Cross-Cohort Research programme: employment, health and wellbeing

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Social Science

Abstract

Funding is requested for a three-year research programme led by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies (CLS) that will seek to improve our understanding of the intergenerational transmission of economic and health inequalities in the UK. The programme will use rich data from the four CLS-managed cohort studies that form a core part of the UK's portfolio of world-renowned longitudinal studies: the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70), the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) and Next Steps (formerly the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England). In bringing together the leading academics responsible for these studies, the programme of research described below will exploit CLS's unique experience in designing longitudinal surveys, its in-depth knowledge of each of the data sets, and the Centre's insight into UK public policy issues.
The programme, which will also involve expert external collaborators and visiting scholars from other countries, is designed to enhance the work of CLS as an ESRC resource centre. It will deepen our understanding of two overarching themes 1) Healthy lifestyles across the life course, and 2) Processes and consequences of social mobility. The programme will focus on cross-cohort comparisons, policy-relevant topics, cutting-edge empirical methodologies, and inter-disciplinary collaboration. Each theme will comprise a set of inter-related research projects. The 'Healthy Lifestyles' strand will cover: intergenerational influences on physical activity; parental work and the rising prevalence of obesity across generations; childhood mental health trajectories and lifetime consequences; alcohol use across the life course and its links with health and wellbeing. The 'Social Mobility' strand will cover: parents' wealth in childhood and its relationship with children's development; the mechanisms and consequences of social mobility; the influences on and outcomes of educational and occupational aspirations of children and young people.
The programme will capitalise on the new data collections of the MCS and LSYPE, planned for 2015. This will maximise the return from prior ESRC investments, and ensure the relevance and timeliness of findings for policymakers and practitioners. The analyses will also benefit from the comprehensive data collected from cohort members born in 1958 and 1970 through childhood and into adult life. Coupled with the detailed data available on cohort members' parents, these studies are uniquely placed to shed new light on intergenerational transmission of advantages and disadvantages.
We have a carefully considered strategy for making sure that evidence from the research programme is fully exploited by a wide range of users. Seminars and conferences will be organised to share the results of analyses. The well-established CLS website (with approximately 25,000 unique users per month) will be augmented to showcase the programme's outputs, including publications, presentations and case studies. Media coverage of the cohort studies has proven to be an effective way of reaching many target audiences, including policymakers, practitioners, third sector organisations, and the general public. CLS will issue press releases on new publications and findings from the programme, and will further extend its use of social media to promote this research.
CLS recognises the importance of ensuring that the cohort studies have maximum instrumental, conceptual and capacity-building impact. The proposed programme therefore focuses on issues that are central to promoting health and wellbeing across all sections of society. Research findings will be discussed with practitioners and policymakers, thus feeding through to public policy debate. We will also monitor, record and publicise the impact of the research to inform researchers and funders, and demonstrate to cohort members that the studies they are involved in are making a vital contribution to society.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research programme?

Policymakers - As discussed in the Pathways to Impact, findings from the proposed research programme will have direct relevance to a range of policy issues. CLS has extensive experience of successfully raising awareness of cohort study findings among policymakers, primarily through its media and events work. Focusing on central government and devolved administrations - but also local government and parliament - CLS will continue to improve the accessibility of both the data and findings for these beneficiaries.

Practitioners
Findings from the research programme will be useful to practitioners, their regulators, and their professional associations. In particular the proposed programme of research will be directly relevant to those working in health education and public health.

The Third Sector
The two main strands of the research on Healthy Lifestyles and Social Mobility are likely to be of specific interest to organisations within the third sector and the provision of funding for secondments to CLS to work on the cohort data will help build capacity in this sector as well as strengthening links between CLS and external bodies.

General public
As a publicly-funded resource centre, CLS has a duty to make its work transparent and accessible to the general public. However, CLS also has the potential to improve public understanding of social, economic and health issues. Findings from the proposed research will be relevant to issues in everyday life, such as parenting, physical and mental health. It should also be noted that the general public includes cohort members and their families. Public outreach, such as press coverage of the studies, will contribute to boosting cohort members' engagement.

Media
Successful engagement with international, national, regional and local press is an important mechanism for reaching a wide audience including each of the groups described above. More information on our media work can be found in the Pathways to Impact section.

Data users
As described in the Case for Support, an important output of the research programme will be well-documented derived variables describing longitudinal trajectories (e.g. of alcohol use and of physical activity). These will augment the high quality data resources already provided by CLS. The primary beneficiaries of this work will be other data users across sectors, career stages, disciplines and countries.

Wider research community
CLS holds considerable substantive, methodological and professional expertise. In the proposed programme of research we will take a systematic approach to important statistical issues such as unmeasured confounding, measurement error and attrition, and in so doing our published work will provide guidance to other users - particularly those early in their careers and those using other longitudinal resources - to dealing with these issues in their own research.

How will they benefit from the Research programme?

The CLS Research programme will benefit the groups listed above in several ways:
- relevant and timely packaging of findings for policy development and practice guidance, for example, briefing documents and events, and social media
- easier access to published works using cohort data, for example through the CLS online bibliography and the working paper series
- accessible and engaging information on social, economic and health issues, for example through web news items, press releases, social media, and briefing papers
- high-quality, well-documented data resources for research
- opportunities for secondments and visiting fellowships
- training and capacity building support for those analysing data, including students, early career researchers, Government analysts and those from the third sector

Publications

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Anders J (2018) The role of schools in explaining individuals' subject choices at age 14 in Oxford Review of Education

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Anders J (2018) The role of schools in explaining individuals' subject choices at age 14 in Oxford Review of Education

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Bann D (2017) Does an elite education benefit health? Findings from the 1970 British Cohort Study. in International journal of epidemiology

 
Description 1) We observed differences in psychological distress between the 1958 (NCDS) and 1970 (BCS70) cohorts at age 42 years. Men and women born in 1970 report more psychological distress symptoms than those born in 1958, but the observed differences were more pronounced in men, with the magnitude of the year of birth effect being almost twice as strong compared with women. The observed increase in the levels of psychological distress experienced by people in mid-life in Britain has major policy implications, given that the increase has occurred despite economic growth. The 1958 cohort is part of the 'lucky generation' of post-war baby boomers, who experienced high absolute levels of social mobility, and lower levels of social inequality in their early lives, whereas the 1970 cohort are part of 'Generation X', who have experienced greater uncertainty and insecurity over the whole of their adult lives and a more individualistic ideological climate (Sullivan et al. 2015). If these generational changes lie behind the increase in psychological distress, then we would predict that future generations will be worse off still if such trends were to continue

2) Correlates of children's mental illness and wellbeing are largely distinct, stressing the importance of considering these concepts separately and avoiding their conflation. This study highlights the relevance of these findings for understanding social gradients in mental health through the life course and the conceptualization and development of mental illness and wellbeing in childhood as precursors to lifelong development in these domains. The predictors of the two domains of mental health, in terms of their salience and the amount of variance that they explain, indicate that, for wellbeing, the wider environment and social relationships are very important at this age. Of note, school connectedness, being bullied, friendships, and perceptions of safe neighborhood were strongly correlated with wellbeing. Conversely, these variables did not significantly predict mental ill-health, which was associated with arguing with parents, peer problems, chronic illness, communication difficulties, special educational needs, and parent mental health. Overall variance explained indicates that the ecosystems theory-based predictors included in these models predict almost half the variance in mental illness and just over a quarter of the variance in wellbeing. The present analyses also highlight the relevance of examining predictors as part of a framework and systematically considering the role of covariates in models. To illustrate this point, existing studies have investigated the associations between parental education and child's mental health18 and find that higher parental education is associated with lower mental illness. In the present study, once the model accounted for parental income and child's cognitive ability, parents' educational level ceased to be significantly associated with their child's mental health.

