The effect of free childcare on maternal labour supply and child development

Lead Research Organisation: University of Essex
Department Name: Inst for Social and Economic Research

Abstract

The UK government spends billions of pounds a year to ensure that all 3 and 4 year olds have access to childcare and early education for 15 hours a week, 38 weeks a year. There is ongoing debate about whether (and by how much) to increase families' entitlement, as well as a specific plan of the government to extent the entitlement to 2 year olds in England from low-income families. Yet there is surprisingly little evidence on the causal impact of this specific (and very high cost) intervention.

This is the most comprehensive attempt using UK data to analyse the effects of free childcare provision on maternal and childhood outcomes. In order to address issues of causality we will use different instances of exogenous variation in the availability of free childcare for pre-school children in England. In particular, we will look at (i) the provision of free part-time childcare to the most disadvantaged children which characterised the UK policies of the 1990s, (ii) the provision of universal entitlement to free part-time childcare introduced in the early 2000s, and (iii) date-of-birth discontinuities in entitlement to part-time pre-school care and full-time school education. Our results will relate to different time-periods, policy settings and groups of families and therefore will inform on the effectiveness of various policy parameters.

Our project will extend on previous work in this area by considering whether free provision of childcare affects maternal outcomes other than participation and hours of work, such as working patterns, search behaviour and participation in further education. We also plan to consider a wide range of childhood outcomes, including teachers' assessments of children's development at age 5, and educational attainment at ages 7 and 11, as well as children's British Ability Scales observed at ages 3, 5 and 7, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores measuring pro-social behaviour, hyperactivity, emotional, conduct and peer problems, also assessed at ages 3, 5 and 7. We will investigate whether the amount of free pre-school education affect cognitive outcomes net of the "age at exam" and "age of starting school" effects.

Our project will use a number of secondary data sources. First, we will use data on the number of free nursery places by Local Education Authority, which comes from annual School Census data (1975-2001) and from published statistics on number of free nursery places by Local Education Authority since 2001. Second, we will use the National Pupil Database (NPD) to examine the impact of pre-school childcare on children's outcomes at ages 5, 7 and 11; the NPD is a register data set held at the Department of Education which contains attainment data on all pupils in England. Third, we plan to use data from the Millennium Cohort Study, one of the ESRC's flagship data investments. Fourth, to investigate the effects of free childcare provision on parental labour supply in the 1990s and 2000s, we will make use of household survey data, principally the Labour Force Survey.

The output of this research will be at least four papers to be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. Moreover, we will write a policy paper which summarises recent UK trends in mothers' employment and childcare use, and pulls together the results of the separate projects to draw policy conclusions cutting across the separate projects. We have partnered with the Daycare Trust and are engaging with the Institute for Public Policy Research.

Planned Impact

We anticipate this project will have a considerable impact outside the research community. Potential beneficiaries include:

Civil servants, politicians and other policy-makers. Our research will directly evaluate the impact of free childcare/early education in England on parental employment and children's outcomes and will thereby provide valuable information that enables policy makers to review and improve their current policies and strategies. Our findings will be of direct relevance to - and inform policy decisions of - officials in the Department for Education and local authorities who are responsible for early years policy, as well as to officials in departments such as Department for Work and Pensions (which is interested in the ability of childcare to enable parents to work), the Child Poverty Unit and the Cabinet Office (which are interested in the scope for early intervention to increase social mobility), and HM Treasury, as well as to the equivalents of these departments in the governments of the devolved nations.

Practitioners and non-governmental organisations. Our project will benefit think-tanks and non-governmental organisations with an interest in childcare policy, early education or parental employment. As well as our project partner, the Daycare Trust, these include IPPR, Child Poverty Action Group, Family and Parenting Institute, Barnados, Save the Children, Gingerbread, the Resolution Foundation, the Work Foundation, the Fabian Society and the Trades Union Congress. Interested practitioners include childcare providers and primary school teachers and managers. They will gain a greater understanding of the ability of a key part of government policy on childcare to affect parental employment and children's outcomes.

