Guidance paper presented on 'Principios Rectores - Solidaridad con el Triángulo Norte de Centroamérica' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This was an invited contribution presented at the Seminario de Planificación "La Declaración y el Plan de Acción de Brasil 2015-2024: el reto de su implementación", International Institute of Humanitarian Law, San Remo, Italy. The formal seminar was organised by the IIHL and UNHCR as a means of gathering participating States to consider implementation of the 2014 Brazil Plan of Action. My paper served to provide the parameters for discussion - at the event and afterwards - of how to implement the elements of the Plan relating to the protection of persons fleeing organised criminal violence in the Northern Triangle of Central America.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited presentation on 'International Law, National Law and Regional Governance: Lessons from the Americas' to Zolberg Institute/KNOMAD expert roundtable on Regional Governance of Environmental Mobility, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Fed into international expert discussions on the relationship of regional governance to global governance (both in its present form and looking to the future) and of available options for a global governance agenda as a potential outcome of the roundtable. The presentation attracted significant reflection and questions, helping to shape the discussion on the practical way in which the project will seek to engage with these global policy processes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Organised Crime and Forced Displacement in Latin America 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at Research Councils/British Academy/DfID conference on Protracted Conflicts, Aid and Development, British Academy, UK, which sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Paper drafted and circulated on 'Una solución simple para los refugiados que huyen de la guerra? La definición ampliada de América Latina y su relación con el DIH' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Translated and updated version of an academic paper written originally in English by D.J. Cantor and D. Trimino Mora and presented initially at RLI conference in Feburary. Both the English and Spanish versions were included among the background documents presented at the Expert Meeting in Montevideo. The paper was one of the principal reference documents circulated for the UNHCR-organised Expert Meeting on the 1984 Cartagena Declaration on Refugees. Participants included government experts and policy makers from Latin American States, UNHCR staff from headquarters and Americas, experts from Inter-American Court and Commission on Human Rights, civil society and academia. During the Expert Meeting, the paper underpinned discussion and received substantial comment, feedback and interest.

During the Expert Meeting, the paper underpinned discussion and received substantial comment, feedback and interest. The ideas presented in the paper are reflected in the resulting guidance documents, e.g. UNHCR's Summary Conclusions on the interpretation of the extended refugee definition in the 1984 Cartagena Declaration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Paper presented by research assistant on 'Trafficking and Mixed Asylum and Migration Flows in Latin America' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Academic paper presented by project research assistant Diana Trimino on Panel IV: 'Challenges in Latin American Migration and Asylum Policy-Making' at the conference 'A Liberal Tide: Towards a paradigm shift in Latin American migration and asylum policy-making?'

Interest from Latin American governments and practitioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Paper presented jointly on 'Challenges for Refugee Law and Policy of the New Displacement caused by Organised Criminal Groups' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented at the expert workshop organised by the Refugee Law Initiative (London) and the Universidad Centroamericana (San Salvador, El Salvador) on 'Los Grupos de Crimen Organizado y la Nueva Dinámica de Migración Forzada en America Latina', attended by leading experts on this theme from across the Americas and Europe from both the academic and practitioner fields. Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Practitioners reported better understanding of the implications for refugee protection of the new dynamics of forced displacement in the region. This also fed into the set of recommendations that were eventually presented to States in the Cartagena+30 process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Paper presented on '"Disaster Refugees" and the Humanitarian Response in the Americas' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Paper presented at 'An Inextricable Link: Climate Change and Human Rights in Latin America' conference, Institute of Latin American Studies, London, UK. Generated discussion among participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Paper presented on '"Protection" in Contemporary Situations of Violence in Central America' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited leading presentation on UNHCR Americas Bureau panel 'As Deadly As Conflict: Criminal Violence and its Impact on Displacement in Central America', at the High Commissioner's Dialogue on Protection Challenges: Understanding and Addressing Root Causes of Displacement, Geneva, Switzerland. Invitation personally from the High Commissioner himself. Presentation generated useful discussion. Also request for further information from high-level operations chiefs within UNHCR and from certain high-level government delegates represented there. UNHCR requested that I help to draft further protection policy for displaced persons in Central America.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Paper presented on 'A Hot Topic? Managing International Migration Caused by Natural Disasters in Latin America' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper presented at the Institute of Latin American Studies Conference on Managing Global Migration: New Perspectives from Latin America and Europe, University of London, UK. Sparked substantial discussion and also a request from MECLEP/IOM representative to contribute a policy brief to their policy brief series based on the presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Paper presented on 'A Liberal Asylum Paradigm? Countervailing Tendencies in the Andean Region' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Academic paper presented on Panel III: 'Novel Trends in Asylum Law and Policy in Latin America' at the conference 'A Liberal Tide: Towards a paradigm shift in Latin American migration and asylum policy-making?'

