Effects of Mental Representations of Children on Prosocial Motivation

Lead Research Organisation: University of Bath
Department Name: Psychology

Abstract

Children have the potential to elicit concern about the plight of others and the world in which we live. This potential appears in diverse ways. After the news media covering the Syrian migrant crisis showed images of a dead boy, Aylan Kurdi, washed up on a beach, condemnation of the migrant crisis escalated (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-34133210). Several months later, the birth of a baby daughter to Priscilla Chan and her partner, Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg, led them to donate £30bn toward charitable causes, explicitly attempting to make the world a better place for her to grow up ("Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg to give away 99% of shares," n.d.). These incidents fit many organisations' assumptions that they can enhance interest and support for poverty and environmental concerns by putting children front and centre in their campaigns (e.g., ActOnCO2's "bedtime story": https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SDthR9RH0gw).

Although this anecdotal evidence is provocative, research has not directly examined the role of children in adult prosocial motivation. To be clear, the issue is not whether children elicit more benevolence toward them, the issue is whether children elicit moral motivations to be more considerate of others in general. The proposed research tests whether children causes an increase in adults' prosocial motivation. We expect that the salience of children inspires adults to shift into a motivational focus that enables them to transcend their own needs and to consider the welfare of others.
This hypothesis received provocative support in two pilot experiments, wherein the task of imagining and describing a child caused participants to place more importance on pro-social values (e.g., helpfulness, forgiving). However, before being confident in the conclusion that the salience of children increases prosocial motivation, it is important to complete experiments addressing four relevant issues. First, we need to test whether the salience of children increases prosocial motivation in adults across experimental paradigms featuring children of different ages, different measures of prosocial motivation, and different means of making them salient (e.g., music versus narratives). Second, we need to test whether child salience is more likely to elicit pro-social motivation among individuals who are more positive toward children than among individuals who are more negative toward them. Third, we need to discover whether the effects of child salience on pro-social motivation are due to temporary changes in thinking or more thoughtful, long-term changes in prosocial motivation. Fourth, we need to discover whether child salience can elicit greater persuasion from messages advocating socially responsible behaviour, such as environmentally sustainable actions.

These issues will be examined across six experiments, all of which will be conducted with participants from the community, including parents and non-parents. The first two experiments will focus on the first two issues described above - issues that focus on when thoughts about children increase prosocial motivation. The next two experiments will focus on the third question described above, examining how thoughts about children influence prosocial motivation. The final two experiments will begin to address the final question above, helping to assess implications for behaviour change. Together, the experiments will help to address a glaring lack of knowledge about the role of children in adult social cognition and behaviour, making an important scientific contribution with eventual societal implications.

Planned Impact

WHO WILL BENEFIT?

The major aim of this proposal is to alert scientists who study psychology about the importance of mental representations of children in human social cognition. Beyond this basic relevance to the academic community, the research will be of interest to numerous governmental and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) involved in child policy, including the Children's Commissioner for England, Child Rights Information Network, Children in Wales, Department of Children, Education, Lifelong learning & Skills (Welsh Assembly Government), European Network of Ombudspersons for Children, Funky Dragon, National Children's Bureau, Office of the Children's Commissioner for Wales, Scotland's Commissioner for Children and Young People, Welsh UNCRC Monitoring Committee hosted at Save the Children, Youth Justice Board for England and Wales. The Children's Society, Save the Children, Common Cause Foundation, and the Children's Rights Alliance for England have offered support for this proposal, including feedback on our aims, designs, and impact (already integrated in this proposal) and membership in our Advisory Board.

The findings will also benefit public, private, and third-sector groups that have an interest in the role of children in adult cognition and behaviour. These include government departments interested in promoting health and the environment, private organisations (e.g., sporting stadia, restaurants, residences) that make decisions about whether to include or exclude children from areas in their premises, and diverse charities that attempt to promote compassionate aims.

HOW WILL THEY BENEFIT?

Although the focus of this research is on basic psychological processes, the research will help stimulate thinking about a potential role of children in social cohesion. These effects are relevant to improving the effectiveness of public services and policy. For instance, there have been attempts to expand the presence of children at sporting events that have been traditionally been dominated by adult men. Although the effects of children on pro-social motivation should not form the sole basis for policy decisions (e.g., because child welfare considerations will always be paramount), our prediction that children strengthen pro-social motivation could be partial support for such initiatives if considered alongside other issues (e.g., child protection, equality guidelines).