The economy. The economy will benefit from improved policymaking based on more accurate and relevant information about the benefits of such a large and expensive government intervention. To the extent that our findings lead to improved policy-making that helps mothers return to work, the economy will benefit through a broadening of the tax base and the retention of the skills needed for economic growth. Moreover, as our research contributes to making sure that children from deprived backgrounds benefit as much as possible from the educational element of childcare, the research will contribute to reducing inequalities in society and enabling each child to reach its full potential, with benefits to economic performance in the long run.

Families. This research concerns a large-scale government intervention which directly affects over 1 million children a year in England and their families. Our findings about the impact of early education or childcare on children's outcomes will be of interest to many parents and will help them make decisions about the use of childcare. Moreover, mothers will benefit if improved policies enable them to return to work if they wish, and so help reduce the gender wage gap and advance gender equality.

Private companies. Private companies rely on a skilled workforce, so improvements in policies that target child development and maternal labour supply will help them to retain valued employees (mothers) in the short term and develop a well-trained, broad workforce (today's children) in the long term.

Media/the general public. We anticipate that the outputs of this project will be of interest, as issues to do with maternal employment and the use of childcare are popular topics with the media. Many people will relate to, or have an opinion about, our findings, so the public will benefit from a discourse about these topics.

The project team. The PI on this project (Rabe) has not previously led a project of this size and will acquire additional managing skills. The team will benefit by broadening their research profiles and by establishing cooperation between ISER and IFS.
 
Description This project uses a variety of data sources - most notably the Labour Force Survey, National Pupil Database, Millennium Cohort Study and Census data - as well as a range of methodologies to examine the causal effect of free childcare provision on child educational outcomes and maternal labour supply. Three of the four research papers we have produced examine the effect of free entitlement to part-time childcare for 3 year olds, and we are the first to provide a causal analysis of this policy; our fourth paper focuses on the impact of having a child eligible to attend full-time schooling (reception class) on mother's employment. We find positive and statistically significant effects on both child outcomes in school and on maternal labour supply. These effects are relatively small, however, and in the case of child outcomes fairly short lived. For every 100 places funded around 6 more mothers whose youngest child is 3 move into work. Making available free places for 3 year olds increases school assessment scores at age 5 by around 4% compared to no funding, but these effects fade out quickly and no benefit remains at age 11. There is little evidence that that the policy disproportionately benefitted children from disadvantaged backgrounds, suggesting that it has not worked to close the gap in attainment between those from richer and poorer families.

We find that the main reason the policy has had little impact was that it did not significantly change parent's use of childcare. 82% percent of three-year old children were already accessing some form of childcare place in 1999 before the age 3 entitlement came into effect. Of six places funded under the policy only one was a new place taken up by a child that would not otherwise have attended nursery. Another way of looking at the impact of the policy is to see how parents respond when their child becomes old enough to be eligible for the free entitlement (at the start of the term after they turn 3). Only about 10 percent of children take up a place as a result of becoming eligible. One reason for this is that childcare places primarily become vacant in September when older children leave to go to school, so this limits the access to a funded place for autumn and spring born children.

In our research we used more data sources than originally anticipated. Some of these data resources are relatively unexplored and their use has added value to our analysis. For example we have used various versions of the 'Parent's Demand for Childcare Survey' to explore the socio-economic composition of children taking up childcare as a result of the free entitlement. We have also put together data on other early years initiatives that were active in the same time-period (to use as control variables), and are planning to explore some aspects of childcare quality using the Early Years Census.

For the work on child outcomes our project has partnered with another team that had funding from the Nuffield Foundation to do similar research. This has led to a fruitful collaboration with colleagues from Surrey University and the Institute of Education and has meant that our dissemination activities were broader than they otherwise could have been.
Exploitation Route We are continuing to develop the impact of this research for policy makers and third sector organisations.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/files/projects/the-effect-of-free-childcare-on-maternal-labour-supply-and-child-development/briefnote.pdf
 