Interest from representatives of Latin American governments and NGOs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Paper presented on 'A New Approach to the Legal Protection of Migrants affected by Natural Disasters in the Americas' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This was an invited paper presented at the Refugee Law Initiative/Nansen Initiative Workshop on Climate Change, Disasters and Cross-border Displacement, University of London, UK. It generated useful discussion among participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Paper presented on 'A Simple Solution to War Refugees? The Latin American Expanded Definition and its relationship to IHL' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented jointly with research assistant Diana Trimino Mora at the conference on 'Refuge from Inhumanity' that took place at All Souls College Oxford and was organised by the Refugee Law Initiative (London) and the Refugee Studies Centre (Oxford). Participants included leading academics and practitioners from the fields of refugee law and IHL. Talk sparked questions and discussion.

Increased interest and eventual publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/events/refuge-from-inhumanity-enriching-refugee-protection-standards-through...
 
Description Paper presented on 'Accelerated Procedures and Admissibility in Latin America' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented on 'regional' panel at the international conference organised by Monash University (Australia) in Prato on 'Access to Asylum: Current Challenges and Future Directions'. The paper generated questions and significant discussion among participants.

Increased interest in the topic of Latin America by participants at the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Paper presented on 'Asylum, Migration and Natural Disasters: A New Perspective from the Americas' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited paper presented on Comparative International Refugee Protection panel (1) at the Society of Socio-Legal Scholars (SLAS) Annual Conference, Warwick University, UK. Generated discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Paper presented on 'Beyond Kids at the Border: Understanding a Regional Crisis' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Keynote paper presented by invitation at the international webinar organised by Asylum Access, an NGO based in the USA but with offices across the world. The webinar attracted members of the public but was also specifically targeted at humanitarian donor agencies, from which a number of funders attended.

Reported increased discussion of this issue within donor agencies and greater openness in considering funding interventions in Central America around the issue of forced displacement and refugees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Paper presented on 'Contexto general: estudio de antecedents - región de las Américas' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 'Contexto general: estudio de antecedents - región de las Américas', invited keynote presentation at Conferencia Suramericana sobre Migraciones/Platform on Disaster Displacement workshop Taller regional para el desarrollo de Lineamientos y/o Guía de prácticas para la protección de personas desplazadas entre fronteras en el contexto de desastres, Santiago, Chile, which sparked discussion and questions afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Paper presented on 'Derechos y hechos' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 'Derechos y hechos', keynote presentation at SNARIV/NRC Workshop on Reparaciones a víctimas en el exterior, Bogotá, Colombia, which generated discussion and questions afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Paper presented on 'Desafíos del Sistema en la implementación de la política pública de víctimas del conflicto armado, más allá de las fronteras' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 'Desafíos del Sistema en la implementación de la política pública de víctimas del conflicto armado, más allá de las fronteras', panel presentation at the Annual Conference of the government SNARIV, Implementación de la política pública de atención y reparación integral a las víctimas desde los territories, Bogotá, Colombia, which generated discussion and questions afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Paper presented on 'El crimen organizado y la nueva ola del desplazamiento forzado en México y Centroamérica' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation in Spanish based on the author's research article on 'The New Wave: Forced Displacement caused by Organised Crime in Central America and Mexico' (at the time in proofs with Refugee Survey Quarterly). This was an invited paper presented at a closed meeting convened by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the US Social Science Research Council on 'Respuestas desde el campo humanitario a la violencia armada no convencional en México y Centroamérica' that took place with a range of UN and NGO humanitarian personnel from across the countries of Mesoamerica in Antigua, Guatemala.

