Female-Breadwinner Families in Europe

Lead Research Organisation: University of Southampton
Department Name: Sch of Economic, Social & Political Sci

Abstract

CONTEXT: In developed countries today women earn the largest share of their household income in about one in four couples (Winkler et al. 2005; Vitali et al. 2014). Families are therefore becoming increasingly dependent upon women's labour income, especially during the recent economic crisis (Harkness 2013). However, we do not know much about why female-breadwinner families emerge, and what implications they bring about.

AIMS & OBJECTIVES: This project will provide a detailed overview of female-breadwinner families in Europe and study the social and demographic outcomes that this change brings about for women, men and children. This will be the first project of its kind. It will have three main themes:

1. The emergence of a female-breadwinner model over time and space
-Which are the forerunner countries and regions in the emergence of female-breadwinner families and when did the female-breadwinner family started to emerge in Europe?
-Which institutional, normative and structural contexts facilitate the emergence of female-breadwinner families?
This phase of the project will benefit from research visits: Professors Esping-Andersen (UPF) and Van Bavel (University of Leuven), will mentor the PI on the relevant sociological theories of gender and power. Susan Harkness (University of Bath) will provide mentoring on how to treat income variables. Spatial econometric techniques and multilevel modelling will be applied and household income data will be gathered from the Luxembourg Income Study.

2. The drivers leading to the emergence of female-breadwinner families
-Why do women become breadwinners?
-Are female-breadwinner families prevalent among specific social classes and ethnic groups?
-Have the characteristics of female-breadwinner families changed over time?
These questions will be answered using Understanding Society data, which provides longitudinal data on labour income of both partners, and applying fixed effects panel models, which allow controlling for unobserved individual heterogeneity. Regression analyses on International Social Survey Programme data will be employed to show how preferences and socio-demographic characteristics have changed between 1988 and 2012.

3. The implications of the emergence of female-breadwinner families
-Are female-breadwinner families more at risk of union dissolution? This question will be answered in colaboration with Prof. Esping-Andersen during a research visit at UPF.
-Is the housework and childcare tasks allocation different in female-breadwinner families with respect to male-breadwinner and equal-earner families?
-Do women and men in female-breadwinner families have lower realized and intended fertility? This question will be answered in collaboration with Dr Testa during a research visit at VID.
-Do women, men and children in female-breadwinner families have lower levels of wellbeing and happiness?
These questions will be answered using data from Understanding Society and the Millennium Cohort Study (which provides information on happiness and wellbeing explicitly asked to children, in addition to parents). Fixed effects panel models will be employed.

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS & BENEFITS: The project will provide the first solid analysis in an area that, given the increasing educational attainment and earning potential of women, is likely to become even more prominent in the future and that will have implications for the European and national political agenda. Research findings will be:
-useful for UK and international policy makers in shaping family, employment and gender-egalitarian policies
-useful for the third sector by providing individual charities with the information needed to understand the changing dynamics of relationships, wellbeing, and risk of divorce for modern families
-relevant for members of the public by increasing awareness of the changing economic role of women in modern families.

Planned Impact

The proposed project aims to provide the first cross-country study on the causes and consequences of the emergence of female-breadwinner families in Europe, an area that has recently received increased interest from policy makers at the national and EU level setting policies aimed at increasing female labour force participation and achieving gender equality. This area is likely to become even more central in the public debate given the growing interest from charities, group communities and the public. In addition to academic beneficiaries, several potential beneficiaries from this research have been identified and agreed to participate in the project [see Pathways to Impact].

UK AND INTERNATIONAL POLICY MAKERS: Many family policies e.g. regarding parental leave are implicitly built on the notion that either the male-breadwinner or the equal-earner family models are in place and hence disregard the challenges faced by a non-negligible share of female-breadwinner families. Hence, acknowledging the emergence of female-breadwinner families will help to inform policy makers in shaping family and employment policies. About this project, COFACE, a confederation of 58 family organizations in 23 European countries, has said: "We believe that your research project will help policy makers and policy influencers, such is COFACE to have a much better understanding of the situation of families and help make better and more effective policies" [see letter of support].