3) We found beneficial relations between elite education during schooling and university, with subsequent self-rated health and health-related behaviours in midlife. Private school and higher-status university attendance were related to better self-rated health, lower BMI and multiple favourable health behaviours in midlife. Findings suggest that type or status of education may be an important under-researched construct to consider when documenting and understanding socioeconomic inequalities in health. They add to studies demonstrating inequalities in health outcomes according to educational attainment and to studies examining how aspects of schooling or university education are related to a more limited number of health outcomes. By not accounting for the type or status of education, and focusing solely on attainment, it is possible that existing epidemiological studies have underestimated differences in health attributable to education. 4) We analysed information provided by children born across the UK in 2000-01, who are being followed by the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) and found that by the age 11, one in eight children had tried alcohol, defined as more than a few sips. Drunkenness was rare. The health, economic, and social costs of alcohol use are enormous. In the US, estimated annual costs are over $220 billion, of which $27 billion are due to underage drinking. Alcohol misuse costs England around £21 billion per year in healthcare, crime and lost productivity costs. Children from poorer or less advantaged backgrounds were more likely to have ever tried alcohol, as were those with more positive expectations of what might happen if they drink. The odds of ever drinking were higher among boys and slightly lower among Asian British or Black British children. Consistent with studies of American youth aged 10 to 14, children in the MCS whose mothers had lower educational levels were more likely to have tried a drink. Although the number of children drinking heavily in primary school in the UK is very low, fewer than 1 in 100, the researchers pointed out that this unusual behaviour warrants attention, as it could lead to serious future problems. 5) We examined how patterns of alcohol and cigarette use from young adulthood (age 23) to midlife (age 55) are associated with health and well-being. We first used a nonparametric multilevel latent class specification to identify eight unique paths of alcohol and cigarette use from ages 23 to 55, and then assessed how these long-term latent paths related to overall health, heart problems, chronic illness, and quality of life at midlife. British adults who consistently drank within new lower risk guidelines and abstained from smoking from young adulthood to midlife reported the best overall health and well-being across numerous indicators. However, apparent observed health benefits of stable low-dose alcohol use (vs. abstention) are weakened by the fact that by age 55 almost all alcohol "abstainers" in the National Child Development Study sample were former drinkers, and that respondents who followed infrequent drinking/abstention paths were the mostly likely to report poor health, psychological distress, and low educational qualifications in early adulthood. 6) We identified patterns of subject and qualification choices made at age 14. Much of the previous research on 'subject choice' has focussed on the later stages of educational trajectories, particularly Higher Education. However, the choices made at early branching points can limit pupils' subsequent options, potentially contributing to educational inequalities. We identified the patterns of General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) subjects chosen by a cohort of young people born in 1989/1990. We make use of the Next Steps data (formerly the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE)) which is linked to the National Pupil Database. We developed an approach to measuring the academic selectivity of subjects and qualifications and examined the roles of social class, parental education, income, gender and ethnicity in determining participation in these curriculum groupings. Using measures of prior attainment from age thirteen, we address the question of whether curriculum differentials simply reflect differences in prior attainment or whether they actually operate above and beyond existing inequalities. We find clear socio-economic, gender, ethnic and school-level differences in subjects studied which cannot be accounted for by prior attainment.

7) Children whose mothers are employed are more likely to be overweight, compared to their peers whose mothers stay at home.
We analysed data on more than 7,800 children born across the UK in 2000-01, who are being followed by the Millennium Cohort Study. Children of mothers who worked full time and who were married or cohabiting had small but significantly higher levels of BMI than those whose mothers didn't work. Differences were even more pronounced for the children of single mothers working full time. We also found that children whose mothers were in employment were more likely to have increased sedentary behaviour, measured by watching TV for three or more hours per day, and poorer dietary habits, measured by not having a regular breakfast. Again, these effects were more pronounced among children of single mothers in employment. The proportion of children in the study with both parents working has gradually increased between ages 3 and 14, from 51 per cent to 73 per cent, mainly driven by an increase in the number of mothers joining the workforce.
Programmes encouraging healthy behaviours among children could be better tailored to bring both parents on board, and to be accessible to all working parents including those with fathers and mothers working full time, and to single working parents. The other important stakeholders in childhood obesity prevention are those responsible for childcare, including in both informal and formal childcare settings, and schools. Preschool childcare settings are used by a growing number of families for extended periods each day, and hence will be increasingly central for promoting early healthy behaviours.
Exploitation Route These findings will be useful to practitioners, their regulators, and their professional associations. In particular we believe they are directly relevant to those working in health education and public health.
Sectors Education,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://whatworkswellbeing.org/2016/10/10/childrens-mental-wellbeing-and-ill-health-not-two-sides-of-the-same-coin/
 
Description Researchers from the CCRP team were invited to present research findings for meetings at the Department for Education (DfE) CCRP research findings were cited by organisations such as the Council for Disabled Children and the Runnymede Trust, and by government ministers including Nick Gibb (DfE) A CCRP paper (Patalay & Fitzsimons, 2016) was used as the framework for a Public Health England commissioned review of risk and protective factors, to inform prevention of mental health problems in young people. The research/infographic from this paper is also being used as part of teacher training and information in a few local authorities https://cls.ucl.ac.uk/childrens-mental-wellbeing-and-ill-health-not-two-sides-of-the-same-coin/ Patalay, P., & Fitzsimons, E. (2016). Correlates of Mental Illness and Wellbeing in Children: Are They the Same? Results From the UK Millennium Cohort Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 55(9), 771-783. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.05.019
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Education,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Paper on socioecnomic inequalities in BMI, weight and height referred to/influenced policy-makers - see https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2468266718300501 and "ALL-PARTY PARLIAMENTARY GROUP ON OBESITY" www.bomss.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/APPG-Obesity-2018.pdf
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL http://www.bomss.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/APPG-Obesity-2018.pdf
 
Description ESRC: Harmonisation of mental health measures in British birth cohorts (PI George Ploubidis)
Amount £72,919 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/S000011/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 06/2019
 
Description Epigenetic responses to social and environmental cues in early life and over the life course: impact on healthy ageing in UK
Amount £502,038 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/N000404/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 03/2018
 
Description Harmonisation of mental health measures in British birth cohorts
Amount £72,919 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/S000011/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 06/2019
 
Description Health Foundation's Economic and Social Value of Health Research Programme 2017 (PI Alice Sullivan)
Amount £350,000 (GBP)
Organisation UK Health Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 06/2020
 
