Economic Recovery in Post-Conflict Cities: the Role of the Urban Informal Economy

Lead Research Organisation: Cardiff University
Department Name: Cardiff School of Planning and Geography

Abstract

The research explores the role of the urban informal economy (IE) in poverty-reduction and peace-building in post-conflict cities, and its scope to provide livelihoods for the extreme poor and a platform for economic recovery. With a focus on urban areas in post-civil war settings, and on cities affected by protest or on-going turf wars, the research explores the complex drivers of conflict and links to the IE, the structural and individual factors that support/inhibit growth of the IE, and the role of local government (LG) in post-conflict economic recovery.

Political upheaval or violent conflict is often characterised by a fundamental failure of governance and economic collapse. An immediate impact of crisis may be the destruction of livelihoods and local economies, leading to insecurity, poverty, and hunger, which in turn exacerbates insecurity and rights violations. A further problem is the failure of local governance and the provision of basic services in conflict-affected settings. Working in the IE is an important coping strategy in such contexts. Worldwide, the contribution of urban informal enterprises to GDP and jobs is substantial. Even when political stability is assured informality remains a structural characteristic of low-income economies, yet local and international policies see the IE only as a temporary solution. Post-conflict strategies should thus foster the IE, rather than dismiss its potential.

The research focuses on Question 3) of the Research Call, to assess how measures that support the urban IE may reduce the "impact of violence and instability on the poorest, and increase the effectiveness of peace-building, state-building and wider development interventions in fragile and conflict-affected situations". The research also addresses Question 1), examining conflict as a factor that shapes "pathways into and out of poverty and people's experience of this".

The hypothesis of the research is that in fragile and conflict-affected situations, the urban informal economy (IE) plays a pivotal role as a source of livelihoods and a platform for medium-term poverty-reduction, peace-building, and economic recovery, and that effective recognition of the IE by emergent local government and the international relief community is essential for this role to be realised.

The Objectives are explored through three broad questions:
1. How might measures supporting the urban IE increase the effectiveness of peace-building and reconciliation?

2. How can support for the IE create sustained routes out of extreme poverty and contribute to poverty reduction and economic growth?

3. How can local governments in fragile urban contexts support IE livelihoods and contribute to state-building?

Post-conflict recovery is a long and cyclical process and the research is based on case studies of cities with different drivers of conflict, those facing current unrest and those which have made a transition from conflict. The five case study cities have different experiences of conflict, including 'institutional' struggles for state control (Cairo and Kathmandu), 'economic' conflict over control of resources (Monrovia), 'social/political' control (Karachi) and 'emergent governance' (Hargeisa).

The research is important because it will bring an understanding of the dynamic and economic potential of the IE into post-conflict debates. The findings will be taken forward by all the research partners: UN-Habitat in livelihoods and reconstruction policy, the Commonwealth Local Government Forum in strategies to strengthen post-conflict local government, Responding to Conflict in reconciliation, training, and peace-building, and communities in developing agency and voice. The research thus has significant potential to influence development assistance in practice.

Planned Impact

1. IMPACT INTEGRAL TO THE RESEARCH DESIGN
The concept of 'impact' is at the core of the research design. Over 100 people will be involved in running the fieldwork, and helping to develop shared knowledge, strengthen voice, and reduce vulnerability for informal economy workers in fragile states.

2. WHO WILL BENEFIT AND HOW?
The main target beneficiaries will be vulnerable informal economy (IE) workers in violent cities, who will benefit through developing stronger advocacy skills, and use of community-led metrics to promote longer-lasting peace, improved basic services, and security for the IE.

In order to reach IE workers the research will seek to reach four constituencies:

i) Local government officials in the case study cities and elsewhere, to strengthen their understanding of the needs of the IE and its potential in support local economic development. CLGF will facilitate access to a global practitioner community of local government.

ii) Development practitioners: the research will strengthen understanding of the structures, needs and potential of the urban IE as a platform for poverty reduction, economic growth and peacebuilding which, despite extensive analysis and critique of post-conflict development interventions, is not widely recognised.

iii) Multilateral agencies: through continuing partnership with UN-Habitat the project will disseminate knowledge to the global humanitarian relief community on the role of the IE in medium to long-term state-building and reconstruction.

iv) Local academics: there is considerable benefit to local academics of this research, providing new opportunities for publication, research and networking. This will feed through into teaching and help develop local capacity for high quality research and publications.