Issue of organised-crime related displacement pushed up the agenda among humanitarian organisations in the region.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Paper presented on 'Framing Violence in the Countries of the North of Central America' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 'Framing Violence in the Countries of the North of Central America', invited expert presentation at Social Science Research Council/UN Department of Political Affairs Reunión sobre violencia en los países del norte de Centroamérica, New York, USA, which sparked questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Paper presented on 'Gangs, Cartels and the New Dynamics of Forced Displacement in Latin America' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented to the 4th International Refugee Law seminar series at the Refugee Law Initiative, School of Advanced Study, University of London. Talk sparked a good range of questions and discussion afterwards.

Approaches by colleagues and students for further information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Paper presented on 'Human Rights and the Legal Protection of Refugees in Latin America' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented on panel on 'Role of Human Rights Norms in Regional Protection Regimes' at the International Association for the Study of Forced Migration (IASFM) Annual Conference 2014 in Bogotá, Colombia. The talk generated questions and discussion afterwards.

Increased interest among participants and approached following event for further information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Paper presented on 'International refugee law : brushstrokes on a broader canvas' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Opening lecture at 69th Refugee Law Course, International Institute of Humanitarian Law (IIHL), San Remo, Italy; one-third of paper dealt with subject of ESRC grant. The course is attended principally by high-level government officials from around the world working on refugee issues.

Engagement and interest from government officials about topics on which presented
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Paper presented on 'Law, Policy and Practice on Temporary Humanitarian Protection for Natural Disasters in South America' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Keynote presentation at RLI /Nansen Initiative Workshop, Quito, Ecuador; hosted by the government of Ecuador. Attended by representatives of most governments in South America. Substantial discussion of the presentation and interest in developing inter-governmental regional frameworks in South America based on the conclusions of the study presented.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Paper presented on 'National Law - Lessons from the Americas' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation to panel on legal responses to cross-border 'environmental' mobility at 11th annual RLI seminar series, this year on Human Mobility, Natural Hazards and Policy Responses and convened jointly with the Platform on Disaster Displacement (online). Attended by approximately 60 people, and viewed afterwards by an even greater number as a podcast.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Paper presented on 'Organised Crime and the New Challenges for Refugee Law in Latin America' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact My paper was presented by invitation at the high-level closed meeting organised for Mesoamerican States by UNHCR as part of the Cartagena+30 process, directed towards developing a new regional consensus and 10-year plan among States in the Americas about the refugee protection and displacement challenges of contemporary times. My presentation sparked discussions among the State delegates present there and the recommendations were adopted in their entirety by the same States for transmission from the Mesoamerica sub-regional meeting to the plenary session in Brazil in December 2014.

My presentation sparked discussions among the State delegates present there and the recommendations were adopted and endorsed in their entirety by the same States for transmission from the Mesoamerica sub-regional meeting to the plenary session in Brazil in December 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Paper presented on 'Organised Crime in Mesoamerica and the New Wave of Forced Displacement' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented on panel organised by UNHCR at the International Association for the Study of Forced Migration (IASFM) Annual Conference 2014 in Bogotá, Colombia. The talk generated questions and discussion afterwards from practitioners and academics.