THIRD SECTOR: Research on couples with women as main earners will help individual charities to better understand the changing dynamics of relationship, wellbeing, and risk of divorce for modern families. Potential beneficiaries of the research findings will be charities aimed at providing relationship support for couples such as Relate and OnePlusOne; offering support to men in crisis such as Calm (Campaign Against Living Miserably); helping working parents to achieve work-life balance such as Working Families; achieving women's equality and rights such as Fawcett Society.
About this project, Working Families has stated that: "We would like to understand more about the rise of female breadwinners. Through our work with employers we have begun to see a shift in some sectors towards a female breadwinner model, and would welcome the opportunity this research provides to gain a clearer picture of the resulting family, work and other dynamics" [see letter of support].

USERS COMMUNITIES: Examples of users' communities that will benefit from the project's findings include organizations and companies aimed at promoting gender equality and women's economic independence such as Women Budget Group and HEARST-Empowering Women, as well as those aimed at promoting conversations about manhood and masculinity such as Inside Man.

PUBLIC: The project will influence the general public by increasing public awareness of the changing economic role of women in modern families, about how and why these families emerge, and what trends in female breadwinning mean for women, men and children. A website and content featured on social media platforms (Twitter and Facebook) will serve this purpose.

ADVISORY BOARD: Representatives from third sector organizations, think tanks, private companies, EU-funded organizations as well as a number of world-leading academics have committed to be part of the project's advisory board. The board will assure a two-way dialogue between academics and stakeholder since the onset of the project thereby ensuring that the outputs will be relevant to stakeholders, users and policy makers.
 
Description The grant is now completed as I have started a new job abroad, despite an extension to Oct 2019 had previously been awarded. Despite the funding is over, the underlying research is very much still ongoing.

So far, the key findings suggested that, contrary to what previous research had hypothesised, the existence of female-breadwinner families seems to be associated with economic difficulties (male unemployment), rather than with gender equality.

A project's paper published in Demographic Research demonstrated that female-breadwinner families are more widespread in countries and regions within countries characterized by high male unemployment (Southern and Eastern Europe, Ireland and Scotland).

Analyses of the Luxembourg Income Study database show, in three separate papers, that:

1) since the 1970s in Europe, Australia and North America, the share of female-breadwinner couples increased in periods when male unemployment rates increase, to then decline in the following periods, suggesting that female breadwinning is a cyclical phenomenon linked to the business cycle. The share of couples with women as main earners, instead, continuously increased since the 1970s, supporting the spread of women's economic power within their families in light of theories of gender equality [Paper to be submitted to Population and Development Review].

2) Female-breadwinner couples are more likely to be poor (i.e. household disposable income < 60% of the median equivalized household disposable income in the country) and to report subjective economic deprivation (latter results based on data from European Social Survey data) compared to any other family type [Paper to be submitted to Work, Employment and Society].

3) Female-breadwinner families appear to be quite different from male-breadwinner families: Women in female-breadwinner families earn a lower labour income and are more likely to be employed in manual occupations and work fewer weekly hours, on average, compared to male breadwinners. Female-breadwinner families also appears to be quite different from couples with women as main earners: the latter category is mainly constituted of higher-earning women employed in professional/managerial occupations. Hence, a key result of the project is that in empirical analysis of couples' relative incomes, women as main earners and female breadwinners shall be considered as two separate categories [Paper to be submitted to Journal of European Social Policy].

Analyses of marriage register data for Italy show that couples with female breadwinners are more likely to opt for the separation of property at marriage, as opposed to the community of property, contrary to what found for male breadiwnners. The latter result is contained in a paper which has been accepted for publication (Feb 2019) in Journal of Marriage and teh Family, and contributes to the literature on resource pooling.

Analyses of Understanding Society data show differences across couple type in terms of fertility and mental wellbeing, they show that the distribution of social benefits differs across couple-types and that female-breadwinner couples are the most transient couple-type in the UK [Paper being finalised].

