Pathways to Power: The Political Representation of Citizens of Immigrant Origin in Seven European Democracies

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leicester
Department Name: Politics

Abstract

PATHWAYS is a tightly integrated, internationally co-operative and comparative project of social scientists at British, French, German and Dutch universities, seeking to advance knowledge in two areas: (a) the descriptive representation of citizens of immigrant origin (CIO) in the legislative assemblies of seven European countries (Britain, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands and Spain) at the national and regional levels (where meaningful regional assemblies exist); and (b), for the first time, the
parliamentary activities of representatives of immigrant origin (substantive representation). These are our outcomes of interest. In a second step, we will seek to
build on, test and (where necessary) extend, explanations of the variations in representation we observe. These are based on empirical theories of political
representation in liberal democracies with a particular emphasis on the impact of political institutions and macro-level contextual factors on representation.
With regard to descriptive representation, our objectives are to collect data on the variation in the parliamentary 'presence' of CIOs across seven European democracies at
national and regional levels of government, and analyse it in terms of age, gender, national origin, career and political history and examine the primary socio-economic,
political and institutional factors that affect the access of CIOs to elected office. In relation to substantive representation, our objectives are to study variations and
similarities of parliamentary activity of CIOs across the seven countries and analyse whether there is a relationship between descriptive and substantive representation (as
hypothesised, e.g., by critical mass and mainstreaming approaches).
In relation to both types of representation, our goals are to (a) to provide the social science and stakeholder community with original data on the political representation of CIOs in seven European countries - some of which have been neglected in previous studies - making the data freely available; and (b) to describe and explain variations and similarities in the descriptive and substantive representation of CIOs using, and extending, existing empirical theories of political representation in political science with particular emphasis on political institutions, strategies, social networks and political opportunity structures.

Planned Impact

Our study of the descriptive representation of immigrant-origin groups will shed light on what policy and institutional reforms are better suited to redress inequalities in political representation. By drawing on different theoretical traditions, and addressing the topic from a comparative perspective, we seek to inform this debate in a rigorous manner. The project will serve the academic community of those conducting research on representation and immigration. Our target audience will also include policy makers, especially those who work on the equalities, diversity, social cohesion, integration and active citizenship agendas, as well as non-academic research institutions, ethnic minority organisations, political parties, interest groups, NGOs, and the media.

We are particularly interested in reaching out to international think-tanks like International IDEA (Stockholm) and the Migration Policy Group (Brussels), and to statistical organisations such as Eurostat. Particularly, the 2011 Pilot Study on Indicators of Immigrant Integration by Eurostat highlights the lack of unified indicators on immigrant integration across Europe for the dimension relative to Active Citizenship. Hence, our project will seek to have a lasting impact on how policy makers and official statistics reflect on the political integration of CIOs in European countries.
Given this projected audience, we are proposing to disseminate the data and the results of our analyses in various ways: through (1) academic and wider-audience publications, (2) a project website, an e-newsletter and a Twitter presence, (3) policy briefs and reports aimed at stakeholders and policy-makers, (4) presentations at academic conferences and workshops; and (5) user engagement seminars and a final international conference.
The specific planning of outputs and dissemination is as follows:

1. Academic dissemination:
- Papers to be presented at international and national academic conferences (Annual Meetings of the APSA and the American Sociological Association; ECPR General Conference; PSA Annual Conference; Triannual conference of the Deutsche Vereinigung fuer Politische Wissenschaft; the Congrès of the Association française de science politique; EPOP; etc.).
- Publication of an edited book and/or a monograph (Saalfeld's enquiries with the editors of some major international university presses were met with enthusiasm);
- Submissions of articles to high-impact international journals (the leaders of the first two work packages will be responsible for the submission of at least four jointly authored articles in major international journals in political science and migration studies);

2. Non-academic dissemination:
- One public dissemination event presenting the descriptive analyses, addressed at international collaborators and stakeholders in month 18;
- A final dissemination conference directed at stakeholders and academics in month 36;
- Regular updates of findings on the project website and regular tweets with results from the project;
- E-newsletter twice per year with information about the project events and findings;
- Press releases for all key outputs throughout the project; articles summarizing the key findings and their implications will be submitted in year 3;
- Interim reports to stakeholders and final report of key findings.