Description The Academy of Medical Sciences (AMS): Socioeconomic inequalities in health ( PI David Bann)
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation Academy of Medical Sciences (AMS) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description Alcohol across the lifespan - Institute of Alcohol Studies 
Organisation Institute of Alcohol Studies (IAS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The research project will be engaging with their respective Impact Partners post the setting up of their data. The Impact partners will be consulted over the initial and final write up of the findings together with targeted dissemination of the work. In addition, the respective Impact Partners will be invited to participate in a seminar on the findings from the research project.
Collaborator Contribution The impact partners will be sharing their expertise on these specific research projects, influencing policies and advise on the targeted dissemination of the work.
Impact Impact partners have agreed to the collaboration. No outputs/outcomes have been produced as yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Intergenerational influences on Physical Activity - London Sport, Camden Council and Islington Council; Childhood Mental Health - Camden Council and Islington Council; Curricula, Schools and Social Mobility - Department for Business, Skills and Innovation, Universities UK and The Sutton Trust 
Organisation Camden Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The research projects will be engaging with their respective Impact Partners post the setting up of their data. The Impact partners will be consulted over the initial and final write up of the findings together with targeted dissemination of the work. In addition, the respective Impact Partners will be invited to participate in a seminar on the findings from the research project.
Collaborator Contribution The impact partners will be sharing their expertise on these specific research projects, influencing policies and advise on the targeted dissemination of the work.
Impact Impact partners have agreed to the collaboration. No outputs/outcomes have been produced as yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Intergenerational influences on Physical Activity - London Sport, Camden Council and Islington Council; Childhood Mental Health - Camden Council and Islington Council; Curricula, Schools and Social Mobility - Department for Business, Skills and Innovation, Universities UK and The Sutton Trust 
Organisation Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The research projects will be engaging with their respective Impact Partners post the setting up of their data. The Impact partners will be consulted over the initial and final write up of the findings together with targeted dissemination of the work. In addition, the respective Impact Partners will be invited to participate in a seminar on the findings from the research project.
Collaborator Contribution The impact partners will be sharing their expertise on these specific research projects, influencing policies and advise on the targeted dissemination of the work.
Impact Impact partners have agreed to the collaboration. No outputs/outcomes have been produced as yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Intergenerational influences on Physical Activity - London Sport, Camden Council and Islington Council; Childhood Mental Health - Camden Council and Islington Council; Curricula, Schools and Social Mobility - Department for Business, Skills and Innovation, Universities UK and The Sutton Trust 
Organisation Islington Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The research projects will be engaging with their respective Impact Partners post the setting up of their data. The Impact partners will be consulted over the initial and final write up of the findings together with targeted dissemination of the work. In addition, the respective Impact Partners will be invited to participate in a seminar on the findings from the research project.
Collaborator Contribution The impact partners will be sharing their expertise on these specific research projects, influencing policies and advise on the targeted dissemination of the work.
Impact Impact partners have agreed to the collaboration. No outputs/outcomes have been produced as yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Intergenerational influences on Physical Activity - London Sport, Camden Council and Islington Council; Childhood Mental Health - Camden Council and Islington Council; Curricula, Schools and Social Mobility - Department for Business, Skills and Innovation, Universities UK and The Sutton Trust 
Organisation London Sport
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The research projects will be engaging with their respective Impact Partners post the setting up of their data. The Impact partners will be consulted over the initial and final write up of the findings together with targeted dissemination of the work. In addition, the respective Impact Partners will be invited to participate in a seminar on the findings from the research project.
Collaborator Contribution The impact partners will be sharing their expertise on these specific research projects, influencing policies and advise on the targeted dissemination of the work.
Impact Impact partners have agreed to the collaboration. No outputs/outcomes have been produced as yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Intergenerational influences on Physical Activity - London Sport, Camden Council and Islington Council; Childhood Mental Health - Camden Council and Islington Council; Curricula, Schools and Social Mobility - Department for Business, Skills and Innovation, Universities UK and The Sutton Trust 
Organisation The Sutton Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The research projects will be engaging with their respective Impact Partners post the setting up of their data. The Impact partners will be consulted over the initial and final write up of the findings together with targeted dissemination of the work. In addition, the respective Impact Partners will be invited to participate in a seminar on the findings from the research project.
Collaborator Contribution The impact partners will be sharing their expertise on these specific research projects, influencing policies and advise on the targeted dissemination of the work.
Impact Impact partners have agreed to the collaboration. No outputs/outcomes have been produced as yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Intergenerational influences on Physical Activity - London Sport, Camden Council and Islington Council; Childhood Mental Health - Camden Council and Islington Council; Curricula, Schools and Social Mobility - Department for Business, Skills and Innovation, Universities UK and The Sutton Trust 
Organisation Universities UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research projects will be engaging with their respective Impact Partners post the setting up of their data. The Impact partners will be consulted over the initial and final write up of the findings together with targeted dissemination of the work. In addition, the respective Impact Partners will be invited to participate in a seminar on the findings from the research project.
Collaborator Contribution The impact partners will be sharing their expertise on these specific research projects, influencing policies and advise on the targeted dissemination of the work.
Impact Impact partners have agreed to the collaboration. No outputs/outcomes have been produced as yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description AERA Conference, Washington DC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a conference presentation at the American Educational Research Association which was well attended professional practioners, teachers, school leaders and researchers on the Sexual minority bullying. There was considerable discussion afterwards and from this I made many contacts. The abstract follows: This study investigates whether Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) young adults are more at risk of bullying than their heterosexual peers using Next Steps, a nationally representative longitudinal dataset from England. The experiences of more than 7,200 young adults from across England who were born in 1989-90 are examined. At age 20, the young adults were asked about their sexual identity and whether they had been bullied in the previous 12 months and during secondary school. The findings show that young LGB adults had a 52 per cent chance of having been bullied in the past year at age 20, compared to a 38 per cent chance for their heterosexual peers, after taking into account other characteristics that may make someone more likely to be targeted, such as gender, ethnicity, disability, or family socioeconomic background. The situation had improved slightly since their school years. Between the ages of 14 and 16, young people who later went on to identify as LGB had a 56 per cent chance of having been bullied in the past year, compared to a 45 per cent chance for their heterosexual peers. Moreover LGB young people were at considerably greater risk of being bullied frequently - that is, once or more every fortnight - during secondary school. LGB young people were found to be more than twice as likely as their heterosexual classmates to be regularly physically bullied and excluded from social groups. This paper also examines the association between being bullied and life satisfaction: the findings show that by the time they reached age 20, young LGB adults were less likely than their heterosexual peers to report being "very satisfied" with how their lives had turned out so far. However, all young adults - regardless of sexual identity - were less likely to be very satisfied with their lives if they had been bullied. In summary, although all people are less likely to be bullied as they get older, young LGB adults remain at higher risk than their peers. These findings suggest that in order to tackle the problem, anti-bullying interventions cannot be focused only at schools and their pupils. Policymakers, employers, further education institutions and others working with young adults need to do just as much in order to challenge discrimination at all ages.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.aera.net/Events-Meetings
 
Description Analysis: Who are the children hoping to earn £24 an hour? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Children from some ethnic minority groups are most likely to aspire to university and aim for well-paid jobs, a new study has found. Researchers from the London School of Economics and the UCL Institute of Education analysed data on more than 12,000 children born in the UK at the turn of the new century who are taking part in the Millennium Cohort Study. These findings featured in a BBC News analysis piece authored by Professor Lucinda Platt, LSE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-45561184
 
Description Animations - Aspirations animations and classroom resources 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Based upon information from the Millennium Cohort Study our research shows that when 11-year-old girls are asked about their dream jobs, they tend to think of ones where the current workforce is predominantly made of women, while boys set their sights on jobs that are largely carried out by men. We've created animations and classroom resources aimed at primary school pupils 7-11 years old, and at young people aged 11-14. The animations and classroom resources are designed to inspire and challenge pupils to consider the effects of gender bias on the choices they make for their careers. During 2019 we are hoping to pilot the animations and classroom resources with teachers, career advisers and pupils to see if they might be of value as a learning resource for schools across the country.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Blog: Children's mental wellbeing and ill-health: not two sides of the same coin 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact If I asked you what makes a child happy, one possible answer would be the opposite of what makes them sad. This would be considered a non-controversial response. The intuitive assumption when considering subjective wellbeing and psychological distress is that factors associated with one are associated with the other - albeit in the opposite direction. But what if we're wrong? What if wellbeing and mental illness, or happy and sad, are not two sides of the same mental health coin?