Analysis of the American cohort study NLSY-79 show that cohabiting couples with a woman earning more than her partner are less likely to transition to marriage and more likely to transition to union dissolution over time, compared to other couple types; however, these results become insignificant when total couples' incomes are included in the model, suggesting that reduced economic resources, rather than female breadwinning or main earning, influence couples' union transitions [Paper being finalised].
Exploitation Route Results from this project will help re-thinking the existing prejudice in the popular press and the media, which depict female breadwinners as high-educated, high-achieving women working in professional occupations.
Results from this project will establish that academic studies on couple typologies or partners' relative incomes should not group together couples with a female-breadwinner and couples with women earning more than their partners because these two groups represent very different men and women.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.cpc.ac.uk/projects/57/Female_Breadwinner_Families_in_Europe#overview
 
Description My Demographic Research paper co-authored with Bruno Arpino, and two WPs start to be cited, sometimes by scholars publishing in top journals such as European Sociological Review, Demography and included in a review paper published in the prestigious journal American Sociological Review. The findings achieved during the first year of the project and presented at the 2016 edition of the conference Momketing: New Mums, New Marketing, have stimulated the interest of FattoreMamma, the event organizer. For the 2017 edition of their Momeketing conference, FattoreMamma have included the topic of breadwinning and its consequences for women as a theme in their focus group research which has been presented at the event. In 2017, selected results from the project were presented at the Italian Parliament. During the final project workshop in December 2018, agreements were made with COFACE to work together on an impact strategy which would follow the publication of a policy brief based on results which will be published in peer-reviewed articles in the next year(s) so that they can be brought to the attention of European policy makers. The paper with Helen Kowalewska has received interest from the British Sociological Association (BSA). We have been contacted by the BSA, which is currently preparing a press release with the results contained in the paper Helen will be presenting at the BSA conference in April 2019. Had I had more time and resources, I would surely have invested hugely in the dissemination of results beyond academia. However, given the delays with the production of the research itself, the priority has been and continues to be to complete the data analysis and write up the papers.
 
Description Colaboration with Gosta Esping-Andersen and Bruno Arpino from Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain) 
Organisation Pompeu Fabra University
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution One research visit at Universitat Pompeu Fabra. During my research visit, I have finalized the revisions for the paper "Who brings home the bacon? The influence of context on partners' contributions to the household income.", co-authored with Bruno Arpino, which was then published in Demographic Research and we have started to plan the research activities linked to a future paper which will use Understanding Society data.
Collaborator Contribution My co-author worked with me at the revisions of our paper, and helped me to draft the idea for our future work together. My co-author also visited the University of Southampton (at his own expenses), at a later time in 2016 to continue our collaboration which is still ongoing.
Impact Vitali, A. and Arpino, B. (2016) Who brings home the bacon? The influence of context on partners' contributions to the household income. Demographic Research, 35 (41), 1213-1244.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Maria Rita Testa, VID, Vienna (Austria) 
Organisation University of Vienna
Department Vienna Institute of Demography
Country Austria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution One research visit at VID. During my research stay at VID, I worked with Maria Rita Testa to a project aimed at investigating fertility intentions in female-breadwinner families. I worked on data preparation and statistical analyses.
Collaborator Contribution Maria Rita brainstormed with me on the interpretation of results, the structure of the paper that we aim at writing, and she explored the possibility of using different sources of data for better tackling our proposed research question.
Impact We do not have any output yet as the research visit took place only 2 months ago. We have a draft paper which we have not yet finalised as a WP
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Romina Fraboni 
Organisation National Institute of Statistics
Country Italy 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This collaboration was initiated by me because I wanted to have access to the Italian marriage register data which is collected by Istat. I have coordinated the project, proposed the research question, written most of the paper's sections and presented the results at various conferences.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborator provided access to the data, she ran the statistical models that we have prepared together and reported the results back to me. She contributed to writing the paper.
Impact Vitali, A. and Fraboni, R. (2016) Why pool resources in marriage? A study on the choice of matrimonial property. CPC Working Paper 79, ESRC Centre for Population Change, UK. The paper was presented also at various conferences. We are now in the process of finalising the paper for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Changing Gender Inequalities, Changing Families? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Agnese Vitali gave an invited presentation at the 'Changing Gender Inequalities, Changing Families?' conference, Leuven, Belgium.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Female-breadwinner families workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop brought together members of the project's collaborators and advisory board to present the main results of the project. Academics working on similar topics were also invited to present so to make them aware of the work that is being done within this project.
Plans were made for future activities in terms engagement with third sector organizations and help for dissemination of research findings after the research will be accepted for publication in peer-reviewed journal. In particular, COFACE is willing to use a policy brief based on the project's main results.
Participants at the workshop engaged in social media activities, showcasing the main results of the research being presented on social media platforms.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Happy families? Male acceptance of equality in the home could define the future 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This article was commissioned by the Conversation on the occasion of the international day of families and has been co-published with the World Economic Forum.
The blog post reached 7,870 readers as of today, mainly international (13.2% are from the U.K.).
Academic colleagues have reported that they have used it as a reading om their modules.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://theconversation.com/happy-families-male-acceptance-of-equality-in-the-home-could-define-the-...
 