3. ENSURING OPPORTUNITIES TO BENEFIT
A total of 17% of the research budget is allocated to impact activities (excluding PI/CI time).

Target constituencies will be reached through the following outputs:
- Country seminars with community mapping participants and Local NGO Partners
- 5 country reports, addressing the main research Objectives
- Feedback meetings with key in-country local government associations
- Presentations to CLGF biennial conference
- 3 conference presentations, on development and conflict
- 3 academic papers to journals reaching practitioners
- academic teaching by all partners
- Phase 1 Inception Workshop, held at UN-Habitat
- Phase 3 Impact Seminar, held at UN-Habitat during a larger event
- Joint publication with UN-Habitat
 
Description RESEARCH SUMMARY: The research explores the role of the urban informal economy (IE) in poverty-reduction and peace-building in post-conflict cities, and its scope to provide livelihoods for the extreme poor and a platform for economic recovery. With a focus on urban areas in post-civil war settings, and on cities affected by protest or on-going turf wars, the research explores the complex drivers of conflict and links to the IE, examines the structural and individual factors that support/inhibit growth of the IE, and THE role of local government in post-conflict economic recovery.

The HYPOTHESIS is that in fragile and conflict-affected settings the IE plays a pivotal role as a source of livelihoods and a platform for economic recovery, and that effective recognition of the IE by emergent local governments and the international humanitarian assistance community is essential for this role to be realised.

OBJECTIVES: Through comparative case studies of Hargeisa, Karachi, Kathmandu and Cali, the research objectives are to examine i) how measures supporting the IE can increase the effectiveness of peace-building and reconciliation; ii) how support for the IE can create sustained routes out of poverty and contribute to wider development initiatives, and iii) how local governments in fragile cities can support the IE to contribute to state-building. Work in Hargeisa, Karachi and Kathmandu is complete. Fieldwork in Cali is scheduled for May 2018. An Impact Workshop is scheduled for July 2018. The METHODS adopted a conventional social-science interview-based approach, and in each city - working with a local NGO - included a peace and conflict transformation workshop with IE workers to explore their daily conflicts and agency to address these.

KEY FINDINGS:
1) HARGEISA: The Hargeisa case study illustrated the prolonged urban and IE impacts of the brutal 1982-1991 civil war. In 1991 Somaliland seceded from Somalia, but is still campaigning for internationally recognition as an independent state. Bombing in 1988 bombing destroyed much of Hargeisa, but after the peace negotiations and return of many displaced people, the IE was central in re-establishing urban services and founding Hargeia's modern economy. IE workers affected by the conflict reported an almost total destruction of livelihoods, but that disruption created opportunities for women to join the workforce. Today, the IE remains the main source of employment in market trade, services, and the more problematic 'qat' and charcoal sectors. However, IE operators face many challenges, including limited literacy and lack of policy inclusion, but they work in an environment of trust facing much less harassment in their work than elsewhere in Africa.

2) KARACHI: The Karachi case study focussed on the impact of inter-ethnic and political violence on the IE. From the mid-1980s politically-affiliated militias had fuelled tension, but from 2000 the city witnessed an intensification of political and gang-based violence and target killings. In September 2013, the federal government mandated intervention by the elite Rangers' paramilitary border-protection force, and homicides and kidnapping have since fallen. Interviews with IE workers in vending, manufacturing, fishing and construction in the districts of Sadr, Orangi and Lyari found that many businesses had been adversely affected by the violence, but that after 2013 - as freedom of movement returned - they provided vital source of employment. Nevertheless IE workers remain vulnerable, due to declining profits, problems with the authorities, and lack of adequate infrastructure and operating space.