In addition, the final pair of experiments in this program of studies will provide a provocative new test of the potential role of children in improving quality of life and the environment. This possible effect is illustrated by the growing interest in the role of children in social marketing that attempts to alter adult behaviour by showing deleterious impacts on children (e.g., ActOnCO2 Bedtime Story). Our evidence will provide the first direct test of whether children enhance the effectiveness of such messages. Potential implications for efforts to promote social cohesion and public health will also be explored if this project is successful.

Our broad dissemination and engagement plans will help to ensure that relevant stakeholders consider the findings and their potential implications. At the same time, we will provide an important element of capacity building. This will be attained through the strong analytical and communication skills acquired by the Research Associate. The project requires advanced quantitative statistical methods (e.g., Multilevel Modelling, Statistical Equation Modelling) that are in short supply and can easily be transferred to any institution that requires precise empirical evaluation of complex data. Both the Research Associate and part-time Research Assistant will also utilise and learn advanced skills in experimentation with human participants, which are essential in a variety of research contexts.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We have conducted eight studies testing our main research questions, involving more than 2,800 participants. Across these studies, we have found evidence that the salience of children increases pro-social motivation in adults, and this effect persisted irrespective of participants' age, gender, parenthood, attitudes towards children, and amount of contact with children. We also found that this effect emerged when adult participants described a typical child, but not when they described a baby, toddler, or teenager, and it emerged when participants described children but not when they viewed images, videos, or stories of children. Further, in a field study we found that adult passers-by on a shopping street were more likely to donate for a prosocial cause unrelated to children (i.e., bone marrow disease) when more children were present relative to adults. Thus, a higher proportion of children in the vicinity encouraged adults to engage in more pro-social behaviour. These findings open up a range of new research questions about when the effects are stronger, weaker, and why they appear. The findings also suggest practical implications for messaging that features children in campaigns to elicit pro-social outcomes and for integrating versus segregating children in society (e.g., excluding children from the workplace). We will soon submit a research article on these studies for publication.

Another key achievement of the project is that we developed new measures to assess how adults evaluate different child groups, the Attitudes Towards Children (ATC) scales. The ATC scales measure the extent to which babies, toddlers, and children make respondents feel (a) positive towards the child groups and (b) stressed by them. These dimensions of positivity and stress predict a range of important outcomes. For instance, people who evaluated children more positively were more likely to donate to a child-relevant charity, whereas people who were more stressed by children were more supportive of corporal punishment. A research article on this topic was reviewed at a leading psychological journal and the feedback is being used to design follow-up experiments.

Our follow-up research is probing a number of related issues, with the help of external stakeholders. For example, we have started a new collaboration with The Holburne Museum at Bath, with whom we will replicate and extend the field study mentioned above. We also aim to further examine the potential mechanisms that may underlie the child salience effects, while examining implications for advocacy campaigns that highlight harm to children.
Exploitation Route Our findings might be used by both the non-academic world and academic researchers. For instance, charities, campaigns, and other organisations interested in promoting pro-social behaviour (e.g., environmental protection, reducing prejudice, civic behaviour) might find it useful to know that mental reflection about primary school age children (but not babies, toddlers, and adolescents) encourages more prosocial motivation and that these effects emerge regardless of the audience's age, gender and parenthood status. They may also benefit from our findings in the field study that the presence of children in everyday life can encourage adults to behave in a more prosocial manner, even for causes that are not directly related to children. At the same time, scientists may seek to discover why children elicit these effects and to elucidate theory-informing boundaries to these effects (e.g., child offenders, distractions). Finally, organisations may benefit from a tool, the ATC scales, which can explain adult-child relationships within the home (e.g., parents, close family members), within institutions (e.g., teachers, medical professionals), and society (e.g., child care policies, education policies), while scientists may wish to apply this tool in studies examining how adult attitudes to children relate to adult behaviour in family and social relationships.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Transport,Other