Additionally, we will be collaborating with the European Union Democracy Observatory (EUDO) on Citizenship, led by the European University Institute, particularly Professor Rainer Bauboeck. EUDO CITIZENSHIP is very interested in integrating data on electoral representation of such groups into the respective country profile pages on their observatory. This collaboration fits their own plans to expand the thematic scope of the EUDO CITIZENSHIP observatory towards access to electoral rights. Their users will then be able to combine information about access to citizenship status, voting rights and descriptive representation outcomes.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description Over the past decades, ethnic diversity within European societies has increased radically and immigration is one of the most important challenges facing Europe today. The grant 'Pathways to Power', which studies the political representation of MPs of immigrant origin (IO) in the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, is completing its third year of award and the study is still in progress.

The study covers the period from 1990 to the most recent complete national legislatures and will also include data on the most recent legislative terms of regional assemblies in the eight countries.

At this stage, we have published preliminary findings, which were presented at a public dissemination event in London on February 14, 2016. The key findings of the research are:

• The Netherlands and the United Kingdom lead in the presence of citizens of immigrant origin in national parliaments across the eight European countries studied

• South European countries fare worst in the inclusion of citizens of immigrant origin in the national legislature

• There are considerable cross-national variations in the gender, age and educational attainment profiles of IO MPs across Europe. There is no single universal pattern to their socio-demographic profiles

• In the years studied, IO MPs are more likely to be women in Belgium and Spain but the gender pattern is balanced or variable in the other countries

• IO MPs are noticeably younger in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, but not so in the other countries

• Over 70% of all MPs in all countries have a university degree, and IO MPs are somewhat more likely to have a university degree, except in Belgium and Germany

• IO MPs tend to be elected as candidates of left-wing or centre-left parties more often than of centre-right or right-wing parties, but this is not the case in South European countries

• IO MPs tend to have gained less political experience in their parties' structure or in subnational elected office before they win their seat in national parliament

• IO MPs tend to be underrepresented in key positions of party and committee leadership, although this may be a temporary effect resulting from their generally lower levels of parliamentary experience in some countries

The study is the first of its kind to compare in a systematic way the political representation of citizens of immigrant origin across European countries. Our findings show that migrants and their native-born offspring are under-represented in national parliaments in all countries, but they are much more likely to gain elected national office in the Netherlands and the UK.

The study also shows that centre-left wing parties are, in most countries, still the most permeable to citizens of immigrant origin and are the ones contributing more to including this sector of our populations to the national political arena.

In October 2016, the PI (Laura Morales) and the German PI (Thomas Saalfeld), secured a pre-contract with Oxford University Press to publish two edited volumes containing the key findings of the study. The volumes are currently (February 2017) under way and the first one will be submitted to the publishers by Spring 2017 with a view to being published by the end of 2017 or early in 2018. The second volume will be delivered in the Autumn of 2017 and will be published in 2018. A number of other publications are also under way.

The project 'Pathways to Power: The Political Representation of Citizens of Immigrant Origin in Eight European Democracies' is an international collaborative and comparative project led by four universities: the University of Leicester (United Kingdom), the University of Amsterdam (Netherlands), the University of Bamberg (Germany), and SciencesPo (France).
Exploitation Route The findings should be of use to political parties and policy makers in order to address the inequalities underpinning the gaps we find in the political representation of citizens of immigrant origin across all of the eight countries studied.
Sectors Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/politics/research/pathways
 