3) KATHMANDU: The Kathmandu study assessed the impacts of both conflict and disaster on the IE, examining the impacts of rural-urban displacement during the 1996-2006 Maoist conflict, and the devastating 2015 earthquake. During the Maoist conflict, atrocities and torture were committed by both sides and many villagers and government workers fled to Kathmandu. Conflict-induced migration and decline of manufacturing and tourism during the conflict, led to a rapid increase in the IE, while most rural migrants found it impossible to recover their former standards of living in the city. The earthquake claimed 8,600 lives in Nepal, with devastating impact on the city. The effects of the earthquake were intense, but shorter lived - some people could not work for weeks, but solidarity networks provided succour, and other businesses recovered quickly.

4) CALI: The Cali study examined the impact of urban warfare on the city, both as a result of civil conflict between the government and paramilitaries, and as a result of drug-related violence. Of particular note in Cali is the highly-successful public health approach to reducing urban violence. Key findings include the impact of the local drug economy on street vendors and who are pressured into taking out pay-day-loans, and the vulnerability of waste pickers. However, policy-makers are sensitive to the needs of the urban poor - of particular note is the scheme by the bus rapid transport company, MIO, to license street vendors to work on the new bus network.

5) DOHUK: Dohuk was selected for study because, although the city has not suffered direct and severe violence, it has been surrounded by regional conflicts since 2011 and has witnessed a major influx of refugees. This study looked at people affected by conflict living in both the urban area and in camps, and refugees brought a new dynamism to the local economy because of the lack of restriction of informal work.


SYNTHESIS
The five cities studied illustrate different facets of conflict and violence: Cali (internally displaced people (IDPs) fleeing civil war, drug cartels, high homicide rates); Dohuk (regional instability, influx of IDPs and Syrian refugees); Hargeisa (civil war, bombing); Karachi (ethno-political violence: Cali (internally displaced people (IDPs) fleeing civil war, drug cartels, high homicide rates); Dohuk (regional instability, influx of IDPs and Syrian refugees); Hargeisa (civil war, bombing); Karachi (ethno-political violence, extreme extortion, drug trafficking), and Kathmandu (rural-based Maoist conflict, IDPs, earthquake). In each city, a specific period when conflict abated was identified, to examine how the informal economy then evolved.

We distinguish between conflicts that are long term or slow burn, and those that are sudden, destructive and fast burn. From our analysis, five drivers of conflict are identified:
a) ECONOMIC, drugs, gangs, intimidation, extortion, militarism;
b) POLITICAL, infighting among political parties, weak or corrupt local governance;
c) DIVISIONS ACROSS ETHNIC/CULTURAL LINES, including violent control over land, legal and illegal markets;
d) TERRITORIAL CONFLICT, spatial control over certain districts, neighbourhoods, markets;
e) DISPLACEMENT, indirect impact of civil war, refugees and IDPs (internally displaced people).

Although transition from crisis or conflict is never linear and 'post-conflict' is difficult to define, all five cities went through a reasonably predictable cycle. The evolution is divided into three periods:

1) CONFLICT RELIEF: during the initial period, economic recovery follows a reasonably predictable cycle from war/conflict and survival economies to more robust, regulated economies that generate prosperity in the informal economy;
2) STABILISATION: as the cycle evolved, the emergence and growth of the informal economy takes place in parallel to the trajectories of rebuilding or reforming government institutions, despite political flux and continued vulnerability for workers;
3) DEVELOPMENT: Local government's capacity to regulate, service and tax the informal economy increases, but strong self-help groups and associations can help establish workers' rights.

Several different facts of the informal economy are evident:
- SOLIDARITY ECONOMIES where individuals and communities collaborate to overcome the lack of regular supplies of goods, services and absence of governance;
- REPLACEMENT ECONOMIES as supply chains are gradual restored but formal systems remain fragile, the informal economy steps in to supply essential services such as water, transport, electricity, food or other services;
- REFUGEE ECONOMIES: the presence of refugees and displaced people creates layers of international activity, both through international aid, and through refugees' own livelihoods and enterprise;
- CONFLICT ECONOMIES: these are often chaotic, unregulated, violent and criminalised, but provide goods and services within the disrupted supply chains available.
- SURVIVAL ECONOMIES: in many of the cities studied, the informal economy was significant prior to the conflict and some workers manage to continue despite the disruptive context.