URL https://childsalience.wordpress.com/
 
Description Evidence of non-academic impact is emerging from several strands of our project. First, we have held a number of meetings with relevant non-academic stakeholders. We met with the Policy Director of Children in Wales and the Public Affairs Officer of Barnardo's Cymru in April 2018, the Directors of Marketing and Research of the Children's Society in September 2018, the Dean of the Kings College School of Law in February 2019, the Chair of ChildtoChild in June 2019, the Science Manager of We The Curious in January 2020, the Founder/Director of Common Vision, and the Head of Development and the Community Engagement Officer of The Holburne Museum. In these meetings, we presented the project ideas and latest findings and implications, considered applications of our research to the stakeholders' interests (e.g., curbing teenage crime, child abuse, prejudice against teenagers, charity donations), and we began co-developing ideas about the roles of child salience in these issues among others. We have also begun to pursue several suggestions from the stakeholders, including tests of whether child salience effects differ depending on child characteristics (e.g., whether the child is a boy or girl, one's own or another's), testing adults' perceptions and reactions towards teenagers, and testing new ways through which child salience may elicit prosocial behaviour in adults. For instance, we are in regular contact with the Children's Society about a future grant proposal on perceptions and reactions towards teenagers. We have begun developing this grant proposal and will soon be able to receive and integrate feedback from the Children's Society. Moreover, in collaboration with the Holburne Museum in Bath, we will conduct a field study over the following months to test whether the presence of children can elicit higher donations from visitors for the museum. The museum has provided us with images of children and adults (with consent) who took part in activities at the museum. We are presenting these images on a flat screen in the museum café (flat screen provided by the museum) and testing whether the presence of children, both in images on the screen and in the café, encourages visitors to donate more to the museum. Building on these promising meetings and emerging collaborations, we will continue to meet stakeholders and update them about our project, identify avenues for collaboration, and welcome suggestions for next steps in the project. A second way in which our research has been used by the public was at the Festival of Nature in Bath on 2nd June 2018. Fifty-nine visitors took part in an engagement and research activity, with many of the visitors asking questions at the end and discussing their thoughts with us. Ten participants wrote down their thoughts on post-it notes, generally stating that they found the activity thought-provoking and that it may increase their efforts to protect the environment. We have also taken part in the subsequent digital Festival of Nature event on 6th June 2019. After accessing the Festival of Nature website, visitors were able to watch a Q&A we had recorded earlier. This Q&A showed visitors asking about the project and the reasons for researchers to engage in such event. Visitors asked researchers questions in a live chat, and took part in the survey from the previous year. Videos were created with footage from our 2018 activity: https://vimeo.com/275043678 https://vimeo.com/275058977. The University of Bath has sent a tweet about each event: https://twitter.com/UniofBath/status/1007267030096072709, https://twitter.com/UniofBath/status/1136968129215680512 Third, our website has generated traffic likely indicative of impact. There have been 946 views of our website since 2018 by 210 visitors (January 2020). These visitors viewed the website from a number of countries, including European countries (UK, Ireland, France, Finland, the Netherlands, Czech Republic), but also the US, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, India, Sri Lanka, Turkey, and China. Most of these visitors have accessed the website through the project Twitter account and search engines. In addition to updating our website with research findings, project backgrounds, and overviews, we have released seven newsletters about our project since August 2018. We will continue to update the website and release newsletters to generate further impact from the project. Finally, our Twitter account has also generated engagement to underpin impact. We have tweeted 26 times so far about the project idea itself, the project website, our newsletters, our activities (e.g., Festival of Nature), and about projects related to the Child Salience project. This activity on twitter has resulted in more than 12000 impressions (number of times users saw one of our tweets) and 114 engagements (number of times users have interacted with one of our tweets). The engagements included 46 clicks on the links we shared, 12 re-tweets and 13 likes of our shared content.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Other
Impact Types Societal

 
Title Attitudes Towards Children scale 
Description We developed the Attitude Towards Children (ATC) Scale to systematically measure people's attitudes towards babies, toddlers, and children. The resulting scale consists of two attitude dimensions with one capturing differences in positivity toward child groups and one capturing differences in stress elicited by them. As expected, these ATC dimensions predict a range of relevant perceptions, evaluations, feelings, motivations, and behaviours towards the respective child group and future generations, but not towards adults. Adults higher in the positivity category perceive these child groups as higher in warmth, competence, and innocence, are more motivated to be a parent, contribute more to a charity event benefiting children, and are generally more affectively orientated. In contrast, adults higher in the stress category are more anxious about interacting with toddlers and support corporal punishment more. Together, our research shows that the ATC scale is a reliable and valid measure of adults' evaluations of children. As such, the ATC can help explain and improve adult treatment and decision-making concerning children, including the development of public policy. This paper is currently under review at the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Interestingly, teenagers reveal a distinct pattern of responses: One dimension captures openness to interact with teenagers, one positive perceptions of them, and one positive emotions towards them. Accordingly, we will develop a separate tool to measure attitudes towards teenagers. We are currently collecting evidence for this new tool. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This research was accepted as a poster presentation at the Society for Personality and Social Psychology convention, Portland, February 2019. We also gave a talk on this research at the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health conference in Birmingham, May 2019. 
 