Increased interest from UNHCR in the data and approach outlined.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Paper presented on 'Organised Criminal Groups and New Patterns of Forced Migration in Mexico' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented on Refugee Law Initiative panel on 'The New Frontier: Forced Displacement in Mexico' at the International Association for the Study of Forced Migration (IASFM) Annual Conference 2014 in Bogotá, Colombia. The talk generated questions and discussion afterwards.

Increased interest among participants in the situation of forced displacement in Mexico and, especially, its parallels with Colombia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Paper presented on 'Otras circunstancias que hayan peturbado gravemente el orden público' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation was based upon - but further developed - the ideas and research put forward in the research paper 'A Simple Solution to War Refugees? The Latin American Expanded Definition and its relationship to IHL' by D.J. Cantor and D. Trimino Mora. The paper was presented to the UNHCR-organised Expert Meeting on the 1984 Cartagena Declaration on Refugees. Participants included government experts and policy makers from Latin American States, UNHCR staff from headquarters and Americas, experts from Inter-American Court and Commission on Human Rights, civil society and academia. During the Expert Meeting, the paper underpinned discussion and received substantial comment, feedback and interest.

During the Expert Meeting, the paper underpinned discussion and received substantial comment, feedback and interest. The ideas presented in the paper are reflected in the resulting guidance documents, e.g. UNHCR's Summary Conclusions on the interpretation of the extended refugee definition in the 1984 Cartagena Declaration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.unhcr.org/53bd4d0c9.html
 
Description Paper presented on 'Patterns of Forced Displacement in Mesoamerica: Acknowledging the Agency of Organised Criminal Groups' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented at the expert workshop organised by the Refugee Law Initiative (London) and the Universidad Centroamericana (San Salvador, El Salvador) on 'Los Grupos de Crimen Organizado y la Nueva Dinámica de Migración Forzada en America Latina', attended by leading experts on this theme from across the Americas and Europe from both the academic and practitioner fields. Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Practitioners reported better understanding of the implications for refugee protection of the new dynamics of forced displacement in the region. This paper also fed into the set of recommendations that were eventually presented to States in the Cartagena+30 process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Paper presented on 'Pushing the Boundaries: Asylum in the Inter-American Human Rights Framework' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented by invitation at the Expert Workshop on 'The Role of International Organisations and Human Rights Monitoring Bodies in Refugee Protection' in Brussels, Belgium, organised by Newcastle Law School on 24 June 2013

Increased engagement among network of colleagues and a resulting publication (forthcoming)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Paper presented on 'Refugee Law in Latin America: Counterpoints to Europe?' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 'Refugee Law in Latin America: Counterpoints to Europe?', invited seminar presentation to Jean Monnet seminar series Regional Migration Law - Not Only Europe, University of Pisa, Italy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Paper presented on 'Refugees, Forced Migrants and the Inter-American court of Human Rights' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented by invitation at the 'Human Rights, Asylum and Refugee Protection' seminar series at the Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford. Talk sparked discussion and questions afterwards.

Increased interest from colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/events/refugees-forced-migrants-and-the-inter-american-court-of-human-rights
 
Description Paper presented on 'Regional Approaches to Refugee Protection in Latin America: UNHCR as a Norm Entrepreneur' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Paper presented by invitation at the Expert Workshop on 'Comparative Regional Protection Frameworks for Refugees: Norms and Norm Entrepreneurs' at the School of Advanced Study, London, organised by the Refugee Law Initiative (with Visiting Fellow Professor Susan Kneebone) on 15 November 2013