Our CENTRAL CONCLUSION that the informal economy provides a dynamic and systemic response to the challenges conflict and urban violence, which if recognised and supported can ease the transition from crisis to recovery. For informal workers, their initial challenge is surviving when violence disrupts transport, supplies or markets. Their transition to managing requires more security, stability of markets and operating space, but some informal enterprises and workers find capacity for thriving, particularly in the development stage of the recovery process.

The critical POLICY RECOMMENDATION is to recognise this potential. In the initial CONFLICT RELIEF stage this means a 'do-no-harm' approach that enables livelihoods; in the STABILISATION phase there is a need to support worker organisations and address conflict economies, and in the DEVELOPMENT phase to promote workers' rights and local government capacity building.
Exploitation Route One publication on "Local Economic Development, micro-enterprise and crime reduction: Lessons from Cali, Colombia" was published as a Discussion paper by UN-Habitat in January 2019. The synthesis report: "Urban Crises and the Informal Economy: Surviving, Managing, Thriving in Post-Conflict Cities" has also been published by UN-Habitat and presented at a Networking Evening at the World Urban Forum 10, Abu Dhabi, February 2020.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

URL http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/informal-economy-research-observatory/projects/post-conflict-urban-livelihoods
 
Description The research is seeking both in-country and international impact. IN-COUNTRY IMPACTS: Strengthening the capacity of informal workers and developing partnerships with local authorities are key to pro-poor policy inclusion. In all of the five countries the research team worked with a partner university and usually with a local NGO to ensure that findings were embedded in local academic institutions and in policy fora. Our partners included: in Hargeisa, Gollis University and SONSAF (the Somaliland Non State Actors Forum); in Kathmandu, Tribhuvan University (Institute of Engineering) and CWIN (Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Centre); in Karachi, NED University, NOW communities and Takhleeq Foundation; in Cali, ICESI University and CEDECUR (Centro de Educación e Investigación para el Desarrollo Comunitario Urbano y Rural), and in Dohuk, Dohuk University. In four cities, policy recommendations have been discussed at workshops with informal economy workers, NGOs, and local and government officials. One of the most significant impacts was in Hargeisa, where there was considerably willingness to explore the potential of the informal economy at both national and local level. The informal economy and references to our study are flagged up in the Republic of Somaliland, National Development Plan II, 2017-2021, and in the subsequent Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME), 2019, Policy issued by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Tourism. Worker leaders who attended our peace transformation workshop developed their negotiating skills, and have now negotiated with Hargeisa City Council to ensure they received space in the new covered market has also been built at Gobenimo, SONSAF and our expert Eid Ali Ahmed, have continued to raise awareness of the issues. In Cali, the city government has an innovative approach to the informal economy, and the findings from our research formed part of a number of initiatives supported by the government and NGOs. An event was jointly hosted by POLIS institute, Universidad Icesi, Cali Chamber of Commerce, the bus rapid transit company, Masivo Integrado de Occidente (MIO), the municipality's urban renovation office (EMRU) and the Territorios de Inclusión y Oportunidades (TIOS) to explore good practice on economic inclusion and policy recommendations from our research. Some of the initiatives in Cali have been reported in a UN-Habitat document, entitled "LED micro-enterprise and crime reduction Lessons from Cali Colombia". In Karachi, Takhleeq Foundation has taken forward the research with further surveys of informal workers in order to support the development of worker organisations which are weak in the country. In Kathmandu, CWIN has worked with affected child workers participating in the peace transformation workshop, and the newly established democratic local government provides an opportunity for inclusive, participatory approaches to supporting the IE. In Dohuk the findings are contributing to academic teaching. INTERNATIONAL IMPACTS: Internationally the research is seeking to reach humanitarian and local government communities. Under UN-Habitat's Global Urban Lecture series, Alison Brown's lecture on the Urban Informal Economy has to date been watched over 3,100 times. Presentations have been held at the World Urban Forum 9: Cities for All: Implementing the New Urban Agenda, 7-13 Feb 2018, Kuala Lumpur; the Technical Dialogue on Urban Resilience in Somalia, funded by DFID; the Third ACP-EU-UN-Habitat Tripartite Conference on Participatory Slum Upgrading; World Cities Day, 2018, Liverpool; the Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford; the first UN-Habitat Assembly, Nairobi; the Royal Geographical Society, London, and a Networking Event at World Urban Forum 10, Abu Dhabi, 8-13 Feb 2020. Contributions to the Global Alliance for Urban Crises, and the Commonwealth Local Government Forum are on-going. The final synthesis report, "Urban Crises and the Informal Economy: Surviving, Managing and Thriving in Post-Conflict Cities", is uploaded the UN-Habitat website. The research has underpinned to two further successful research bids: "Out of camp or out of sight? Realigning responses to protracted displacement in an urban world" (ES/T004525/1, £2.6m), led by IIED with Cardiff University, and a smaller bid on 'Governance of Indian Border Towns' led by Cardiff University with the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Creative Economy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description A Systems Approach to Air Pollution in East Africa (ASAP), with University of Birmingham
Amount £1,198,000 (GBP)
Organisation East Africa Research Fund 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Kenya
Start 09/2017 
End 01/2020
 