Title Attitude towards Children scale datasets 
Description Nine datasets (>3,400 participants) from the Attitude to Children scale project. This project developed a scale to assess components of people's attitudes towards children. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
 
Title Festival of Nature 
Description Festival of Nature dataset testing whether asking visitors to take the perspective of a young child on climate change increases pro-environmental commitment. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact 59 participants from the Festival of Nature took part in the activity, many of them asked questions at the end and discussed their thoughts with us, showing a lot of interest. Ten participants wrote their thoughts on post-it notes for us, generally showing that they found the activity thought-provoking and that it may increase their efforts to protect the environment. One post-it note was from a visitor from the US. 
 
Title Study 1A 
Description Study 1A dataset testing whether child age (babies, toddlers, children, teenagers vs. adults) moderates the effect of child salience on pro-social motivation. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
 
Title Study 1B 
Description Study 1B dataset testing child salience effects on other pro-social outcomes (next to pro-social values), and testing whether the values measure is essential to produce a spill-over effect on subsequent pro-social outcome measures. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
 
Title Study 2A 
Description Study 2A dataset testing whether presentation mode (descriptions, videos, stories, images) moderates child salience effects on pro-social motivation. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
 
Title Study 2B 
Description Study 2B dataset testing whether the presence of child paraphernalia (e.g., child toys) elicits child salience effects on pro-social motivation. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
 
Title Study 3 
Description Study 3 dataset testing whether cognitive load (i.e., distraction by having to remember a number sequence) moderates child salience effects on pro-social motivation. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
 
Title Study 4A 
Description Study 4A dataset testing whether a short time delay between manipulation of child salience and measurement of prosocial motivation moderates the child salience effect. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
 
Title Study 4B 
Description Study 4B dataset testing whether a longer time delay moderates child salience effects on pro-social motivation. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
 
Title Study 5 
Description Study 5 dataset testing whether the child salience effect extends to pro-environmental motivation and behaviour, as well as whether a charity needs to be directly mentioned in the child salience manipulation to elicit donations. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
 
Title Study 6 
Description Two field studies collecting donations for a pro-social cause unrelated to children (e.g., bone marrow disease, museum donations). These test whether the presence of children elicit higher donations in the field. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
 
Description Bristol Natural History Consortium (Festival of Nature) 
Organisation Bristol Natural History Consortium (BNHC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We conducted an engagement activity at the Festival of Nature, on 2nd June 2018. We also took part in the digital Festival of Nature in the following year, on 7th June 2019, where we presented a similar activity online. We also took part in a Q&A session for the event, organised by the university's public engagement unit.
Collaborator Contribution BNHC advertised and organised the events, provided us with a tent and a spot to conduct our activity. BNHC created videos with footage from our activity.
Impact The visitors were eager to discuss their experiences and left their thoughts, questions, and ideas on post-it notes. Videos were created with footage from our activity: https://vimeo.com/275043678 https://vimeo.com/275058977. Video from the 2019 Q&A: https://twitter.com/UniofBath/status/1136968129215680512?fbclid=IwAR0OfIXR3KDugB2C5sZ80hamjrCstG5X02n11vhY68pc7vChpB1a0UxOoSk
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with The Holburne Museum, Bath 
Organisation The Holburne Museum
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We suggested a research idea which tests whether child salience increases donations to the museum. We further agreed that researchers from our team will assist in the prospective study.
Collaborator Contribution The museum provides a flatscreen in their cafe to display images of children or adults in a loop. They also collect (with consent) the images of children and adults who have previously visited the museum and engaged in activities. The museum also provides donation receptacles and a contactless card reader to receive donations from visitors.
Impact Outcomes are expected in the near future.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with We The Curious 
Organisation We The Curious
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We suggested a few research ideas to take place at their venue, agreed to carry out the activity ourselves. We discussed involving them in a future grant proposal.
Collaborator Contribution They showed us around, provided us with 4 free tickets to visit again in the future.
Impact None yet. We discussed collaborating in the future.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Stakeholder meetings 
Organisation Barnardo's
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Organised meetings, presented our findings and next steps, project ideas, provided suggestions for applications to the stakeholders' interests.
Collaborator Contribution Attended meetings, discussed our findings and next steps, discussed with us how the child salience project could be applied in their field of interest, provided suggestions for next steps in our project.
Impact Our meetings considered applications of our research to the stakeholders' interests. We also took several suggestions from the stakeholders on board. Further details are provided in the narrative impact report
Start Year 2018
 