In this blog for World Mental Health Day, Dr Praveetha Patalay examines the factors that influence children's mental illness and wellbeing using the Millennium Cohort Study. The blog appeared on the What Works for Wellbeing blog, and was cross-posted to the IOE London blog and the CLS website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://whatworkswellbeing.org/2016/10/10/childrens-mental-wellbeing-and-ill-health-not-two-sides-of...
 
Description Briefing paper: Occupational aspirations of children from primary school to teenage years across ethnic groups 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This briefing paper was written by Prof Lucinda Platt and Dr Sam Parsons. It focused on the findings for two key research questions: How do occupational aspirations of girls and boys from different ethnic groups compare? and To what extent do they feed through into subsequent occupational outcomes? The briefing was made available on the CLS website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://cls.ucl.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/9948_CLS_Paper_Occupational_Aspirations_of_Children...
 
Description CLOSER conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at the annual CLOSER conference on 'The impact of maternal employment on children's weight', evidenced using the Millennium Cohort Study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference: People, pathways and policy: findings from the CLS Research Programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 29 November 2018, CLS hosted a conference aimed at government policy-makers, practitioners and academic researchers to showcase the latest longitudinal evidence from the CLS cohorts and what the findings mean for public policy today. The conference was the culmination of a 3-year programme of research, entitled the Cross-Cohort Research Programme. There were 96 delegates mainly from the UK with some attending from abroad. There was significant representation from the public and third sectors, as well as some private sector delegates. Delegates scored the event 8/10 for both satisfaction and relevance on the feedback survey.

About the event

This one-day event was an opportunity to hear evidence from a major programme of research examining and comparing the lives and experiences of thousands of individuals across the UK, from multiple generations. We shared brand new insights, and asked what these mean for public policy today. Our Cross Cohort Research Programme was a major initiative, using data from our own four cohort studies and other UK studies, to understand how our lives unfold and what can help improve people's chances in life.

Incorporating seven projects, the programme has explored many themes relevant to policy makers and practitioners, including:

The long-term implications of childhood mental ill health
The rising prevalence of obesity
The link between parents' wealth and their children's own life chances

At this event delegates had the opportunity to:

learn about findings from each of the research projects
take part in discussions about the policy implications of each project's findings, and
meet researchers as well as government policy-makers and representatives from the third sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://cls.ucl.ac.uk/events/people-pathways-and-policy-findings-from-the-cls-research-programme/
 
Description Consulted on content of LSYPE by DfE, 17th Oct 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I was consulted on the scientific content of next wave of the LSYPE study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Contribution to POST (Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology) briefing 'Academic Evidence on Selective Secondary Schooling' http://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/POST-PB-0022 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In September 2016, the Prime Minister announced that the Government intends to remove the ban on opening entirely new state-funded grammar schools in England, and to allow non-selective schools to convert under certain circumstances. From September to December 2016, the Department for Education (DfE) ran a consultation on the proposals, which also includes plans to allow new free schools to select up to 100% of pupils based on their faith. I was interviewed by the writer of this POSTbrief which provides a brief overview of methodologically robust studies on state-funded selective schools that select the majority of their intake on academic criteria http://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/POST-PB-0022. The POST brief cites CLS work using BCS70 data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/POST-PB-0022
 
Description Cross Cohort Research Programme Conference, Special session: Subject choice and social mobility, London, 29 Nov 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Co-presenters include Prof Alice Sullivan, Dr Vanessa Moulton, Dr Jake Anders.

This inter-disciplinary special session aims to showcase the outstanding research explaining subject choice differences throughout the education system. In addition we hope to explore how these choices may influence educational and employment trajectories, as well as other aspects of life. Delegates will have an opportunity to:
• raise awareness of your current work on subject choice
• disseminate research findings and receive feedback
• develop collaborations and plan joint funding bids
• network with colleagues from across disciplines, sectors and locations
• hear about data sources and the latest resources for research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cross Cohort Research Project Healthy Lifestyles Individual projects 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Not aware of any impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/page.aspx?&sitesectionid=2367&sitesectiontitle=Healthy+lifestyles%3a+Cross+...
 
Description Cross Cohort Research Project Social Mobility Individual Projects 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Not aware of any impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/page.aspx?&sitesectionid=2369&sitesectiontitle=Social+Mobility%3a+Cross+Coh...
 
Description Cross Cohort Research Project main webpage which details the two Research Strands. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Not aware of any impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/page.aspx?&sitesectionid=1358&sitesectiontitle=CLS+Cross-Cohort+Research+Pr...
 
Description Discussing childhood mental health trajectories with the National Children's Bureau and the Mental Health Foundation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The National Children's Bureau and Mental Health Foundation keenly met with CLS to discuss childhood mental health trajectories using CLS data and research. Working with both organisations will act as support to raise impact of findings from CLS research. Alissa, along with George Ploubidis and Praveetha Patalay for CCRP, met with Iris Elliott (Head of Policy and Research) at Mental Health Foundation and John Dodd (Director of Research and Policy) at National Children's Bureau.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ESRA 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I organised a workshop on missing data handling in longitudinal surveys at the Euroean Survey Research Association conference held in Lisbon. Three papers from the CLS Missing Data Strategy as applied to CCRP were presented
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Early life mental health, biomarkers in midlife and premature all-cause mortality 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 29 November 2018, CLS hosted a conference aimed at government policy-makers, practitioners and academic researchers to showcase the latest longitudinal evidence from the CLS cohorts and what the findings mean for public policy today. The conference was the culmination of a 3-year programme of research, entitled the Cross-Cohort Research Programme. There were 96 delegates mainly from the UK with some attending from abroad. There was significant representation from the public and third sectors, as well as some private sector delegates. Delegates scored the event 8/10 for both satisfaction and relevance on the feedback survey. About the event This one-day event was an opportunity to hear evidence from a major programme of research examining and comparing the lives and experiences of thousands of individuals across the UK, from multiple generations. We shared brand new insights, and asked what these mean for public policy today. Our Cross Cohort Research Programme was a major initiative, using data from our own four cohort studies and other UK studies, to understand how our lives unfold and what can help improve people's chances in life. Incorporating seven projects, the programme has explored many themes relevant to policy makers and practitioners, including: The long-term implications of childhood mental ill health The rising prevalence of obesity The link between parents' wealth and their children's own life chances At this event delegates had the opportunity to: learn about findings from each of the research projects take part in discussions about the policy implications of each project's findings, and meet researchers as well as government policy-makers and representatives from the third sector
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://cls.ucl.ac.uk/events/people-pathways-and-policy-findings-from-the-cls-research-programme/
 
