Understanding the Role of Faith Based Organisations in Anti-Trafficking

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sheffield
Department Name: Sociological Studies

Abstract

This research will be at the forefront of providing a deeper understanding of changes to the welfare state in neoliberal capitalist societies and the role of religion in the public life of secular societies by exploring how faith shapes anti-trafficking responses.

The terms 'human trafficking' and 'modern slavery' have a range of meanings and therefore estimations of their precise scale are contested, but commonly indicate a global growth of these practices. The International Labour Organization estimates that worldwide, at any one time, there are 2.5 million people in sexual or labour exploitation. These trends indicate an urgency of response and there is growing concern and attention to tackling modern slavery from governments and civil society . Responses are varied, ranging from international criminal justice legislation right through to local civil society activities.

Innovative in nature, this research addresses a significant gap in our understanding of anti-trafficking efforts - the growing role of faith based organisations (FBOs) in anti-trafficking efforts to tackle 'modern slavery' in England. FBOs include 'faith-based NGOs' that offer support to marginalised groups, but also other types of religious organisation from 'apex bodies' that represent faith traditions in the UK (e.g. the Church of England, the Sikh Council UK) to individual places of worship.

The study will provide important new insights into the role of FBOs in three areas: support for trafficked persons; campaigns and public awareness; and government and statutory responses. These areas will be explored through the following research questions:

1. Who are the FBOs operating in the field of support and provision and what are their roles?

2. What representations of trafficking circulate in campaigns and public awareness?

3. Why has there been a growth of FBOs in UK provision and responses to trafficking?

Bringing together the disciplines of Sociology, Human Geography and Religious Studies, the study combines: mapping of faith positions held by anti-trafficking organisations; case studies of service providers across the faith-secular spectrum involving qualitative in-depth interviews with managers, volunteers and trafficked persons; textual and visual analysis of organisational and campaign materials; analysis of Parliamentary debates coupled with interviews with key statutory figures; and international exploration of the anti-trafficking landscape in selected European locations. The research will consider whether the particular features of the UK case are exceptional by exploring alternative faith/ secular spectrums in anti-trafficking responses in The Netherlands, a secular Protestant country where a prominent anti-trafficking network is based, and Spain, a Catholic country where there are examples of radical faith-based responses.

The project will build a new body of empirical evidence to critically explore our understanding of the role of FBOs in tackling 'modern slavery' in a mixed welfare economy and will maximise the potential for societal and academic impact in this field. The findings will offer significant new knowledge with the potential to improve anti-trafficking practice and help build secure futures for trafficked individuals. Research beneficiaries and users will be engaged through outputs targeted at specific audiences, to include: practitioner workshops to develop a guide and video for faith-based services to identify the most effective mechanisms for supporting trafficked individuals and designing public communications on trafficking, articles in international peer-reviewed journals and relevant practitioner journals; and a closing symposium to launch the research report and guide. The goal of the research is to influence policy and practice alongside furthering our academic understanding in this area.

