BRAZIL-UK Healthy Urban Mobility (HUM)

Lead Research Organisation: Oxford Brookes University
Department Name: Faculty of Tech, Design and Environment

Abstract

Since the initiation of World Health Organization (WHO) Healthy Cities movement over thirty years ago there have been increased efforts to understand how the urban environment affects health outcomes and can produce more equitable health benefits. A key concern is the way in which the physical fabric of cities affects urban mobility and how this relates to health and wellbeing. Built environmental design supportive of walking and cycling ('active mobility') could help to promote moderate physical activity as part of daily travel routines delay biological ageing and age-related conditions and improve overall health and wellbeing. In the Global South, however, the rapid growth in private motorization and the lack of value placed on walking and cycling means the association between environmental attributes and active mobility are more complex. This is having a significant impact on the urban poor and low-income groups who already engage in, and rely on, walking and cycling (and public transport) to meet their daily travel needs. The trend in the Global North, meanwhile, particularly in countries like the UK, is towards a decrease in physical activity and this is associated with more widespread private car use, obesogenic environments and greater mechanisation in the home, workplace and public places. The implementation of healthy urban mobility as part of the broader Healthy Cities concept, therefore, presents serious challenges in both the Global South and Global North and requires different approaches towards its realisation. The focus of the BRAZIL-UK Healthy Urban Mobility (HUM) research is on understanding the impact of personal (im)mobility on both individual and community health and wellbeing of different neighbourhoods in Brazil and in the UK, and developing a participatory approach to support and develop healthy urban mobility and to address health inequalities and injustice. The investigation will use a mixed method approach comprising five specific field research components (a) spatial mapping to understand the physical and built environment context in which mobility takes place (b) a social survey to capture mobility and health and wellbeing profiles of selected communities (c) in-depth biographic interviews to understand role of past experiences of mobility and the rationale behind selected modes of mobility - 'mobile trajectories' (d) micro-ethnographies through mobile interviews to capture contemporary everyday experience of being (im)mobile and (e) a participatory approach to involve the local community in identifying problems and solutions for healthy urban mobility and community wellbeing. The work will focus in three Brazilian cities and one UK city: Brazilia (Federal State), Florianopolis (State of Santa Catarina), Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul) and Oxford (Southern England). These are chosen because of their different spatial and demographic characteristics and the challenges they are facing in relation to promoting healthy urban mobility. Empirical research will be timed such that it will be conducted in parallel in both Brazil and the UK using exactly the same approach and methods so that the UK-BRAZIL multidisciplinary team can engage in co-learning and knowledge exchange and more specifically (a) evaluate the overall approach and methodologies; (b) compare datasets between cities and between Brazil and UK; and, (c) evaluate potential policies and delivery models to promote healthy urban mobility in different contexts. Through the combination of novel research methods to experiment and assess and actively involve communities and stakeholders in active dialogue and mutual learning we hope to develop new approaches to mobility planning that seek to address health inequalities within urban areas.

Planned Impact

Non-academic users of this research cover different range of stakeholders that can benefit from the outputs and findings of the work in the short, medium and long term. At the community level key immediate and long term beneficiaries will be the urban residents in Brazil and UK particularly the case cities of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Florianopolis and Oxford. They will benefit from the outputs of the work through raising awareness and capacities for instituting healthier mobility policies and practices for enhanced health and wellbeing at city and community levels. These include formal and informal (Brazilian) low income settlements. The research, therefore, will contribute to greater equity among different socio-economic groups and neighbourhoods. The local residents of the different case study neighbourhoods will also benefit through direct participation in the research process and social survey data gathering training methods that will enhance their abilities for impacting decisions on their neighbourhoods not only in relation to this research and mobility but more widely in terms of public and private sector interventions in other spheres related to urban development and social/health policies. In the longer term the local residents will also benefit in terms of their reduced morbidity and injuries and enhanced general wellbeing that will improve their quality of life and provide greater scope for pursuing social and economic (livelihood) objectives both in terms of improved physical capacities and reduced medical costs.
Additional direct beneficiaries in the medium to long term periods are local municipalities as well as city, state and central government public organisations and policy makers who are involved in policy design and implementation for urban mobility, health and urban development. They will benefit by being able to use the results of the research for articulating more effective and equitable mobility policies to enhance health and wellbeing and their more effective implementation through direct involvement with the local citizens in participatory workshops and better recognition of their needs and priorities. In addition to interacting with local citizens they will also get the benefit of interaction with a wider range of policy makers from different policy areas as well as NGOs and professionals in the fields of mobility and health and urban development more generally. Overall we expect that through their participation in the research process we can contribute to developing new skills and shifting attitudes among policy makers and public officials as well as the professional communities towards a more holistic understanding of health and mobility and urban development that is focused on local needs, and values co-learning and effective participatory approaches with the local communities.
In the longer term local and international development, planning and mobility professionals, NGOs, and community activists can utilise the results in their advocacy and mobility/development related activities. Similar to the public policy makers we envisage that representatives of the relevant local professional and NGO communities can participate in the research process that itself will enhance their understanding and capacities in terms of working in the field of health and mobility but also acquire transferable lessons that can be applied in the field of urban development more generally.
In addition UK government and international donor and development organisations (e.g., DFID, UN-Habitat, WHO, UNEP, World Bank) can have more informed aid, development and advocacy work in Brazil. Finally, considering that some 1.2% of GDP in Brazil is lost due to road accident crashes in the longer term this work will contribute to reducing the burden of disease and injury at city and national levels and thereby contribute to overall economic growth and development.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title We want our number 20 bus back! 
Description In the autumn of 2017 four residents of Rose Hill Oxford learned how to make films on a course run by Film Oxford. They applied their new skills to creating two films relating to Healthy Urban Mobility issues. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact Discussion with County Council and bus operators on reinstatement of the number 20 bus serving Rose Hill community. 
URL https://www.hum-mus.org/en/media/
 