Description Identikit of moms 2.0: always connected, they decide (and sometimes pay) for the whole family 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article written by Eva Grippa for D-Lifestyle, Repubblica (in Italian), featuring my talk at 'Momketing: New Mums, New Marketing'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://d.repubblica.it/lifestyle/2016/11/08/foto/come_fare_maternita_2016_identikit_mamma_social_fat...
 
Description Initial Brainstorming Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact This workshop brought together members of the project's advisory board, constituted of national and international academics and national and international stakeholders (Relate, Working Families, IPPR, Population Europe, COFACE). The workshop was aimed at presenting the overall idea of the project and to identify specific research questions which were of interest to third sector organizations and research questions which would fill a gap in the academic literature. Plans were made for future activities in terms of academic collaborations as well as in terms of engagement with third sector organization and help for dissemination of research findings in subsequent steps.
For example, since then, Population Europe has been very active in helping me to disseminate the project's ongoing results using its social media channels; I have met separately with IPPR; I have been engaged in conversations with COFACE regarding the future directios of the project; I have had social media interactions with Relate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Mamme in parlamento: Incontro tra le nuove mamme digitali e le Istituzioni [Mums in Parliament: Meeting between the new digital moms and the Institutions] 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Agnese Vitali was invited by FattoreMamma to speak at an event held at Italian Parliament in Rome on the 6th June 2017 highlighting the problems faced by young families.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.fattoremamma.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Roma_6giu_programma_persito.pdf
 
Description Momketing 2017: Women are protagonists of the future 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Following the successful expereince in 2016, I was invited again by the Italian-based interest group FattoreMamma to give a keynote speech at their annual conference, Momketing, on the role of women as mothers, carer and workers within families in the developed world to a wide audience of bloggers and marketing managers working for a range of companies which offer products or services for mums and families. T
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.fattoremamma.com/momketing/
 
Description Momketing: New Mums, New Marketing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I was contacted by the Italian-based interest group FattoreMamma, a communication agency specialising in communication and marketing with mums. It provides consulting, marketing and communication services for companies targeting mums. It is also an on-line publisher of websites and apps for families, developing a wide range of interaction points online and offline and an advertising broker specialising in the "Mums and family" target audience. I gave a keynote speech on female-breadwinner families in Italy to a wide audience of bloggers and marketing managers working for a range of companies which offer products or services for mums and families.