Planned Impact

The findings will offer significant new knowledge with the potential to improve anti-trafficking (AT) practice. They will positively influence the possibilities for recognition and implementation of effective mechanisms for building secure futures for trafficked persons (TP) which can better enable the making of informed decisions to overcome difficulties. The research beneficiaries will be engaged through activities and outputs targeted at specific audiences, drawing on AT academic and non-academic networks to advertise events and disseminate outputs, to include:
1. TP service providers and the TPs they work with. The research will directly consider models of service provision across a secular/ faith spectrum. It will explore the role of faith in supporting trafficked persons offering findings and outcomes relevant to organisations within the National Trafficking Support Contract, non-contracted service providers, and faith actors.
2. Faith-based organisation (FBO) and faith networks, representative faith bodies, religious leaders and informal faith groups working directly with, or encountering, TP. Research and impact activities designed for faith actors will develop awareness of the role of secular and faith-based organisations in AT work, and offer guidance and workshops to enhance practice and develop appreciation of rights-based approaches to offer the potential for longer term improvements to postsecular relationships in this area of welfare.
3. Lobbying, NGO and campaigning organisations involved in modern slavery and human trafficking awareness work in the UK and beyond. These groups will benefit from debates generated on the role of faith in representations of trafficking and whether this contributes to or detracts from wider goals to combat 'modern slavery', linking with more developed discussion of these issues in the United States.
4. Migrant, refugee, women's support and advice sector. This sector will have a strong interest in exploration of the religious dimensions of governmental funding and relationships, and in discussing the most effective sources of support for TP. This has relevance for the future of the migrant sector and linked areas of welfare provision with postsecular dimensions including homelessness, family planning, food aid and youth work.
5. Government officials, senior figures, and local, regional, national policymakers. The research will contribute to improved understandings of postsecular relationships and the role of FBOs in the highly topical area of modern slavery, with the UK positing itself as a world leader. Beneficiaries will include civil servants involved in 'combatting modern slavery' and contracting services, particularly in the Home Office; key governmental modern slavery figures in the Police, politicians (Lords and MPs involved in Modern Slavery Act debates and committees); equality and migrants' rights policy-makers and lobbyists such as the Equality and Human Rights Commission.
6. International stakeholders in the Netherlands and Spain will benefit from the in-depth UK research findings, and will ensure our research's wider resonance. This is of interest to European networks (e.g. the Spanish Network Against the Trade in People, La Strada International European network, Churches Commission for Migrants in Europe) and beyond Europe (e.g. Free the Slaves, GAATW, Santa Marta).
With extensive experience of working in the migrant sector as a volunteer and policy researcher, the PI is capable of bridging the worlds of policy and academia. The PI and Co-Is have extensive track records of practitioner publications and user engagement with non-academic stakeholders; their network of contacts in AT and FBOs will play a key role in maximising the potential for research impact. Impact activities will be significantly enhanced by the commitment and expertise of research partners who have engaged in consultation on the development of this proposal.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Unhidden in Plain Sight image collection 
Description Photographer Jeremy Abrahams worked with academics Hannah Lewis and Gwyneth Lonergan at the University of Sheffield, and three anti-trafficking organisation partners to develop a collection of photographs associated with text to communicate complex journeys into and out of modern slavery. The purpose is to challenge objectifying, sexualised or sensationalist imagery commonly seen in anti-modern slavery communications. The collection shows a journey from arrival, into exploitation and out into long-term journey away from severe exploitation. The aim of the project was to centre personhood, complexity and agency of individuals in order to distance from dehumanising images of people, usually in little clothing, often in ropes or chains which do not reflect the realities of contemporary coercion. The project considers challenging 'typical' objectifying and unrealistic modern slavery images important because if the images used to depict modern slavery are inaccurate, the risk is that they suggest solutions that will be ineffective. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact The collection was displayed during the ten-day Festival of the Mind in the Sheffield Winter Garden, 20-30 September 2018. The Winter Garden has a footfall of several thousand members of public a week. 51 people completed and returned feedback forms. Of these, 37 said they would do something differently as a result. Many of the responses indicated that the careful attention to detail in the exhibit had desired and notable impacts: "More awareness of the presence of people dealing with the long term impacts of trafficking. The CV was also a really effective supplement - way of thinking about the disruption this causes in the person's life trajectory and how to rebuild normal life from it". "Yes - the co-op programme. Also seeing how much human trafficking is from a personal journey." The decision was taken to use an actor and to construct a 'montage' of issues affecting many people in or exiting from 'modern slavery'. Feedback indicated this was successful: "The story of a fictional character via photographs. Unbelievably powerful." Even though the specific goal to challenge images using 'chains' was not mentioned in the exhibition, this was noticed: "Yes - that exploitation does not have to be represented by chains. That there are 'chains' we cannot see and that recovery takes a long time and is a long process.". Our intention to challenge a singular focus on 'rescue' as an end point to intervention was also picked up: "More awareness of long-term impact as a form of trauma inadequacy of 'rescue' on its own.". As a result of viewing the exhibition, 31 said they were more likely to donate to an anti-trafficking charity; 22 more likely to volunteer for an anti-trafficking charity; and 24 more likely to write to their MP about modern slavery. 
URL http://www.jeremyabahams.co.uk/unhidden
 