Description Our preliminary findings have been used by various international media outlets to raise awareness of the gaps in the political representation of citizens of immigrant origin across Europe. Please see details of this in the Engagement section of this Researchfish report.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Laura Morales appointed as Member of the Advisory Board of the 'First German Migrant Election Study', funded by the German Science Foundation and led by Prof Achim Goerres (University of Duisburg-Essen), since October 2016.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Laura Morales appointed as Member of the Advisory Board of the ESRC project 'Euroscepticism: dimensions, causes and consequences in times of crisis' led by Dr Sofia Vasilopoulou (Department of Politics, University of York), since May 2016.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Laura Morales appointed as Member of the Advisory Group of the ESRC project 'The Frames of Altruistic Action' led by Dr Pierre Monforte (Department of Media, Communications and Sociology, University of Leicester), since February 2017.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Laura Morales appointed as Member of the Advisory group of the ESRC project 'The UK Citizenship Process: Exploring Immigrants' Experiences' led by Dr Leah Bassel (Department of Sociology, University of Leicester), since 2014.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Norman Chester Fund (awarded to Patrick English)
Amount £250 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 04/2016
 
Description Overseas Institutional Visit (awarded to Anthony Chambers)
Amount £2,730 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description Overseas Institutional Visit award (awarded to Patrick English)
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 05/2016
 
Title Pathways WP1 Descriptive political representation database 
Description The database collecting all relevant characteristics of all national and regional MPs covered by the study for the eight countries. The database is embargoed for the time being. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not applicable as yet. 
URL https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/WP1Descriptive
 
Description Commissioned a report for the Equality and Human Rights Commission of the UK on the diversity of candidates to elected office in Britain 
Organisation Equality and Human Rights Commission
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution As a result of the expertise accumulated in this grant, team members Morales & Sobolewska have been awarded a contract (by tender) to write a report on the availability of data on the diversity of candidates to elected office in Britain.
Collaborator Contribution Contribution of knowledge, expertise and analysis.
Impact None yet. Report will be published later in 2018.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Executive Committee of the IPSA (International Political Science Association) 
Organisation Political Studies Association
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Executive Committee of the IPSA (International Political Science Association) RC03 on European Unification
Collaborator Contribution Executive Committee of the IPSA (International Political Science Association) RC03 on European Unification
Impact Executive Committee of the IPSA (International Political Science Association) RC03 on European Unification
Start Year 2016
 
Description Grant application to Nuffield Foundation and ORA scheme 2017 
Organisation University Libre Bruxelles (Université Libre de Bruxelles ULB)
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of the Pathways project, Laura Morales has led an application for a research project grant to Nuffield Foundation and then to the ORA scheme, submitted in 2017 to extend the line of research initiated with the Pathways project into a wider study of the political representation of underprivileged social groups in the UK in comparative perspective.
Collaborator Contribution The four partners were co-investigators named in this application.
Impact No outputs as yet. Both applications were unsuccessful. We intend to apply to other funding schemes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Grant application to Nuffield Foundation and ORA scheme 2017 
Organisation University of Amsterdam
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of the Pathways project, Laura Morales has led an application for a research project grant to Nuffield Foundation and then to the ORA scheme, submitted in 2017 to extend the line of research initiated with the Pathways project into a wider study of the political representation of underprivileged social groups in the UK in comparative perspective.
Collaborator Contribution The four partners were co-investigators named in this application.
Impact No outputs as yet. Both applications were unsuccessful. We intend to apply to other funding schemes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Grant application to Nuffield Foundation and ORA scheme 2017 
Organisation University of Bamberg
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of the Pathways project, Laura Morales has led an application for a research project grant to Nuffield Foundation and then to the ORA scheme, submitted in 2017 to extend the line of research initiated with the Pathways project into a wider study of the political representation of underprivileged social groups in the UK in comparative perspective.
Collaborator Contribution The four partners were co-investigators named in this application.
Impact No outputs as yet. Both applications were unsuccessful. We intend to apply to other funding schemes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Grant application to Nuffield Foundation and ORA scheme 2017 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of the Pathways project, Laura Morales has led an application for a research project grant to Nuffield Foundation and then to the ORA scheme, submitted in 2017 to extend the line of research initiated with the Pathways project into a wider study of the political representation of underprivileged social groups in the UK in comparative perspective.
Collaborator Contribution The four partners were co-investigators named in this application.
Impact No outputs as yet. Both applications were unsuccessful. We intend to apply to other funding schemes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Inclusion in Spanish-funded project on the political representation of citizens of immigrant origin at the local level 
Organisation Autonomous University of Madrid
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of the Pathways project, Laura Morales and Daniela Vintila were invited to join a research team that successfully applied for a grant that has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (grant CSO2016-79540-R, "¿AYUNTAMIENTOS PLURALES? LA REPRESENTACION POLITICA DE LOS INMIGRANTES EN ESPAÑA"). Morales and Vintila will be researchers in this grant.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are the leading investigators, will manage the EUR 48,000 budget, hire a researcher and take care of all expenses of data collection, data analysis and dissemination of findings.
Impact No outputs yet, as the project has just started.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Member of two academic networks 
Organisation European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Steering Committee of the ECPR (European Consortium for Political Research) Standing Group on Immigration and Ethnicity
Collaborator Contribution Steering Committee of the ECPR (European Consortium for Political Research) Standing Group on Immigration and Ethnicity
Impact Steering Committee of the ECPR (European Consortium for Political Research) Standing Group on Immigration and Ethnicity
Start Year 2016
 