Description Family structure and physical activity: a life-course perspective - NCDS 60 years of our lives: a scientific conference celebrating the NCDS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a oral presentation at the CLS Scientific Conference celebrating 60 years of National Child Development Study. The mixed academic and non-academic audience expressed great interest in the research, and future steps were discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Family structure and physical activity: a life-course perspective - SLLS Milan 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at the annual SLLS Conference 'Qualitative and Quantitative Longitudinal Research on Social Change and Its Impacts' at University of Milano-Bicocca. The work was presented in a session on health behaviours.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Inequalities and the Curriculum a Department for Education presentation 7th November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Inequalities and the Curriculum
Alice Sullivan, Jake Anders, Vanessa Moulton, Catherine Dilnot and Morag Henderson

This lunchtime seminar will discuss some of the recent findings from a team of researchers based at UCL Institute of Education. The seminar will run from 12pm-1pm (with 15 minutes for questions) and the room has been booked for an additional 30 minutes for [optional] further discussion. The paper by Jake Anders, Morag Henderson, Vanessa Moulton and Alice Sullivan examines the role of the school in producing curriculum differences using multi-level variance decomposition models applied to administrative data on young people in state schools in England. The paper by Vanessa Moulton, Alice Sullivan, Morag Henderson and Jake Anders examines whether taking EBacc eligible subjects or applied subjects at 14-16 made a difference to transitions at 16-plus, both in terms of staying on in education, progressing to A levels, and taking 'facilitating' subjects at A level. The paper by Alice Sullivan, Morag Henderson, Vanessa Moulton and Jake Anders examines the association between curriculum choice from 14-16 and its association with status attainment at age 25. Catherine Dilnot's paper uses a taxonomy of A-levels developed from the published preferences of the Russell Group of 24 high status UK universities, categorizing A-levels as 'facilitating', 'useful' and 'less suitable' for university entry. She examines the relationships between having such A-levels and rank score of university attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited Seminar: Department of Education, University of Oxford (12th September 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This was an invited talk to the Department of Education and University of Oxford. Professor Steve Strand invited me to discuss the CCRP Curricula, Schools and Social Mobility strand research findings. The title of the talk was "Social Class, Gender and Ethnic Differences in Subjects Taken at Age 14." Morag Henderson, Alice Sullivan and Jake Anders. The abstract follows:

In this paper we identify patterns of subject and qualification choices made at age 14. Most past research on 'subject choice' has focussed on the later stages of educational trajectories, particularly Higher Education. However, the choices made at early branching points can limit pupils' subsequent options, potentially contributing to educational inequalities. This paper identifies the patterns of General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) subjects chosen by a cohort of young people born in 1989/1990. We make use of the Next Steps data (formerly the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE)) which is linked to the National Pupil Database. We develop an approach to measuring the academic selectivity of subjects and qualifications. We examine the roles of social class, parental education, income, gender and ethnicity in determining participation in these curriculum groupings. We also examine the role of the intersections of these variables, for example, the different role of gender for working and middle class youth. Using measures of prior attainment measured at age thirteen, we address the question of whether curriculum differentials simply reflect differences in prior attainment or whether they actually exacerbate inequalities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited Seminar: Widening Participation UCL IoE (16th December 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This was a seminar to a non-academic audience predominantly. The work asked professionals within universities and Widening Participation personnel to consider admissions practice and the way subjects may act as a signal to admission staff. The abstract follows:

In the first half of this seminar Dr. Morag Henderson will look at Subject Choices at 14. Does the school curriculum generate educational inequalities? This paper reports on initial findings from a major ESRC project on social mobility. We identify patterns of subject and qualification choices made at age 14. This topic is particularly important for England as the school curriculum encourages specialisation at a relatively early age compared with other European countries. This curriculum differentiation is typically framed in terms of 'choice', but in practice young people's choices are constrained by their schools. In addition, adolescents are likely to lack the information needed to foresee the long-term consequences of options taken as young as age 14. Yet most past research on 'subject choice' has focused on the
later stages of educational trajectories, particularly Higher Education. The choices made at early branching points can limit pupils' subsequent options, potentially contributing to educational inequalities.

We examine the roles of social class, parental education, income, gender and ethnicity in determining these curriculum clusters. We also examine the role of the intersections of these variables, for example, the different role of gender for working and middle class
youth. Using measures of prior attainment at 7 and eleven, we address the question of whether curriculum differentials simply reflect differences in prior attainment or whether they actually exacerbate inequalities.

Feedback on the talk was positive and can be made available , along with the delegates names/institutional affiliation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.ucl.ac.uk/prospective-students/widening-participation/activities/social-mobility-and-acc...
 
Description Invited seminar at the Cathie Marsh Institute for Social Research, University of Manchester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I presented work from the CLS Missing Data Strategy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited seminar at the Federal University of Sao Paulo 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I presented work from the CCRP and an overview of the CLS cohort studies in two invited seminars at the Federal University of Sao Paulo Medical School
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited seminar at the London School of Economics ALPHA Global Ageing and Helath semianr series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Living longer but not necessarily healthier: Evidence from the UK's population based surveys

The 20th century witnessed significant improvements in health in most countries including substantial increases in survival to older ages and large reductions in late age mortality. The continuing rise in life expectancy is undoubtedly one of the great successes of public health, but has also raised the question of how healthily the gained years of life will be spent. We use data from UK's birth cohorts, other longitudinal studies and repeated cross sectional surveys to investigate competing theories of the joint progress of health and mortality. Sullivan's method and regression based approaches were employed exploiting their different underlying assumptions to empirically test the compression, expansion and dynamic equilibrium of morbidity hypotheses. We found evidence for expansion of morbidity in the working age population, whereas a more complex pattern emerged in the older population, indicating a structural break between generations. The opportunities and challenges of employing longitudinal and life course studies to empirically test competing theories of ageing and practical implications for the study of potential mechanisms that underlie the joint progress of health and mortality will be discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited to present at keynote session of the Adolescent Lives and Wellbeing Conference, organised by the UCL Centre for Global Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited to present the keynote session of the UCL Adolescent Lives and Wellbeing conference, organised by the Centre for Global Health. Speakers at the session included Emla Fitzsimons, Morag Henderson and Aase Villadsen (Centre for Longitudinal Studies, UCL Institute of Education). Presented evidence on mental health and wellbeing from the Millennium Cohort Study and Next Steps.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/adolescent-lives-and-wellbeing-conference-tickets-37800843340#
 
Description Leeds BERA: Curricula, schools and social mobility 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Around 30 researchers, teachers and policy makers attended the talk at BERA entitled " Curricula, schools and social mobility". The presentations sparked questions and discussion afterwards, and I was contacted by several reserachers afterwards to pursue research in a related subject areas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.bera.ac.uk/
 
Description News story: Mothers' depression more harmful than poverty for children's mental health, study finds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A news story was written for the CLS website to promote a research paper, 'Poverty dynamics and parental mental health: Determinants of childhood mental health in the UK', authored by Emla Fitzsimons, Alissa Goodman, Elaine Kelly and James P. Smith and published in Social Science & Medicine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/news.aspx?itemid=4593&itemTitle=Mothers%e2%80%99+depression+more+harmful+th...
 