Description Governance of Indian Border Towns (GCRF Award)
Amount £38,389 (GBP)
Organisation Cardiff University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2020 
End 07/2020
 
Description Out of camp or out of sight? Realigning responses to protracted displacement in an urban world
Amount £2,900,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/T004525/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2020 
End 01/2023
 
Description Urban Crises Learning Fund, Local Markets in the Context of Urban Humanitarian Response
Amount £29,950 (GBP)
Organisation International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 09/2017
 
Description "Inclusive Cities of Tomorrow", RGS Public Lecture on The City of Tomorrow, 24 October, 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The event formed part of a series of public lectures run by the Royal Geographical Society in London, aimed to stimulate debate and explore visionary futures. It was chaired Prof. Joe Smith, RGS-IBG Director. The Panel included: Prof. Alison Brown, Cardiff University; Joe Ravetz, Manchester Urban Institute, Dr. Tim Schwanen, University of Oxford. The event was attended by about 50 people and was livestreamed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Addressing bottlenecks to resilient cities, Side Event, UN Habitat Assembly 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Side Event organised by the Global Alliance for Urban Crises during the first UN-Habitat Assembly on 29 May 2019. Despite growing global commitment to local-level resilience, there are a number of bottlenecks staggering resilience building in cities. The event explored solutions to alleviate these challenges and exploit opportunities through raising awareness of threats, multi-stakeholder engagement, building strategic visions and partnerships and informed local policy making. The event was attended by about 50 people and report in the Assembly proceedings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Advisory Board, Kuala Lumpur Declaration, WUF9, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Advisory Board Member, advisors to Government of Malaysia in drafting the Kuala Lumpur Declaration, World Urban Forum 9: Cities for All: Implementing the New Urban Agenda, February 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://wuf9.org/kuala-lumpur-declaration/
 
Description Anonymous livelihoods: reintegration and recovery after conflict, ECAS, University of Basel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation to ECAS, the 7th European Conference on African Studies, 29 June-1 July 2017, Panel 121, "The ones who moved to the town: Informal DDR through urbanisation", University of Basel, Switzerland
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nomadit.co.uk/ecas/ecas2017/panels.php5?PanelID=4935
 
Description Call, Colombia: The Informal Economy: Between the diversity and complexity of a social problem: alternatives for Policy Implementation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The event was held in Cali, Colombia in partnership with Cali Chamber of Commerce, Masivo Integrado de Occidente (MIO), Urban renovation office (EMRU) and the Territorios de Inclusión y Oportunidades (TIOS). The aim was to promote dialogue about the role of the informal sector in securing the livelihoods of people excluded from formal labor and social protection. The event was also a platform to the findings from this research by POLIS, Universidad Icesi, and Cardiff University. The event discussed the challenges that informal workers face, incuding violence and crime and indebtedness, and examples of inclusive policy and practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Chair, Special Session on the Informal Sector, Launch of the report 'Enhancing Economic Productivity in the Urban Informal Economy', Habitat III 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Special Session on the Informal Sector, Casa de la Cultura, Quito, Tues 18 Oct, 2016, Habitat III, UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development,17-21 October 2016. Debate around the Habitat III Issues Paper on the 'Informal Sector', with presentations from WIEGO worker leaders, experts and the ILO
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://habitat3.org/programme/page/2/?d=2016-10-19
 