Description Our research has been used by civil servants, politicians and policy makers. We reported the findings of our project to a cross-Government group, including HMT, HMRC, DWP and DfE (including the Child Poverty Unit) as well as to DfE on various occasions. The minister for Childcare and Education, Sam Gyimah, was briefed on our research and it helped him in thinking through the Government's position before giving evidence to the House of Lords Select Committee on Affordable Childcare, to which our research team also contributed by submitting both written and oral evidence. Our finding that free childcare had little impact on children's development and maternal labour supply because the offer displaced existing childcare use was used by officials and ministers at DfE to explicitly think through the planned expansion of the early years entitlement to 30 hours for working families. The objectives of educational attainment, affordability and maternal employment were separated out and the focus of the planned expansion put on affordability. Our expertise in childcare and evaluation of childcare policy is continuing to feed into the work of DfE. For example, Brewer is working with Ipsos Mori on the annual DfE report on parents use of childcare and on a project for HMRC and DfE (with Frontier Economics) on how to best evaluate the tax-free childcare and the extension of free childcare to 30 hours. Blanden is a member of the childcare funding review roundtable. Moreover, we will present to Treasury on maternal employment. We are also actively engaged with practitioners and non-government organisations. For example, Brewer is on an advisory group for an ippr project on how childcare funding and delivery mechanisms could be improved to create better outcomes for children and parents. Moreover, we have fed into the Nuffield Foundation review on early years education and childcare which has led to the establishment of a new funding stream in Early Years. Moreover, we will have opportunity to further engage with non-government audiences at the launch of the Nuffield Foundation- funded project on the effects of childcare with which we have partnered. Debates on childcare policy are ongoing in England, Wales and Scotland, and it is foreseeable that policy will continue to develop and change over the coming years. We expect that our research findings will be used in the coming years, but it is too early to say what impact they will have on particular policies.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Other
Impact Types Societal

 
Description (Brewer) Participation in Government Equalities Office roundtable on "Gender Equality & Economic Empowerment" January 2019
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Participation in Government Equalities Office roundtable intended to inform forthcoming government strategy on "Gender Equality & Economic Empowerment"
 
Description Advice to Frontier Economics on DfE and HMRC project on childcare
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Citation in House of Commons Treasury Committee on Childcare
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmtreasy/757/7
 
Description Citation in House of Lords report on Affordable Childcare
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201415/ldselect/ldaffchild/117/117.pdf
 
Description Citation in Nuffield Foundation document
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
URL http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/files/Early_years_education_and_childcare_Nuff...
 
Description Give expert input into Southwark and Lambeth Childcare Commission, led by Rt. Hon. Dame Tessa Jowell, MP
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
URL http://www.southwark.gov.uk/news/article/1627/councils_join_forces_with_dame_tessa_jowell_to_tackle_...
 
Description Oral evidence to the Select Committee on Affordable Childcare
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.parliamentlive.tv/Main/Player.aspx?meetingId=16200
 
Description Participation in expert workshop with MP Lucy Powell
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Written evidence to the Select Committee on Affordable Childcare's Call for Evidence
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/affordable-childcar...
 
Description Written evidence to the Select Committee on Affordable Childcare's Call for Evidence (2)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/affordable-childcar...
 
Description Written evidence to the Treasury Select Committee inquiry into childcare policy and its influence on the economy
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/treasury-committee/inqui...
 
Description (Various) Collaboration with the Institute for Fiscal Studies 
Organisation Institute for Fiscal Studies
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution MiSoC's Prof Brewer, Dr Rabe and Prof Crossley have undertaken joint research with researchers at the Institute for Fiscal Studies. These have been in several areas: childcare policy; in-work benefits; household consumption and saving; inference in difference-in-differences; bootstrapping with very complex surveys; measuring living standards; tax and benefit policy design.
Collaborator Contribution MiSoC's Prof Brewer, Dr Rabe and Prof Crossley have undertaken joint research with researchers at the Institute for Fiscal Studies. These have been in several areas: childcare policy; in-work benefits; household consumption and saving; inference in difference-in-differences; bootstrapping with very complex surveys; measuring living standards; tax and benefit policy design.
Impact The collaboration has led to several outputs (WPs and journal articles), all reported separately, and to 2 jointly-organised events about childcare evidence and policy.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Collaboration with Nuffield Foundation funded childcare project 
Organisation University of Surrey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration on the project of the effects of free childcare on child outcomes. The Surrey research team holds a grant by the Nuffield Foundation which has overlap with our SDAI grant. We decided to collaborate on the overlapping project areas, with permission of the ESRC. As a result, we have been able to carry out a more in-depth empirical analysis, including use of new data sources, than otherwise possible. We have also been able to disseminate our findings more widely.
Collaborator Contribution See above.
Impact The collaboration has led to two jointly authored papers and many presentations, as detailed in the publications and engagement outputs. Disciplines involved are economics and social policy.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Access to free part-time pre-school education and early educational achievement - exploiting geographic and temporal variations 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Discussion, questions and comments