The hashtag #momketing was trending on Twitter Italy. As a result, my own Twitter profile and tweets received hundreds of 'impression' in the weeks following the event. During the event, I met a journalist who writes for one of the main Italian paper (La Repubblica), she then wrote a piece featuring my talk titled "Identikit of moms 2.0: always connected, they decide (and sometimes pay) for the whole family" (translated from Italian), Dlifestyle, 9 November 2016: http://d.repubblica.it/lifestyle/2016/11/08/foto/c ome_fare_maternita_2016_identikit_mamma_social_fat toremamma_momketing_donne_decision_makers-3300793/ 7/#container Another piece featuring my talk, titled "Identikit of working mothers: Attentive, technological and with feeling of guilt" (translated from Italian), was published by Adnkronos: http://www.adnkronos.com/lavoro/dati/2016/11/03/at tenta-tecnologica-con-sensi-colpa-identikit-della- mamma-ufficio_aMKL5Zr0N7WOYywqOysy9N.html
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.fattoremamma.com/momketing/
 
Description N- IUSSP online news magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Following the publication of a paper in the journal Demographic Research, Agnese Vitali and her co-author Bruno Arpino were contacted by the editor of the online blog N-IUSSP, the IUSSP news magazine, which disseminates scientific findings from demographic research carried out all over the world.
This blog post allowed us to 'translate' the results of the scientific paper into a language understandable from the general public.
The link to the blog was advertised on Twitter
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.niussp.org/2016/11/28/geography-female-breadwinner-equal-income-couples-europela-geograph...
 
Description Oral presentation at EPC 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation of the paper "Four Decades of Changes in Partners' Relative Incomes: Gender Revolution or Men's Unemployment?" at the European Population Conference. Brussels, 6-9n June 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description PAA 2017 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Agnese Vitali presented the paper "Economic Dependency and Cohabiting Couples' Union Transitions" and the poster "Changes in Partners' Relative Incomes and the Gender Revolution" at the 2018 Population Association of America (PAA) conference in Chicago, USA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://paa.confex.com/paa/2017/meetingapp.cgi/Person/13755
 
Description Population and Health Research Group (PHRG) seminar series 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Agnese Vitali gave an invited seminar at the University of St Andrews, as part of the Population and Health Research Group (PHRG) seminar series.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at ECSR 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented my sole-authored paper "Changes in partners' relative incomes: Gender revolution or men's deteriorating economic circumstances?" at the European Consortium for Sociological Research in Milan
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at Female-Breadwinner Families Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jennifer Holland presented the paper "Economic dependency & cohabiting couples' union transitions" co-authored with Agnese Vitali at the Female-Breadwinner Families Workshop which Agnese organized in London at the Royal Astronomical Society on 12-13 December 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at Female-Breadwinner Families Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Romina Fraboni presented the paper "Gender differences in couples' matrimonial property regime in Italy" co-authored with Agnese Vitali at the Female-Breadwinner Families Workshop which Agnese organized in London at the Royal Astronomical Society on 12-13 December 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at Female-breadwinner families workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Agnese Vitali presented the paper "Four decades of change in partners' relative incomes" at the Female-Breadwinner Families Workshop which she organized in London at the Royal Astronomical Society on 12-13 December 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at Workshop Inequality within Couples: On the origin and relevance of the Intra-household Distribution of Economic Resources 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Romina Fraboni presented the paper "" at the Inequality within Couples: On the origin and relevance of the Intra-household Distribution of Economic Resources at Humboldt Universität Berlin, 1-2 October 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at the AISP Popdays 2017 conference, Florence (Italy) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Agnese Vitali presented the paper "Why pool resources in marriage? A study on the choice of matrimonial property regime in Italy", co-authored with Romina Fraboni
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at the British Society for Population Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented my sole-authored paper titled "Four decades of changes in partners' relative incomes: Gender revolution or men's unemployment?"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.lse.ac.uk/socialPolicy/Researchcentresandgroups/BSPS/annualConference/2017-Conference/Fam...
 