Description Cities of Informality, Cardiff, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Cardiff School of Geography and Planning, Evening Event, Cardiff University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Emerging governance/economies in post-conflict Somaliland: local government and economies from scratch, CLGF Research Colloquium, Malta 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact "Fortress Builders", Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF) Research Colloquium, 19-20 Nov, Malta.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Enhancing the potential of Africa's urban informal economies, Co-creating Inclusive Lagos, HBS, Lagos, Nigeria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Co-creating Inclusive Lagos, 4 July 2017, Workshop of worker unions, governments and academics, Heinrich Böll Stiftung, Lagos
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://calendar.boell.de/en/event/co-creating-inclusive-lagos
 
Description Fostering Local Enterprise: Supporting the Informal Economy in Fragile Cities, CLGF Biennial Conference, Malta 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact "Fit for the Future: Resources and Capacity for Effective Local Government", Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF) Biennial Conference. Working Group 4 - Cities and Trade: the role of local government in promoting trade and investment, 21-23 Nov, Malta
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.clgf.org.uk/conferences/
 
Description Global Report on Internal Displacement, 2019. Expert Advisory Panel, Geneva, 28 February 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Contributions to the Expert Panel convened by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre to advise on the Global Report on Internal Displacement, 2019, to be published in May 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Global Urban Lecture, The Urban Informal Economy, UN-Habitat video 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact UN-Habitat's Global Urban Lectures are a free resource of video lectures open to use for academic, professional or personal purposes, launched in 2014 to focus on subjects related to cities and urbanization. This lecture examined the significance of the urban informal economy, challenges to policy delivery, opportunities for economic inclusion and the informal economy's contribution to post-conflict recovery. The lecture was published on 9 October 2018, and by 8 March 2019 had received 1,128 views.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YrJ455j5d2o
 
Description Hargeisa, Somaliland, Potential of the informal economy in the Medium, Small and Micro-Enterprise Policy, Economic Sector (ESCOM) meeting hosted by Minister of Trade and Industries 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The event, organised by Eid Ali Ahmend and SONSAF, was hosted by the Minister of Trade and Industry, and discussed the findings of the research and their implications for the draft Somaliland Medium, Small and Micro-Enterprise Policy. Recommendations have now been included in the final MSME policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Hargeisa, Somaliland: Informal economy after civil war. Somaliland Civil Service Commission 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact The event, organised by Eid Ali Ahmed and SONSAF, was chaired by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and Ministry of Commerce. The event was also attended by representatives of Informal Workers Associations. It presented findings of the research, and the potential for inclusive policy development in Hargeisa.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Informal economies, conflict recovery and absent aid: Development Studies Association, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Development Studies Association (DSA) Annual conference, Sustainability interrogated: societies, growth, and social justice 7-9 Sep 2017, Panel 11 - Supporting change in fragile states: experiences and next steps, Bradford
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://nomadit.co.uk/dsa/dsa2017/conferencesuite.php/panels/5739
 
Description Launch of - Trends in Urban Resilience, 2017 - UN-Habitat Report, WUF9 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Side Event, World Urban Forum 9: Cities for All, Implementing the New Urban Agenda, February 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://unhabitat.org/books/trends-in-urban-resilience-2017/
 
Description Leave No-one Behind: Working with the informal Economy: Cities, Livelihoods and Governance, DFID video-link presentation to Livelihoods and Governance Cadres, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact One of two speakers on a video-link presentation to DFID country offices, launching the Evidence on Demand Topic Guides on 'Livelihoods and Urbanisation', and 'Urban Governance' Department for International Development, 1 Whitehall, London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Local government in Karachi, CLFG Research Colloquium, Malta 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact "Fortress Builders", Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF) Research Colloquium, 19-20 Nov, Malta
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Panelist, Dialogue on the Right to the City and Cities for All, Habitat III, 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Panelist, Dialogue on the Right to the City and Cities for All, Casa de la Cultura, Quito, Tues 18 Oct, 2016, Habitat III, UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development,17-20. Session chaired by Action Aid, India, provided debate on the Habitat III Policy Unit Paper 1, on the 'Right to the City and Cities for All'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://habitat3.org/dialogues/
 
Description Panelist, Local Economic Development, Productivity and Employment Creation in Cities, WUF9, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Special Session: Local Economic Development, Productivity and Employment Creation in Cities, World Urban Forum 9: Cities for All: Implementing the New Urban Agenda, February 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://wuf9.org/programme/special-sessions/local-economic-development-productivity-and-youth-employm...
 