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description CentreForum Early Years Roundtable 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Roundtable to discuss how to raise the quality of early years provision in England, input into CentreForum briefing paper.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Childcare and early child development. Evaluating the impact of universal part-time preschool education in England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact discussion and questions

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.ias.surrey.ac.uk/workshops/earlyinterventions/
 
Description Childcare and early child development. Evaluating the impact of universal part-time preschool education in England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Questions and discussion

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://cep.lse.ac.uk/_new/events/event.asp?id=185
 
Description Childcare and early child development. Evaluating the impact of universal part-time preschool education in England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Applied MicroEconometric Seminar, University of York

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Childcare and early child development. Evaluating the impact of universal part-time preschool education in England. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Discussion and questions

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://instead.group.shef.ac.uk/events/past-events-2/
 
Description Childcare and early education research, policy, and practice roundtable, Save the Children 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Roundtable taking stock of childcare and early education research and thinking about what it means for practice as well as unanswered questions. Our input will feed into Save the Children's policy development and will feature in the evidence that they present to civil servants and ministers as part their advocacy and campaign work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Contribution to FT article: "Free childcare pledge needs full funding, experts warn" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This was a response to a media enquiry leading to me being quoted in a paper. I am not aware of any resulting activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/8dea29ee-0876-11e5-85de-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3c6N7Qq4D
 
Description Dissemination event organised by Family and Childcare Trust 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination event informed policy makers and practitioners of our findings, provoked questions and discussion and led to follow-up correspondence with DfE.

After the event we got requests for further information and knowledge exchange from DfE; one of the organisers from the Family and Childcare Trust wrote a news piece for Society Central web page about our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Dissemination event organised by IPPR 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact There was an intense discussion of our findings and how they relate to policy

We received feedback that participants were surprised by our findings and reconsidered priorities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Dissemination event organised by IPPR 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussion and questions.

Request for further presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Dissemination event: Universal pre-school childcare, maternal employment and child outcomes: what can we learn from other countries? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This was a free event, aimed at policy makers and academics interested in the impact of universal pre-school childcare on maternal employment and children's developmental outcomes. In the UK, the coalition government recently published proposals designed to improve quality and increase parental choice, but all political parties continue to look at their policies towards pre-school childcare. As a contribution to this ongoing policy debate, the Institute for Fiscal Studies and the Institute for Social and Economic Research organised an international conference focusing on what we can learn from other countries' approaches to universal pre-school childcare, and how spending on and provision of childcare in the UK compares to other OECD countries. This took place at the British Academy in London on 8 May 2013, 10am-4pm.

Blank.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.ifs.org.uk/events/884
 
Description Economic principles behind current government policy on pre-school childcare 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Seminar on academic evidence on affordable childcare organised by House of Lords Select Committee on affordable childcare - Presentation on economic case of current government policy on pre-school childcare, partly based on http://www.ifs.org.uk/budgets/gb2014/gb2014_ch8.pdf.

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Green budget presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The presentations sparked a lot of discussion in the media and among policy-makers.

The Green Budget presentations received media coverage in major newspapers and TV channels.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ifs.org.uk/events/986
 
Description IPPR Childcare Steering Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research or patient groups
Results and Impact Meeting organised by Imogen Parker, IPPR with experts in the childcare field. Steering group for IPPR project on childcare. First meeting to discuss briefing paper reviewing the evidence on impacts of early years and childcare

Section not completed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description IPPR Childcare Steering Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting organised by Imogen Parker, IPPR with experts in the childcare field. Steering group for IPPR project on childcare. First meeting to discuss briefing paper reviewing the evidence on impacts of early years and childcare on child development; and a second on impacts of childcare on employment.