Description In the first year of the research, we have been engaging with key organisations as participants in the research. Those that have a faith orientation have described how internal discussions about engagement with this research project have triggered reflection on the manner in which faith is represented by the organisation in public documents, etc. websites, and in their daily activities. In the second year of this research we have engaged in three significant activities with non-academic audiences: Unhidden, a photography collaboration; the Slavery and Trafficking Care Standards; and the Joint Learning Initiative (JLI) on Faith & Local Communities - Anti Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery Hub. Through Unhidden, NGO partners described how discussions about academic understandings of agency and precarity led them to stop using the term 'vulnerability' in their external training on modern slavery, and to instead emphasise more multiple forms of precariousness and structural (over personal/psychological) factors. The image work through Unhidden has begun to have some notable non-academic impacts. We have begun discussions with the Cabinet Office to present this work to a cross-government meeting of communications professionals whose work relates to modern slavery. We are developing a network of NGOs and government representatives to form a virtual advisory group to develop a guidelines document on the ethical use of images. The Human Trafficking Foundation, the Office of the Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner, Stop the Traffick, and La Strada International, as well as the Spanish Network Against the Traffick (Red Espanola Contra La Trata), among others, have expressed interest in helping to develop and to share the guidelines when they become available. We worked with the Human Trafficking Foundation and Equality and Human Rights Commission to include a clause on non-proselytisation in survivor care for people exiting modern slavery. We hope this will highlight the necessity of openness of services to individuals regardless of religion, and will clarify the need for separation of the promotion of religion from service provision. The Home Office has agreed to use these Standards as a basis for re-contracting government funded provision for suspected victims of modern slavery. Through the JLI Hub we are able to immediately disseminate emerging research findings to shape international practice of faith based organisations in anti-trafficking.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Citation in The Slavery and Trafficking Survivor Care Standards, influenced and drafted inclusion of 'non-proselytisation' clause
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://www.humantraffickingfoundation.org/s/HTF-Care-Standards-Spreads-2.pdf
 
Description Festival of the Mind
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Sheffield 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 09/2018
 
Description Joint Learning Initiative on Faith & Local Communities - Anti Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery Hub 
Organisation Salvation Army
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution 2017 Professor Emma Tomalin (co-I) has led the establishment of a new hub in the JLI on Faith and Local Communities on 'Anti Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery'. As a co-Director she has established the hub, setting up Terms of Reference, sharing contacts to identify key organisations and individuals to invite as members, and has participating in the launch event (20 October 2017), along with Research Associate Gwyneth Lonergan. 2018 The activities of the JLI in 2018 have included: 1. Scoping study - May 2018 - £10,000 grant from Anglican Alliance to prepare a scoping study on the role of local faith actors in anti-human trafficking activities. - August 2018: employ Dr John Frame to lead scoping study, with support from two University of Leeds undergraduate students on work placement. The timeline for this work is as follows: TIMELINE Literature Review: September 2018-November 2018 Gap Map Analysis: November 2018 Interviews and write-up: November 2018-January 2019 Finalise and launch study: March 2019 CONTENTS/STRUCTURE OF SCOPING STUDY (provisional) 1. Executive Summary 2. Introduction: the Hub's purpose and its strategic goals 3. Gap map analysis and introduction of themes explored in the remainder of the report 4. Presentation and discussion of the material (a synthesis of literature, interviews, and case studies) 5. Key audiences and recommended policy processes to influence, gleaned from the policy mapping process 6. Areas to be followed up by the JLI next (i.e. recommendations) 2. A further £10,000 has been secured from the Anglican Alliance to expand the focus of the scoping study to also cover the global north. 3. Event: Anglican Communion Office, London - 20/2/19: this international event involved Salvation Army and Anglican Alliance anti-trafficking staff and involved an introduction to the JLI, an update on the scoping study and workshop activities. 30 people attended and there was also an online hub meeting involving a further 15 people in different locations across the globe. 4. Dr Christa Crawford from Payap University, Thailand, has joined the hub as regional Asia Pacific co-chair. https://www.freedomresource.org/about-us
Collaborator Contribution The hub is jointly led by Professor Emma Tomalin and Anna Gregora, The Salvation Army. The Salvation Army and Anglican Alliance organised the JLI London event, 20th February 2019, organised a venue and invitations. The Salvation Army have contributed time and expertise to funding applications made for the JLI.
Impact A funding proposal to support the work of the hub was developed and submitted to the British Council, Bridging Voices. The hub is multidisciplinary: development studies, politics, sociology, religious studies.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Departmental seminar, Sociological Studies, Sheffield, 25.5.17 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Paper: ''Modern slavery and human trafficking': The re-emergence of the intersection of faith and slavery in postsecular contexts'. 16 university colleagues and 3 practitioners from anti trafficking organisations attended this research seminar. The academic audience included colleagues from law, criminology, sociology, social work. The difficulties of representing modern slavery in images in campaigns and charitable work were discussed. Third sector representatives requested to participate in the study.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/socstudies/research/research-seminars/archive
 