Description Partnerships for Peace: Community Innovation & Economic Inclusion, Networking Event 22, 9 February 2020, UN-Habitat World Urban Forum 10, Abu Dhabi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This Networking Event brought together researchers and activists from three world regions to demonstrate how cultural cohesion, grassroots innovation, and partnerships between communities and local governments can bridge the gap between short-term humanitarian response and longer-term development. In Cali, Colombia, a data-driven multi-agency approach slashed homicide rates, and public agencies found new ways to secure poor urban livelihoods. In Dohuk, N. Iraq, refugees and IDPs have brought new skills to the urban economy, showing the need for a safe investment environment and targeted humanitarian aid. In Hargeisa, Somaliland, NGO advocates have campaigned for the new MSME policy which is now embracing the informal economy. Speakers included:

Alison Brown, Urban Crises and the Informal Economy
Nesreen Barwari, Refugee Economies: Supporting Refugee Enterprise in Dohuk
Eid Ali Ahmed, National Initiatives: MSME Policy for the Informal Economy
Peter Mackie, Implementing a Right to Work in Cali: Street Vendors in Cali's Public
Spaces and Public Transport
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2020
 
Description People-centred, smart and inclusive cities, Higher School of Economics, Moscow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Public lecture on the informal as part of HSE's on-going series, under an Erasmus exchange programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Plate-forme mondiale pour le droit à la ville, Premier forum des habitants de la Méditerranée vers la creation du réseau Méditerranéen des habitants, 21-23 Juin, Marseille 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact This event formed the first meeting of Mediterranean Inhabitants' Forum, held in Marseille, 21-23 June. Based on the core concepts of the "right to the city", the workshop sought to identify key campaigns and actions to strengthen the right to housing, land, water, a healthy environment, health, adequate public services, participatory local governance, free movement of people and gender equality. The event was attended by about 150 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Post-conflict economic recovery in Somaliland, IIED, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact "Crises in Cities and Cities in Crisis: Towards a Collaborative Urban Response", Urban Crises Programme 2015-2017, Workshop 15-16 Nov 2017, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.iied.org/iied-hosts-international-conference-humanitarian-response-urban-crises
 
Description Presentation to the European Commission, Council Working Party on Preparation for International Development Conferences, Brussels, Right to the City and Cities for all 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to the European Commission; Contribution to the Council Working Party on Preparation for International Development Conferences, Brussels, Right to the City and the New Urban Agenda, Preparation of a Common Position of the EU and its Member States for the Third United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) to be held in Quito, Ecuador in October 2016, 22 April 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Promoting Decent Work and Livelihoods: Supporting Inclusive Economies in Cities for All, Training Event, WUF9, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Training Event, World Urban Forum 9: Cities for All: Implementing the New Urban Agenda, February 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (with University of Lagos)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://wuf9.org/programme/training-events/promoting-decent-work-and-livelihood-opportunities-and-sup...
 
Description Prosperity for all: Enabling the Informal Economy through Participatory Slum Upgrading, WUF9, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Networking Event, World Urban Forum 9: Cities for All: Implementing the New Urban Agenda, February 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://wuf9.org/programme/networking-events/prosperity-for-all-enabling-the-informal-economy-through...
 