Title Why do people cycle in Rose Hill - or not? 
Description In the autumn of 2017 four residents of Rose Hill Oxford learned how to make films on a course run by Film Oxford. They applied their new skills to creating two films relating to Healthy Urban Mobility issues. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The video prompted a petition on change.org by Rose Hill and Iffley Low Carbon Group for separate, continuous cycle tracks. The petition was delivered to Oxfordshire County Council on 27 March 2018. 
URL https://www.change.org/p/rose-hill-and-iffley-low-carbon-oxford-needs-separate-continuous-cycle-trac...
 
Title Biographical Interviews and Mobile Methods Workshop in Porto Alegre 
Description Methods workshop at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul led by Oxford Brookes University exploring the theoretical basis and links between mobility biographies and mobile methods and also putting them into practice. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Trained researchers engaged with the HUM project from Brasilia, Florianopolis and Porto Alegre in administering biographical interviews and mobile methods. 
URL https://www.hum-mus.org/en/methods-workshop-case-study-sites-porto-alegre-via-brasilia/
 
Description British Society of Gerontology Special Interest Group on Transport and Mobility inaugural meeting 
Organisation British Society of Gerontology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution This one day seminar was organised by the Oxford Brookes HUM team in collaboration with the British Society of Gerontology, colleagues at Swansea University, Oxfordshire County Council Public Health and the Barton Community Association (Oxford). We hosted the first half of the day at Brookes before moving on to Barton for the afternoon.
Collaborator Contribution Partners organised the afternoon session with speakers from Oxfordshire County Council Public Health, Oxfordshire Clinical Commissioning Group and Oxford City Council.
Impact Increased understanding of ageing and mobility issues in the Oxford context and strengthened partnerships with researchers at other institutions.
Start Year 2017
 
Description NICE - Expert Advisers for the NICE Centre for Guidelines 
Organisation National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution PI Jones invited to become an Expert Adviser for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Centre for Guidelines from March 2018 to March 2021.
Collaborator Contribution Over the next 3 years, PI Jones may be invited to contribute to the following types of activities: ? Giving advice - for example on the impact of new evidence in relation to updating the guidance. ? Participating in committees as a topic specialist member. ? Performing peer reviews - for example reviewing a component of the guideline such as an evidence review or economic model.
Impact Over the next 3 years, PI Jones may be invited to contribute to the following types of activities: ? Giving advice - for example on the impact of new evidence in relation to updating the guidance. ? Participating in committees as a topic specialist member. ? Performing peer reviews - for example reviewing a component of the guideline such as an evidence review or economic model.
Start Year 2018
 
Description (Em)powering Mobilities:Cities|Architecture|Justice - Aalborg University, Aalborg, DK - 28-30 August 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented paper: 'Staging [Healthy] Urban Mobility' at (Em)powering Mobilities:Cities|Architecture|Justice - Aalborg University, Aalborg, DK - 28-30 August 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.c-mus.aau.dk/digitalAssets/404/404731_c-mus-2018-conference-session-prog-v.-12.pdf
 
Description Barton Health and Wellbieng Partnership Meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Taking part in Barton Health and Wellbieng Partnership Meetings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Barton Spring Walkabout 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Barton Spring Walkabout - Participated in a tour of Barton with local Councillors and Community Organisations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cycle City Active City Manchester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented paper: 'Cycling on the margins: suburban cycling in Oxford' at Cycle City Active City Manchester 28-29 June 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://landor.co.uk/cyclecitymanchester/home.php
 
Description Habitat III is the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development | Quito, Ecuador | 17 - 20 October 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Co-Investigator Professor Ramin Keivani took part in a special panel debate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://habitat3.org/
 