Description "Pathways to Power" Workshop in London, 15 Februrary 2016: The Political Representation of Citizens of Immigrant Origin in Seven European Democracies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact When:

Monday, 15 February 2016 from 11:00 to 16:30 (GMT)

Where:

Institute for Government - 2 Carlton Gardens London SW1Y 5AA GB

The project Pathways to Power: The Political Representation of Citizens of Immigrant Origin in Seven European Democracies is a three-year project funded by the research councils of Britain (ESRC), France (ANR), Germany (DFG) and the Netherlands (NWO) since 2014. It has been joined in 2015 by a Belgian sister project funded by UCLouvain, ULB and VUB universities and the Fund of Scientific Research (FNRS). The project studies the political representation of citizens of immigrant origin and its social, political and institutional context in eight European democracies: Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The study covers the period from 1990 to the most recent complete national legislatures. It will also include data on the most recent legislative terms of regional assemblies.

At the project's mid-point, the Pathways research team are delighted to present some preliminary findings relating to the most recent two complete legislative terms in each of the countries studied. Although we are continuing to collect data, we are already in a position to share, and discuss, some first, fascinating findings.

The University of Leicester and the Political Studies Association are pleased to invite interested members of the public to attend the event. The workshop is designed to provide information to a more general audience and academics. It will provide a more detailed overview of the preliminary results and an opportunity for discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.psa.ac.uk/events/pathways-power-workshop-political-representation-citizens-immigrant-ori...
 
Description Co-Convenor of the Workshop "The Representation of Citizens of Immigrant Origin in Established Democracies" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Laura Morales was the Co-Convenor of the Workshop "The Representation of Citizens of Immigrant Origin in Established Democracies" at the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Pisa, 24-28 April 2016. Around 20 postgraduate students and senior academics participated in the workshop. The Pathways project results were presented to an international audience of experts in the subject.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://ecpr.eu/Events/PanelDetails.aspx?PanelID=4045&EventID=101
 
Description Interview for radio broadcast reporting in the main morning news programme of Spanish national radio (RNE) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview for radio broadcast reporting in the main morning news programme of Spanish national radio (RNE, equivalent of BBC) around minute 39: http://mvod.lvlt.rtve.es/resources/TE_SMANRNE/mp3/3/5/1455607186053.mp3
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Media Coverage by El País (English version) of project findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact "Spain: Spain's minorities are under-represented in politics, European report finds". Published in the English edition of Spanish newspaper El País
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://elpais.com/elpais/2016/02/22/inenglish/1456150941_431026.html
 
Description Media Coverage by El País of project findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The leading Spanish newspaper El País published a full-page news piece reporting on the Pathways project results presented at the mid-project event in London (February 2016), and focusing on the results for Spain: "El Congreso español es el que tiene menos miembros de origen inmigrante"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://elpais.com/elpais/2016/02/15/ciencia/1455521726_813402.html
 
Description Media Coverage in ThinkSpain online 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Coverage of Pathways project findings on Online News website for English speaking migrants in Spain: "Ethnic minorities 'under-represented' in Spanish politics, despite country's healthy attitude to foreigners, says Pathway to Power"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.thinkspain.com/news-spain/27186/ethnic-minorities-under-represented-in-spanish-politics-d...
 