Networking and publication of papers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Paper presented on 'Temporary Humanitarian Protection for Cross-Border Displacement in the Disaster Context' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited keynote presentation at the Nansen Initiative High-Level Roundtable, Chatham House, London, UK. The event brought together leading governments from across the globe to fine-tune discussions in preparation for the October 2015 Nansen Initiative Global Consultation. Substantial interest from government representatives in the presentation, followed by requests for further information and input on the substantive policy and legal issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Paper presented on 'The Influence of Europe on the Development of Refugee Protection in Latin America' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Keynote paper presented at 'I Simpósio Cátedra Sérgio Vieira de Mello (CSVM) - UNISINOS: Refugiados, universidade e direitos humanos no contexto de sociedades em movimento', 18-19 October 2012 at UNISINOS (university), Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Collaboration, networking and interest from Brazilian universities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Paper presented on 'The Latin American Paradigm for Protecting Victims of War and Generalised Violence: New DEvelopments' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This paper was presented at the international video-conferencing seminar organised by the Refugee Law Initiative (London) and Center for Refugee Studies (York, Canada) on 'Regional Perspectives on Displacement: War, Generalised Violence and Refugee Protection'. The presentation sparked comment and discussion among the other presenters and the audience present at both universities and on-line.

Colleagues reported change in views.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Paper presented on 'Transitional Justice and IDPs/Refugees: Colombia' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 'Transitional Justice and IDPs/Refugees: Colombia', invited presentation at Reintegration of Refugees, IDPs and Former Combatants seminar (in Stabilisation Unit/DfID CHASE Dealing with the Past seminar series), FCO, UK, which generated questions and discussion afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Papre presented on 'Organised Crime and Forced Displacement in Latin America' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 'Organised Crime and Forced Displacement in Latin America', at Research Councils/British Academy/DfID conference on Protracted Conflicts, Aid and Development, British Academy, UK, which generated questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presented 'Statement to the Global Consultation' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Statement presented by invitation at the Nansen Initiative Global Consultation on Protection of Cross-Border Displaced Persons in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change, Geneva, Switzerland. Conclusion of the RLI/Nansen Initiative collaboration that culminated with the adoption of the Nansen Initiative Protection Agenda (to which my studies contributed) by 109 of the governments represented at the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Responsibility-sharing in the Refugee Context: What Can the EU Learn from Latin America? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited panel presentation at Pisa University conference on International Protection of Refugees in Europe and Elsewhere, Pisa, Italy, which sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Study presented on 'Existing Law, Policy and Practice on Temporary Protection Mechanisms for Natural Disasters: States of the Regional Conference on Migration and Others in the Americas' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Keynote presentation of my commissioned study at Regional Conference on Migration/Nansen Initiative Workshop on Development of Guidelines on Admission and Stay for People Moving in Context of Disasters in the Region of the Regional Conference on Migration, San José, Costa Rica. The event was attended by representatives of eleven governments from North and Central America (i.e. RCM membership), as well as the representatives of international organisations, non-governmental bodies etc. The workshop resulted in a recommendation to the plenary session of the RCM to consider drafting and adopting regional guidelines on the issue of the workshop and based on my study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Training delivered on 'National Responses to Cross-border Displacement' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited presentation for approx. 50 immigration officials from a range of Caribbean governments at training on Cross-border displacement in Disaster or Climate Change Scenarios, Organization of East Caribbean States (OECS) (online), which sparked questions and discussion afterwards and a reported interest in developing a sub-regional framework on cross-border displacement in disaster contexts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Transitional Justice and IDPs/Refugees: Colombia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited presentation at Reintegration of Refugees, IDPs and Former Combatants seminar (in Stabilisation Unit/DfID CHASE Dealing with the Past seminar series), FCO, UK, which led to reported increased interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description What Can Latin America Teach Us about Responsibility-Sharing in the Refugee Field? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited presentation at the Georgetown University/Exodus Institute Symposium on Refugees and Responsibility-Sharing, Washington, USA, which led to reported increased interest in the topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Why and How Can Refugee Protection be "Shared" by Countries of Origin? Contemporary Insights from Central America 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Paper presented on panel at Refugee Law Initiative 2nd Annual Conference on Mass Influx? Law, Policy and Large-Scale Movements of Refugees and Migrants, UK, which sparked questions and discussion,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017