Description Refugee Economies in Addis Ababa, IIED, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact "Crises in Cities and Cities in Crisis: Towards a Collaborative Urban Response", Urban Crises Programme 2015-2017, Workshop 15-16 Nov 2017, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.iied.org/iied-hosts-international-conference-humanitarian-response-urban-crises
 
Description Right to the City and the Informal Economy, Presentation on Co-Creating the City, World Summit of Local Leaders, UCLG 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Panelist at the World Summit of Local Leaders, convened by UCLG (United Cities and Local Governments) in Bogota, Colombia. Platform included city mayors and experts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.bogota2016.uclg.org/en
 
Description Right to the City, Universidad Catolica de Ecuador, Quito, Habitat III 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Training event organised by the Global Platform on the Right to the City, with the Law Department, Universidad Catolica de Ecuador, Quito
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Somali urban centres: jobs and the informal economy, Technical Dialogue on Urban Resilience in Somalia, DFID & Mott Macdonald, Nairobi, 26-27 June 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Contribution to a 2-day practitioner-level discussion in Nairobi on urbanisation in Somalia. Somalia has the highest rates of urbanisation in the world, and this dialogue brought together government partners, private sector, civil society, development partners, and UN agencies for an interactive discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Speaker, Next City's World Stage, Right to the City, Asamblea Nacional, Habitat III 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on the World City Stage in the Habitat III Exhibition Pavillion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Surviving the city: refugee livelihoods in Addis Ababa, ECAS, University of Basel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact ECAS, 7th European Conference on African Studies, 29 June-1 July 2017, Panel 121 - The ones who moved to the town: Informal DDR through urbanisation, University of Basel, Switzerland
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nomadit.co.uk/ecas/ecas2017/panels.php5?PanelID=5208
 
Description Sustainable and Resilient Economies. Panel Session, World Cities Day, 2018, Liverpool, 31 October 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Moderated by the UK's Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government, presentations from the cities of Liverpool, Accra and Birmingham (Alabama), discussed building more resilient urban economies, Cardiff University highlighted the importance of the informal economy, and DFID reflected on policy approaches for local economic development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Third ACP-EU-UN-Habitat Tripartite Conference on Participatory Slum Upgrading. Leveraging the power of communities and the informal sector, Brussels, 13-14 November 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Launch of the document 'Prosperity for all: enhancing the informal economy through participatory slum upgrading' and panel discussion on the role of livelihoods in participatory slum upgrading. Chair, Alison Brown. Panelists included representatives from Ministère du Renouveau Urbain de l'Habitat et du Cadre de Vie, Senegal; Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, Ghana; and the NGO Mahila Milan, India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Towards Inclusive Health Systems and Infrastructure Access for Refugees 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Workshop in Kampala run by International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), the Africa Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC) in Nairobi, and Young African Refugees for Integral Development (YARID) under the British Academy's City and Infrastructure Programme on urban displaced populations' access healthcare, shelter, and infrastructure in Nairobi and Kampala. Attended by about 60 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description UN-Habitat Expert Working Group, Gender-responsive engagement in post-conflict contexts 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Expert working Group, Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development: UN-Habitat. Gender-responsive engagement in post-conflict contexts, 20-21 Apr, 2016, Barcelona,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://unhabitat.org/un-habitat-gender-responsive-engagement-in-post-conflict-contexts/
 
Description Understanding the role of economic development in peacebuilding, Concordis, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to the Peace Together Conference on: "The essence of peacebuilding: economics or politics? Understanding the role of economic development in peacebuilding programmes at national, regional and local levels",14 June 2017, Concordis and Clifford Chance, Canary Wharf, London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://eplo.org/event/eplo-member-organisation-event-conference-essence-peacebuilding-economics-poli...
 
Description Urban Crises and Refugee Economies: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Public Seminar, Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford, 13 February, 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Alison Brown and Peter Mackie presented a case study of Addis Ababa and, from an informal economy perspective, discussed the role of the self-help economies of refugees, their potential contribution to the transition from humanitarian relief to development, and the critical importance of the right to work to facilitate this contribution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2019
URL https://www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/events/urban-refugee-economies-in-ethiopia
 
Description Urban Informality in 21st Century, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk to the Department of Urban & Regional Planning, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Urban planning and violence: cause or catalyst for change? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote speech to the conference on 'Urban Planning, Governance and Design for Reducing Urban Conflicts and Violence: Critical Learnings and Possibilities' hosted by IDRC (International Development Research Centre of Canada) and Centre for Urban Equity, CEPT University, 2-4 March, 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://cept.ac.in/events/cue-conference