Description Media Coverage of European Website on Integration of the European Commission 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The European Website on Integration, which is one of the main channels of the European Commission to disseminate information relating to immigrants integration, summarised the main findings presented at the Pathways mid-project workshop in London (February 2016) with a news piece: "Europe: Preliminary results of the 1st ever study on democratic under-representation of immigrants"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/news/europe-preliminary-results-of-the-1st-ever-study-on-de...
 
Description Media coverage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Spain's minorities are under-represented in politics, report finds
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Media coverage by Business Standard of project findings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The online news platform Business Standard published a piece reporting on our project findings following the mid-project event in London (February 2016): "UK leads Europe in immigrant-origin MPs: Report"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/uk-leads-europe-in-immigrant-origin-mps-report-...
 
Description Media coverage by Hindustan Times online 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The Indian online media platform Hindustan Times reported on the findings of the Pathways project presented in the mid-project event in London (February 2016): "UK has most immigrant-origin parliamentarians in Europe"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.hindustantimes.com/world/uk-has-most-immigrant-origin-parliamentarians-in-europe/story-LP...
 
Description Paper presentation at the ECPR General Conference at Montréal (Canada), August 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper presented to a general audience of political science academics and PhD students: "The Impact of Migration Flows, Public Opinion and Party Strategies on the Representation of Immigrant Origin Minorities in Countries of Recent Immigration. A Comparison of Italy and Spain" by Laura Morales, Daniela Vintila, Luis Ramiro and Simona Guerra
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://ecpr.eu/Events/PanelDetails.aspx?PanelID=4083&EventID=94
 
Description Pathways Twitter Account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Via the account they disseminated research results, conference participations, publications and events related to the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Press release: "United Kingdom and the Netherlands leaders in Europe on percentage of MPs of immigrant origin in national parliament, research shows" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact United Kingdom and the Netherlands leaders in Europe on percentage of MPs of immigrant origin in national parliament, research shows

'Pathways to Power' project findings by University of Leicester and other European universities to be revealed on Monday 15 February

Additional findings from the 'Pathways to Power' project are available on request. Contact the University of Leicester Press Office on 0116 252 5761 or email ap507@le.ac.uk

Key research findings about the political representation of citizens of immigrant origin (IO) in European national parliaments will be announced at an event in central London on Monday 15 February.

Media representatives can register for a media briefing breakfast at the Institute for Government to start at 9am Monday here: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/media-breakfast-presentation-of-preliminary-findings-of-pathways-to-power-project-researching-the-tickets-20857896530

The findings, announced at an event organised by Professor Laura Morales from the University of Leicester's Department of Politics and International Relations in collaboration with the Political Studies Association, are from the 'Pathways to Power' project, which studies the political representation of IO MPs in the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/press/press-releases/2016/february/new-research-shows-national-parliame...
 
Description Publication of an 8-pages leaflet with key preliminary findings of the project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An 8-pages leaflet with preliminary findings of the project has been produced in print and electronic format. Copies of the leaflet were distributed among the participants of the media briefing and workshop organised in London on 15 February 2016 and sent by post to key stakeholders and policy-makers. Additionally, the electronic PDF version of the leaflet has been posted on the project websites (hosted both by the University of Leicester and the University of Bamberg) and its publication has been widely disseminated by email, Twitter, Facebook and the project newsletter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://pathways.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Pathways-to-power-leaflet-FINAL.pdf
 
Description YouTube podcast of February 2016 mid-project workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact "Pathways to power: contrasting models, contrasting results?" Available at the YouTube Channel of the Political Studies Association:
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLVk44rR24WKef4nojZMUSMNVNTFyD0eed