Description Development Studies Association conference panel, 27-29 June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Prof Emma Tomalin organised a panel at the annual Development Studies Association conference entitled 'The role of faith identities and actors in combating modern slavery and human trafficking' at the University of Manchester, 27-29th June 2018, around 20 people attended, international academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Association for the Study of Forced Migration conference 2018, Thessaloniki, Greece 24-27 July 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Hannah Lewis organised a panel with Dr Patricia Hynes (Bedfordshire) and presented a paper in the panel at the IASFM 17 conference in July 2018, Thessaloniki Greece, 25 July 2018.
Panel: What are the relationships between human trafficking, modern slavery and forced migration?
Paper: Victimhood and deservingness in forced migration and modern slavery.

An interested group of postgraduates gathered afterwards saying they had not considered the agency of those involved in process of human trafficking.
The panel developed links with the group of scholars working on human trafficking at the University of Befordshire.
We are developing the papers for submission as a special edition of a journal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Sociological Association World Forum, Toronto, July 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper: Secularization or specialization? Understanding the roles of faith based organisations in anti-trafficking in the UK
ISA World Forum July 15-21
Panel: RC 19 (Sociology of Poverty, Social Welfare and Policy) Rethinking the Religion and Social Policy Nexus at the Global Level
- discussion of a special edition emerging from the panel
- sharing data across countries/ fields of faith practice, especially food banks in Germany and Wales
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description JLI Event, 20 February 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Anglican Communion Office, London - 20/2/19: this international event involved Salvation Army and Anglican Alliance anti-trafficking staff and involved an introduction to the JLI, an update on the scoping study and workshop activities. 30 people attended and there was also an online hub meeting involving a further 15 people in different locations across the globe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Launch event JLI Anti Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery Hub 20.10.17 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact 30 practitioners and religious leaders who have an interest in anti-trafficking and faith attended the London launch of the JLI hub. The main outcome was networking and creating connections to establish the work of the hub.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://aht-ms.jliflc.com/
 
Description Paper at BSA SocRel Chair's Response Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper presented as part of the British Sociological Association Sociology of Religion Study Group Chair's Day, 2.5.18.
Paper title: 'Becoming 'professional': secularisation and questions of identity among FBOs involved in anti-trafficking.'
The paper offered a critical perspective on the contracting of faith based organisations by government to deliver primary welfare services; while other perspectives on they day were largely complimentary, sparking debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Religion and Immigration workshop, Leeds, 19 June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Drs Waite, Tomalin and Lonergan presented a paper on faith & modern slavery about the research study. The event was attended by a specialist group of academics and practitioners working in the field of faith & migration issues. A fullsome debate was had about the independence or co-option of church and other faith actors in political projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Royal Geographical Society-IGB conference panel & paper, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Waite and Dr Lewis organised a panel on 'Faith and Social Action' at the RGS-IGB 2017, 31 August 2017 which brought together a double panel of academics working on research addressing diverse fields of social welfare/ action and the role of faith based organisations. The networking enabled by the panel created valuable international academic links between researchers in this sub-field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.rgs.org/WhatsOn/ConferencesAndSeminars/Annual+International+Conference/
 
Description St Mary's Conference Modern Slavery, 9 February 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Waite presented a paper on faith and modern slavery at the First International Conference on Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking organised by the new Centre for the Study of Modern Slavery at St Mary's University, Twickenham. The conference was attended by high profile actors, politicians and faith leaders in the field of tackling modern slavery in the UK, including the Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner for the UK, Kevin Hyland. The conference offered a valuable opportunity to connect with faith-inspired researchers and practitioners operating in the field of modern slavery.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.stmarys.ac.uk/events/2017/02/centre-study-modern-slavery-international-conference
 
Description Talk to PG and UG new students, 21.9.17 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Research paper presented to UG and PG students as part of Intro week to profile research being undertaken in the department. There was a long discussion, and several PGs stayed to continue to discuss the issues raised, which had implications for their work on sexual exploitation, social work, immigration policy, etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017