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Impact of free childcare on maternal labour supply 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave advice to Camden Council on what research suggested was likely impact of free childcare on maternal labour supply, and how policies could be changed to encourage maternal employment

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Impact of free childcare on maternal labour supply 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Gave advice to Camden Council on what research suggested was likely impact of free childcare on maternal labour supply, and how policies could be changed to encourage maternal employment

Section not completed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Impact of free childcare on maternal labour supply: likely impacts of SNP proposals 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Advised HMT on what existing evidence about the link between free childcare on maternal labour supply implied for recent SNP proposals for extending free childcare in Scotland

Section not completed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Opinion piece in The Telegraph 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Made available results to public through article

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationopinion/11177381/X-Factor-over-evidence-the-failure-of...
 
Description Organisation of Special Session on UK Early Years Policy at Royal Economic Society annual conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Discussion and exchange of knowledge; engagement with DfE

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.res.org.uk/view/0/2015conference_home.html
 
Description Participation in Liberal Democrats party conference panel on Early Years Education 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Panel discussion sparked questions and follow-up
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://epi.org.uk/events/liberal-democrats-early-year-education-current-policies-working/#
 
Description Participation in high level, invitation only seminar to discuss ways forward for UK childcare market 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Contribution informed policy makers of findings

MP Lucy Powell had access to our results
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Podcast on findings of childcare project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We made available the results of our research.

not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/research/podcasts/iser/2014/10
 
Description Presentation at Government Equalities Office 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation at Government Equalities Office on the effect of childcare on maternal labour supply.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation to DfE: Evaluating the impact of universal part-time preschool education in England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussion and questions.

Email follow-up exchanging knowledge; requests to receive further information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation to HMT: The impact of free early education for 3 year olds in England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Questions and discussion

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Press release: "30 hours of free childcare likely to boost parental employment only slightly " 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release that led to media coverage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/8793
 
Description Press releases for childcare project (2 releases) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release led to considerable coverage in print and online articles, as well as radio (20 mentions)

Invitation to give radio interviews on BBC Radio 4 and BBC Radio Essex, as well as background information for several articles.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Radio interview BBC Essex Drivetime program 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Communication of our results to people in Essex

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Radio interview BBC Radio 4, Woman's Hour 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio interview reached a wide audience

Contacted by individuals about research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b007qlvb
 
Description Talk and expert input to Swedish Social Insurance Agency: The effect of free early education on child outcomes in England 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Questions and discussion.

Agency expressed interest in future collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk at Department for Education about childcare quality and children's educational outcomes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk to experts at DfE on the results of our research relating to the effect of childcare quality on child outcomes. DfE was very interested in our results and interested in follow-up discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk at Institute of Education seminar: The impact of free early education for 3 year olds in England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Discussion and feedback.

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ioe.ac.uk/research/departments/qss/759.html
 
Description Talk at Social Market Foundation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk at the Social Market Foundation on the effect of childcare on maternal labour supply
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.smf.co.uk/events/ask-the-expert-what-impact-does-free-childcare-have-on-the-maternal-labo...
 
Description Talk on "Increasing female employment" at HM Treasury Labour Market Conference September 2015 (Brewer) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None noted yet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk to Welsh government on childcare research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk to about 120 memebers from Welsh government about effect of free childcare on maternal labour supply and child outcomes. A lot of interest, lack of substantive effects were 'eye opening' according to feedback.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk to experts from Treasury about results of our childcare research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact HMT invited us to share results of research, sparked discussion and email follow-up.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The Conversation online piece on childcare project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Results made available to broad audience

n/a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://theconversation.com/why-free-childcare-is-not-helping-many-mums-back-to-work-33291
 
Description Why is early years important? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Discussion and questions

Follow-up emails by the audience requesting further information and commenting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014