Description Parental Wealth and children's outcomes in the UK Millennium Cohort Study 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact CLOSER conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentatation on Society for Longitudinal and Lifecourse Studies annual conference (Bamberg, Germany, October 2016). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation titled "Psychological distress over the life course "Evidence from the 1946, 1958 and 1970 birth cohorts" in symposium "Predicotrs of Mental Health Over the Lifecourse" organised by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at meetings of American Society of Criminology by R Bucci & J Staff, titled Variation in early childhood alcohol use by parental substance use 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Academic presentation at national scientific meeting of American criminologists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation by J. Staff at Methodology Center, Pennsylvania State University, Title: Alcohol and cigarette use from age 23 to 55: Links with health and wellbeing in the long-term National Child Development Study 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Increased awareness of British cohort studies' longitudinal data among statisticians and methodologists at Penn State Methodology Center, www.methodology.psu.edu
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation on "Curricula, schools and social mobility" for CCRP conference, 29th Nov 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact CCRP end of project conference, including impact partners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation on 'Curricula, schools and social mobiltiy' at DfE, 7th November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Around 50 civil servants attended this seminar at DfE. The project team (Alice Sullivan, Morag Henderson, Vanessa Moulton, Jake Anders) and Catherine Dilnot presented a summary of findings from the project, as well as Catherine's work (which will appear in a special issue of ORE alongside findings from the project team). Next Steps was the main dataset exploited in this work. The civil servants were very engaged and interested in the findings. Emaline KULASINGHE [mailto:Emaline.KULASINGHE@education.gov.uk] , the organiser of the regular DFE seminar, was keen to encourage us to contact her with other suggestions for seminars.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation on 'Inequalities in teenage vocabulary: a comparison of cohorts born in 1970 and 2000' at CLOSER conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on 'Inequalities in teenage vocabulary: a comparison of cohorts born in 1970 and 2000' at CLOSER conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.closer.ac.uk/conference
 
Description Presentation on 'Origins, Education and Destinations in BCS70' at CLOSER conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on 'Origins, Education and Destinations in BCS70' at CLOSER conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.closer.ac.uk/conference
 
Description Presentation on 'The intergenerational transmission of vocabulary' at the Centre for Educational Neuroscience, Birkbeck 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Around 25 students and academics attended a presentation on 'The intergenerational transmission of vocabulary' at the Centre for Educational Neuroscience, Birkbeck. I promoted the value of birth cohort data for audiences who may be less familiar with it.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Press release on GCSE curriculum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press coverage was picked up in speech by schools minister Nick Gibb, the speech was covered by Schools Week http://schoolsweek.co.uk/minister-slams-academics-who-wont-engage-with-researched/
The coverage also led to an invitation to present findings at DfE on 7th Nov 2017
Coverage:
Sky Radio interview
Girls who study vocational GCSEs 'significantly less likely to do A ...
The Independent

EBacc improves pupils' chances of studying A-levels
Schools Week

Girls taking more vocational GCSEs 'have much lower chance of ...
AOL UK

TES: https://www.tes.com/news/school-news/breaking-news/girls-taking-more-vocational-gcses-have-much-lower-chance-doing-a

The Press Association ran the story, and it was picked up by a variety of regional newspapers including the Yorkshire Post:
https://www.pressreader.com/uk/yorkshire-post/20170821/281736974570172

The Lancashire Telegraph: http://www.lancashiretelegraph.co.uk/news/15485472.Girls_taking_more_vocational_GCSEs__have_much_lower_chance_of_doing_A_levels_/?ref=arc

The News and Star:
Girls taking more vocational GCSEs 'have much lower chance of ...
The South Wales Argus:
Behind the headlines: Understanding changes to GCSEs

The North West Evening Mail:
Girls taking more vocational GCSEs 'have much lower chance of ...

The Aberdeen Evening Express:
Girls taking more vocational GCSEs 'have much lower chance of doing A-levels'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/news.aspx?itemid=4641&itemTitle=Vocational+GCSEs+may+be+holding+girls+back%...
 
Description Press release: Baby boomers show deep divisions on the way to retirement 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This press release was issued to publicise the CLS research report, Lifetime poverty and attitudes to retirement among a cohort born in 1958. Using data from the National Child Development Study, the research showed that substantial numbers of baby boomers, especially lower and middle earners, are expecting to work past state pension age. The findings picked up some online national media coverage (Mirror, Express) as well as regional coverage. Alissa Goodman, one of the report authors, also gave an interview to Talk Radio.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/news.aspx?itemid=4633&itemTitle=Baby+boomers+show+deep+divisions+on+the+way...
 
Description Press release: Health 'benefits' of moderate drinking may be overstated, study finds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was issued to publicise the publication of the paper, 'Alcohol and cigarette use from age 23 to 55: Links with health and well-being in the long-term National Child Development Study' by Jeremy Staff and Jennifer Maggs in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs in May 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/news.aspx?itemid=4609&itemTitle=Health+%e2%80%98benefits%e2%80%99+of+modera...
 
Description Press release: One in six parents allow their children to drink alcohol at age 14 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Seventeen per cent of UK parents have let their children drink alcohol by the age of 14, according to new findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. Researchers from the Centre for Longitudinal Studies, at the UCL Institute of Education, and Pennsylvania State University found that well educated parents of white children were most likely to allow their children to drink at age 14. The research was discussed on BBC Radio 2's Jeremy Vine show, BBC Radio 4's Today programme, BBC Radio Five Live, Talk Radio, BBC Breakfast TV, ITV Good Morning Britain, and Sky News. The press release was picked up by BBC News online, The Times, Saturday's Times, The Guardian, Telegraph, Daily Mail, The Sun, Independent, Express, Metro, Huffington Post, Boots/WebMD health advice website, Spirits Business (trade website) BBC Mundo (Spanish language), Top Sante (French website), Findance (Finnish website), Hindustan Times and NDTV (Indian websites), as well as numerous other regional news websites.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/news.aspx?itemid=4671&itemTitle=One+in+six+parents+allow+their+children+to+...
 
Description Press release: Private school education linked to better health more than 25 years later, study finds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Private school pupils are more likely than their peers at comprehensives to have a lower body mass index (BMI) by the time they reach their early 40s. They also spend less time watching television and eat fewer take-away meals, according to new research published in the International Journal of Epidemiology.
Researchers at the Centre for Longitudinal Studies, UCL Institute of Education, analysed information on more than 8,400 men and women born across England, Scotland and Wales in a single week in 1970, who are part of the 1970 British Cohort Study. The researchers compared the participants' health at age 42 according to the type of secondary school and university they attended.

This press release was issued in May 2016 and received widespread national coverage in the Daily Telegraph, Daily Mail, Mail Online, TES, Press Association, Yorkshire Post, and Schools Week.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/news.aspx?itemid=4433&itemTitle=Private+school+education+linked+to+better+...
 
Description Press release: Psychological distress on the rise for younger generations as men feel the strain in middle age 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Generation X suffers poorer mental health in mid-life than the Baby Boomers before them, according to new research from the UCL Institute of Education (IOE). Researchers at the IOE's Centre for Longitudinal Studies analysed information on almost 19,000 British people from two generations - those born in a single week of 1958 who are taking part in the National Child Development Study, and those born in a single week of 1970 who are being followed by the 1970 British Cohort Study.