Description Presentation at the British Society for Population Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Agnese Vitali presented the paper "The educational gradient in resource pooling across native and foreign-born spouses in Italy" co-authored by Romina Fraboni
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at the European Consortium for Sociological Research (ECSR) 2016 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Agnese Vitali presented paper "Who brings home the bacon? The influence of context on partners' contributions to the household income" co-authored by Bruno Arpino.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at the European Population Conference, Mainz (Germany) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Three papers linked to the project were presented during this conference:

1) Partners' relative incomes and fertility intentions with Maria Rita Testa.
2) The educational gradient in matrimonial property regime among Italian and foreign spouses with Romina Fraboni.
3) Women's economic dependency and the transition to marriage with Jennifer Holland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at the Family and Fertility over the Life Course in Europe symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Melisa Sayli presented the paper "Couples' Relative Incomes and Subjective Well-being" co-authored with Agnese Vitali at the Family and Fertility over the Life Course in Europe symposium at the University of St Andrews, 15-16 November 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at the Female-Breadwinner Families Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Melisa Sayli presented the paper "Couples' Relative Incomes and Subjective Well-being" co-authored with Agnese Vitali at the Female-Breadwinner Families Workshop which Agnese organized in London at the Royal Astronomical Society on 12-13 December 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at the Female-Breadwinner Families Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Helen Kowalewska presented the paper "Breadwinning or On the Breadline? Female Breadwinners' Economic Characteristics across 21 Welfare States" co-authored with Agnese Vitali at the Female-Breadwinner Families Workshop which Agnese organized in London at the Royal Astronomical Society on 12-13 December 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at the Female-Breadwinner Families Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Melisa Sayli presented the paper "On the economic disadvantage of female-breadwinner families in the UK" co-authored with Agnese Vitali at the Female-Breadwinner Families Workshop which Agnese organized in London at the Royal Astronomical Society on 12-13 December 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at the Understanding population change in Europe and China: Sharing research experiences for policy development, University of Southampton 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Agnese Vitali presented an overview of female-breadwinner families in Europe to a delegation of Chinese academics and practitioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SISEC 2018 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Agnese Vitali presented the paper "The occupational and income gap between male and female breadwinners" at the 2018 conference of Italian Society for Economic Sociology (SISEC)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.sisec.it/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ultimissimissimo-assemblato.pdf
 
Description The geography of female-breadwinner and equal-income couples in Europe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Following the publication of the paper: Vitali, A. and Arpino, B. (2016) Who brings home the bacon? The influence of context on partners' contributions to the household income. Demographic Research, 35 (41), 1213-1244, Agnese Vitali and her co-author Bruno Arpino were contacted by the editor of the online blog N-IUSSP, the IUSSP news magazine, which disseminates scientific findings from demographic research carried out all over the world. This blog post allowed us to 'translate' the results of the scientific paper into a language understandable from the general public.
Following the publication of this blog post, I have received the request for writing another piece for Neodemos.org, aimed at disseminating these results in Italian.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.niussp.org/article/geography-female-breadwinner-equal-income-couples-europela-geographie-...
 
Description UBS Consumer Panel: What is a Millennial and how different are they? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I was asked to join a panel of experts at a consumer panel event titled "How do you monetise Millennials?" and organized by UBS in London. I was asked to speak about "What is a Millennial and how different are they?".
The audience was constituted of investors and portfolio managers. I have received many questions during the day, and requests for disseminating my presentation by email. The audience was particularly surprised to hear about the rising share of female breadwinners among the younger generations, and to think about what whether this will bring implications for the consumption profile of young couples today. I have received a request for a future collaboration for a similar event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Visit at IPPR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact I visited Giselle Cory at IPPR to speak about their previously published report on female breadwinners, to brainstorm about what we knew about the subject matter and to identify new questions which are relevant and which I could tackle within my project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Who are the new female breadwinners? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This article was commissioned by the Conversation.
The blog post has been read by 22,511 readers as of today, mainly international (64.8% from India, 10.8% from U.S.A.).
One commentator wrote "A very reasonable analysis of the situation. [...] Much has been written about the changing role of women, and the reasons for this. But I think a far greater knowledge is needed of the causes and effects of the growing pattern of unemployment among men."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/who-are-the-new-female-breadwinners-49521