Description Healthy Urban Mobility / Mobilidade Urbana Saudavel dual language (En/Pt) website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Development and launch of the Healthy Urban Mobility / Mobilidade Urbana Saudavel dual language (En/Pt) website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.hum-mus.org/en/home/
 
Description Invited participant: Urban Planning and Mobility PhD workshop at Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Umwelt Nürtingen-Geislingen (HfWU) und Technische Universität München (TUM). 24-25 November 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited participant: Urban Planning and Mobility PhD workshop at Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Umwelt Nürtingen-Geislingen (HfWU) und Technische Universität München (TUM). 24-25 November 2017, Nurtingen ISI Institut für Stadt und Immobilie der Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Umwelt Nürtingen-Geislingen (HfWU), Germany.Discussed HUM research. The ambition is to develop international collaboration between SoBE-OBU and HfWU and TUM.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Jones, T. Spencer, B. (2018). A Tale of Two Cities:Presentation Moving around edge estates in Oxford at, Health: The Design, Planning and Politics of How and Where we Live WHO/AMPS Conference, 25-26 January 2018, UWE Bristol. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presenting interim results from Oxford case neighbourhoods.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www1.uwe.ac.uk/et/research/who/amps2018conference.aspx
 
Description Overview of Healthy Urban Mobility project in Spring 2016 Research Forum - Oxford Brookes University's in-house research newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Available at https://www.hum-mus.org/en/media/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.hum-mus.org/en/media/
 
Description PI Jones was invited panellist: Evaluation and active travel - what's the problem? Active Travel Evaluation. 6 December 2017, University of Westminster, London UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Outcome: Contacted by Deputy Director, Local Transport, Economics of Regional and Local Transport for input, "We didn't manage to speak at yesterday's event on Cycling and Walking. But I found what you had to say very interesting. There was a lot of food for thought from you and the other speakers.. I hope you don't mind this cold email. But was struck by there being a real body of knowledge and skill that we should use. It would be helpful if we could have a chat on the phone." This has resulted in being invited to a seminar on 27 March 2018 to present walking and cycling research and to 'start a conversation flowing with ideas and information sharing on policy, analysis and evaluation'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Poster Presentation at Active Living Research Conference. 11-14 February, Banff, Canada. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Pi Jones presented a poster on the Healthy Urban Mobility project at Active Living Research Conference, 11-14 February, Banff, Canada.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.activelivingresearch.org/annual-conference-2018
 
Description RISE Co-Creation workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Ran a session 'Video as Co-Creation: Some Reflections from Oxford' - 24 May 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.co-creation-network.org/
 
Description Ramin Keivani (invited talk) Planetary Health and Urban Sustainability, United Nations University - International Institute for Global Health, World Urban Forum, Kuala Lumpur, 11 February 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Ramin Keivani (invited talk) Planetary Health and Urban Sustainability, United Nations University - International Institute for Global Health, World Urban Forum, Kuala Lumpur, 11 February.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://wuf9.org/
 
Description Rose Hill Cycling Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Hosted a stall at Rose Hill Cycling Festival Sunday 17 June 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://oxfordgreenweek.org/events/rose-hill-bike-day/
 
Description The role of electric cycles in the healthy city. Presented at Healthy City Design 2017. Unleashing Health by Design: Creating a Culture of Wellness in our Cities. Royal College of Physicians, 16-17 October 2017, London, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presented from EPSRC cycle BOOM study and also ESRC Healthy Urban Mobility
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://healthycitydesign2017.salus.global/conference-show/healthy-city-design-2017
 
Description UK-Brazil Healthy Urban Mobility: Initial Insights. Presented at School of the Built Environment Seminar Series. 7 November 2017, Faculty of Technology, Design and Environment, Oxford Brookes University. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Present HUM project to colleagues and students in the Faculty of Technology Design and Environment, Oxford Brookes University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Understanding transport and mobility inequalities in Oxford. Presentation at the Transport and Health Summit 2018, Portsmouth UK, 1-2 March 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the Transport & Health Summit 2018, Portsmouth UK, 1-2 March 2018. Audience included transport, public health and third sector organisations from the UK and Europe. The presentation generated particular interest in the qualitative methods used from high-level officers at two local authorities and international transport consultants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://landor.co.uk/transporthealth/2018/programme2.php
 
Description Urban Transitions 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presented 'Healthy urban mobility in low income housing areas in Brazil and UK' at Urban Transitions 25 - 27 November 2018 - Sitges, Spain
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.elsevier.com/events/conferences/urban-transitions
 
Description Video presentations United National University - International Institute for Global Health, 6-13 February 2018, as part of the World Urban Forum 9 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Video presentations highlighting mobile research methods from the Oxford fieldwork at the booth of United National University - International Institute for Global Health during 6-13 February 2018 as part of the World Urban Forum 9 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018