This press release was issued on World Mental Health Day and received widespread national coverage, including in The Times, Mail Online and the Independent.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/news.aspx?itemid=4506&itemTitle=Psychological+distress+on+the+rise+for+youn...
 
Description Press release: Vocational GCSEs may be holding girls back, research suggests 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This press release covered two CLS working papers, both using Next Steps data. One of the working papers ('Continuing Education Post-16: Does What You Study at GCSE matter?') showed how girls who take 'applied' subjects, such as health and social care or home economics, at GCSE may be facing educational disadvantage as they are less likely to study past A-level and also less likely to take 'facilitating' A-levels favoured by prestigious universities. The other paper highlighted the influence that schools have on pupils' GCSE subject choices, showing how a bright pupil in an academically selective school is more likely to take an academic route than an equally bright pupil in a less selective school. The press release on these two papers secured coverage in the Independent as well as the TES, Schools Week, and a range of regional newspapers. Alice Sullivan, one of the authors of the papers gave an interview to Sky News Radio, which supplies the national and international news, sport, business and entertainment news to almost every commercial radio station in the UK. One of the two papers ('Does What you Study at GCSE Matter') was referenced in a post on the Department for Education Facebook page on 1 March 2018, in support of studying EBacc subjects, including languages: https://www.facebook.com/116423535060106/posts/1590555454313566
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/news.aspx?itemid=4641&itemTitle=Vocational+GCSEs+may+be+holding+girls+back%...
 
Description Public lecture and debate: Realising aspirations? Gender, ethnicity and job inequalities 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the ESRC Festival of Social Science, CLS hosted a public lecture and debate on 8 November 2018 to showcase findings from CLS research into differences and inequalities in children's career aspirations. Approximately 90 people attended the event, including one large group of sixth form students from a local school. Comments from the feedback forms included:

• Informative and interesting
• It was great
• Excellent and interesting event - great range of speakers
• Wonderfully informative and helpful, especially as a sixth form student
• Excellent - thanks
• Fantastic event, very well organised
• An absolutely brilliant event, some very interesting research and a great discussion. Definitely eye-opening on aspirations in general

About the workshop

This event explored recent research on the occupational aspirations of boys and girls of different ethnic groups, with the first viewing of an animation on gendered choices and a panel discussion of the barriers that may prevent those from minority ethnic groups achieving their aspirations.

There were two elements to the event. The first involved the first showing of an animation relating to findings on the ways boys and girls continue to express highly gendered preferences about their future jobs. The animation was followed by a discussion of the challenges in changing stereotypes and expectations relating to "men's" and "women's" work among youth, and different approaches.

The second part of the event provided the opportunity for discussion of occupational aspirations of children from different ethnic groups and how they evolve across their childhoods. This is a previously unstudied area. Recent research has shown that children from minority ethnic groups are not only aspiring to be highly educated but also to participate in 'good jobs' to a greater extent than their majority counterparts. Educational outcomes are tracking these aspirations, but job outcomes do not seem to be to the same extent.

How do we understand these findings? What are the factors enabling and preventing boys and girls from different ethnic groups from achieving their ambitions in adulthood? Panellists with expertise in education, women's rights and race equality offered their perspective on the findings and the audience were invited to discuss their reflections and possible ways forward.

Speakers
Omar Khan (@omaromalleykhan) is the Director of Runnymede, the UK's leading independent race equality think tank.
Heidi Mirza (@HeidiMirza) is Professor Emerita at UCL, is a black feminist professor of race equality and women's rights, and author of works on education and race and gender inequality.
Samantha Parsons is Research Associate at the Centre for Longitudinal Studies, UCL and works on adult basic skills, disability and socioeconomic disadvantage.
Lucinda Platt (@PlattLucinda) is Professor of Social Policy and Sociology at LSE, and works on ethnicity, migration and inequality.
Esohe Uwadiae is a 2017 LSE Law Graduate and former Education Officer for LSESU. She currently works as a Senior Faculty Administrator for Regent's University London.
Nik Miller (@bridge_group) is Chief Executive of the Bridge Group. Prior to his appointment he worked in the USA, at the University of Warwick, and was most recently Head of Corporate and Alumni Relations at the University of York.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2018
URL https://cls.ucl.ac.uk/events/realising-aspirations-gender-ethnicity-and-job-inequalities/
 
Description SLLS 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Three presentations at the annual Society for Longitudinal and Lifecourse Studies conference, held in Stirling, workshop on mentla health organised by CLS, three papers presenred work from CCRP
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SLLS 2017 Stirling: Presentation on 'Inequalities in teenage vocabulary: a comparison of the 1970 and 2000 cohorts 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at SLLS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.slls.org.uk/past-conferences
 
Description SLLS Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Two presentations at the annual Society for Longitudinal and Lifecourse Studies conference, held in Stirling. I organised a special session on the MCS6 (age 14) Initial Findings, in which five MCS papers were presented. I also presented a paper at an additional session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar on "Curricula, schools and social mobility" at DfE, 17th Oct 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Well attended event (around 100 people) presenting findings from CCRP curriculum strand.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Social Epidemiology Workshop (Antigua, Guatemala, November 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A poster under the Intergenerational Influences on Physical Activity was presented to the Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies conference in July 2015. Part of this work was presented at the Social Epidemiology Workshop, November 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Social Justice Expert Steering Group, Department for Work and Pensions (8th December) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I took part in this day of discussion about the research output using the cohort studies related to Social Justice. We reviewed the government research led by Paul March, Social Justice Lead Analyst on Children, Families and Disadvantage and gave comments and suggestions for improvement. We discussed the salient isuses and helped to make decisions about the future of the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-for-work-pensions
 
Description Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies Conference (Cambridge, July 2015) and (Dublin, October 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The presentation of a poster under the Intergenerational Influences on Physical Activity research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Symposium, "Do curriculum differences generate educational inequalities? held 19th September 2016 @ UCL IoE. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We invite you to develop a paper for a forthcoming Special Issue of the Oxford Review of Education on the topic of subject choice. To complement this, we are holding a one-day symposium at UCL Institute of Education on 19th September 2016.

About the Symposium

This inter-disciplinary symposium aims to showcase the outstanding research explaining subject choice differences throughout the education system. In addition we hope to explore how these choices may influence educational and employment trajectories, as well as other aspects of life. Delegates will have an opportunity to:
• raise awareness of your current work on subject choice
• disseminate research findings and receive feedback
• develop collaborations and plan joint funding bids
• network with colleagues from across disciplines, sectors and locations
• hear about data sources and the latest resources for research



ORE Symposium - 'Inequalities in the secondary school curriculum'
Program 19 September 2016
Venue: Room 541,
Fifth Floor,
Birkbeck University of London,
Malet Street
London
WC1E 7HX

Arrival: 10am start

1. Teas and coffee on arrival 10am to 10.15am
Welcome - Alice Sullivan (5 mins)

2. Emer Smyth (Economic and Social Research Institute, Ireland) 10.15am-10.45am
Working at a different level? Curriculum differentiation
in Irish lower secondary education

3. Jake Anders (UCL Institute of Education) 10.45am-11.15am
The role of schools in explaining individuals' subject choices
at age 14

Break - Teas and coffee 11.15am-11.30am (15 mins)

4. Jannette Elwood and Rhian Barrance (Queen's University Belfast) 11.30am-12pm
Inequalities and the curriculum: young people's views on
choice and fairness through their experiences of curriculum
as examination specifications at GCSE

5. Vanessa Moulton (UCL Institute of Education) 12pm-12.30pm
The school curriculum and post-16 transitions

Lunch - Sandwiches and drinks 12:30pm-1.15pm (45 mins)

6. Adriana Duta (University of Edinburgh) 1.15pm-1.45pm
Inequalities in school leavers' labour market outcomes:
do school subject choices matter?

7. Catherine Dilnot (UCL Institute of Education) 1.45pm-2.15pm
The relationship between A-level subject choice and ranking
of university attended: the 'facilitating', the 'less suitable'
and the counter-intuitive

Break - Teas and coffee 2.15pm-2.30pm (15 mins)

8. Richard Pring (Oxford) 2.30-3.00pm
Inequalities and the Curriculum: Philosophical Debates
on the curriculum and social justice

9. Open discussion led by tbc 3.00pm-3.30pm

10. Close of workshop - Alice Sullivan (10 mins)

Close at 3.40pm
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.ucl.ac.uk/ioe
 
Description Symposium: The determinants of subject choice and its role in determining future academic pathways, SLLS Bamberg 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Description of symposium (up to 300 words)
The importance of the subjects that young people study while at school for their future academic pathways has increasingly attracted the attention of policymakers. Most notably this has manifested itself in the UK Government's introduction of the English Baccalaureate school performance measure at age 16 and their introduction of a school performance measure based on the Russell Group's list of "facilitating subjects" at age 18. The interest from policymakers has sparked greater attention from researchers, who recognise that understanding subject choice at age 14 is important because without doing so we do not have the knowledge to help young people make the choices that will help them to achieve their future plans. This symposium will present new evidence on the determinants of subject choice, extending this from traditional predictors such as pupils' gender and SES, to consider non-cognitive traits and the importance of peer groups. It also considers the consequences of subject choice, specifically highlighting their role in influencing post-16 transitions and whether individuals remain on an academic focused track. By bringing together both the backward- and forward-facing aspects of this subject choice research this symposium will allow presenters and attendees to engage with this important topic in a holistic manner.

PAPER 1 (abstract up to 300 words, including name and affiliation of presenter and any co-authors)
The role of schools in explaining individuals' subject choice at age 14
Jake Anders, UCL Institute of Education (with Morag Henderson and Alice Sullivan)

Young people's subject choices at age 14 may have important consequences for future academic and labour market outcomes. However, the choices that individuals face are shaped by the schools in which they find themselves at this point in time. This paper explores the important question of the extent to which individuals' decisions are affected by the school they attend and to what extent this changes when we also consider the composition of their schools in terms of academic attainment and socioeconomic background. This is achieved using multi-level variance decomposition models applied to both survey and administrative data on the subjects young people study between ages 14 and 16, separately testing the robustness of the results to population-level data and to rich background data on individuals. We highlight the important role schools play in many subject choice decisions, but also how school's decisions are in turn affected by their composition.

PAPER 2 (abstract up to 300 words, including name and affiliation of presenter and any co-authors)
How does the choice of A-level subjects vary with students' socio-economic status in English state schools?
Catherine Dilnot, Oxford Brookes University and UCL Institute of Education

The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at highly selective universities are not entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on subject choices, describing some A-levels as 'facilitating' in that their choice keeps the largest number of Russell Group degree courses open to potential applicants. This study uses National Pupil Database data from three recent cohorts of English state school students taking at least three A-levels, and a taxonomy of all 96 A-levels certified for English students in 2014/15. Large differentials in subject choice by social background are found, particularly for facilitating subjects but also for subjects considered 'less suitable' by Russell Group universities. Multilevel linear probability models show that much of the difference is accounted for by the characteristics of schools and colleges attended by students from different social backgrounds and by prior attainment, although a small but significant relationship of subject choice with social background remains. This suggests that there is an important role for appropriate subject choice guidance at age 16+, which is a particular challenge if students are changing school.

PAPER 3 (abstract up to 300 words, including name and affiliation of presenter and any co-authors)
The role of non-cognitive traits in socio-economic disparities in subject choices at university
Natasha Codiroli-McMaster, UCL Institute of Education

This paper considers the underlying drivers to socio-economic disparities in subject choices at university, with a focus on the psychological processes involved in these choices. Firstly, I consider whether differences in students' perception of ability in, and enjoyment of STEM subjects can account for disparities in choices. Secondly, I consider whether these non-cognitive factors interact with social background, to further understand whether the psychological processes that underlie subject choice differ by students' background. I use representative survey data, Next Steps (previously the LSYPE), and regression methods to identify the unique associations between students' enjoyment of subjects, and their perception of ability, with subject choice at university. With prior academic attainment accounted for, I find significant interactions between students' family background, enjoyment of STEM subjects at the start of secondary school, and choice of subjects at university. Students whose parents do not have a degree and who enjoy maths and science are more likely to study social sciences, business and law at university over STEM subjects, than those whose parents have degrees. I will discuss findings in relation to sociological and economic theory, and explore possible policy implications.

PAPER 4 (abstract up to 300 words, including name and affiliation of presenter and any co-authors)
The school curriculum and post-16 transitions
Vanessa Moulton, UCL Institute of Education (with Jake Anders, Morag Henderson & Alice Sullivan)

The British school system provides a curriculum to 14-16 year olds which is highly differentiated, both within and between schools. This paper considers whether the subjects a pupil has taken in the 14-16 phase influence post-16 transitions, taking into account prior academic attainment, and if so, whether this accounts for socio-economic differences in access to post-16 education. We consider post-16 progression to the following outcomes: 1. Full time education or training; 2: The college-track curriculum (A levels); 3: A level subjects which have been identified as highly valued by elite universities ('facilitating' subjects). We address these questions using 'Next Steps', a study of 16,000 people born in England in 1989-90, linked to administrative education records (the National Pupil Database).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.slls.org.uk/
 
Description UCL Health Economics Symposium 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Poster presented at the UCL Health Economics Symposium 2018 on the impact of maternal employment on children's weight.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Young people's subject choice: influences and impact 29th November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This seminar, chaired by Professor Anna Vignoles, a Nuffield Foundation Trustee and Professor of Education at the University of Cambridge, will bring together findings from three Nuffield-funded studies which have been investigating subject choice in school, what influences the students' decisions and the impacts these have on their access to higher education.
1. Subject choice at 14- options, decisions and their influence in access to higher education - can studying certain combinations of subjects at 14-16 narrow inequalities in access to university? Read more
Jake Anders, Senior Research Fellow in Education, Evaluation and Inequality, UCL Institute of Education
2. What can we learn from studies of pairs of twins about subject and other study choices? Read more
Kathryn Asbury, Senior Lecturer and Programme Leader for the MSc Psychology in Education, University of York
3. Does providing young people with information about future earnings influence post-16 subject choices? Read more
Peter Davies, Professor of Education, University of Birmingham
A panel including The Rt Hon. David Laws, Executive Chairman of the Education Policy Institute, and, Professor Cristina Iannelli, Institute for Education, Community and Society at the University of Edinburgh, will discuss the findings and their implications for policy and practice and will explore how different types of evidence can help us think through the issues surrounding subject choice at school.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017