Description Stakeholder meetings 
Organisation Child to Child
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Organised meetings, presented our findings and next steps, project ideas, provided suggestions for applications to the stakeholders' interests.
Collaborator Contribution Attended meetings, discussed our findings and next steps, discussed with us how the child salience project could be applied in their field of interest, provided suggestions for next steps in our project.
Impact Our meetings considered applications of our research to the stakeholders' interests. We also took several suggestions from the stakeholders on board. Further details are provided in the narrative impact report
Start Year 2018
 
Description Stakeholder meetings 
Organisation Children in Wales
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Organised meetings, presented our findings and next steps, project ideas, provided suggestions for applications to the stakeholders' interests.
Collaborator Contribution Attended meetings, discussed our findings and next steps, discussed with us how the child salience project could be applied in their field of interest, provided suggestions for next steps in our project.
Impact Our meetings considered applications of our research to the stakeholders' interests. We also took several suggestions from the stakeholders on board. Further details are provided in the narrative impact report
Start Year 2018
 
Description Stakeholder meetings 
Organisation Commons Visions
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Organised meetings, presented our findings and next steps, project ideas, provided suggestions for applications to the stakeholders' interests.
Collaborator Contribution Attended meetings, discussed our findings and next steps, discussed with us how the child salience project could be applied in their field of interest, provided suggestions for next steps in our project.
Impact Our meetings considered applications of our research to the stakeholders' interests. We also took several suggestions from the stakeholders on board. Further details are provided in the narrative impact report
Start Year 2018
 
Description Stakeholder meetings 
Organisation King's College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Organised meetings, presented our findings and next steps, project ideas, provided suggestions for applications to the stakeholders' interests.
Collaborator Contribution Attended meetings, discussed our findings and next steps, discussed with us how the child salience project could be applied in their field of interest, provided suggestions for next steps in our project.
Impact Our meetings considered applications of our research to the stakeholders' interests. We also took several suggestions from the stakeholders on board. Further details are provided in the narrative impact report
Start Year 2018
 
Description Stakeholder meetings 
Organisation National Museum Wales
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Organised meetings, presented our findings and next steps, project ideas, provided suggestions for applications to the stakeholders' interests.
Collaborator Contribution Attended meetings, discussed our findings and next steps, discussed with us how the child salience project could be applied in their field of interest, provided suggestions for next steps in our project.
Impact Our meetings considered applications of our research to the stakeholders' interests. We also took several suggestions from the stakeholders on board. Further details are provided in the narrative impact report
Start Year 2018
 
Description Stakeholder meetings 
Organisation The Children's Society
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Organised meetings, presented our findings and next steps, project ideas, provided suggestions for applications to the stakeholders' interests.
Collaborator Contribution Attended meetings, discussed our findings and next steps, discussed with us how the child salience project could be applied in their field of interest, provided suggestions for next steps in our project.
Impact Our meetings considered applications of our research to the stakeholders' interests. We also took several suggestions from the stakeholders on board. Further details are provided in the narrative impact report
Start Year 2018
 
Description Departmental newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One newsletter item to inform the department that we have launched an ESRC-funded project, giving a brief overview of what the project is about. Another newsletter item to inform the department about our project website, our Festival of nature activity in June 2018, and the royal visit to our child salience lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019,2020
 
Description Festival of Nature 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We conducted an engagement activity relating to the project research at the Festival of Nature, on 2nd June 2018. With the help of Sam Taylor, a placement student from Cardiff University, and Vlad Costin, a research assistant on this project, visitors of the festival of nature were asked to watch a video encouraging them to take the perspective of a young child on climate change (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJPvvrKCMms). Visitors subsequently indicated their commitment to engage in more environmental protection. The findings pointed in an interesting direction.

We provided all participants at the Festival of Nature with post-it notes and asked them to list their thoughts and questions about the study. We also encouraged them to directly ask questions and to enter a discussion with the research team.

59 participants from the Festival of Nature took part in the activity, many of them asked questions at the end and discussed the thoughts with us, showing a lot of interest. 10 participant wrote down their thoughts on post-it notes for us, generally showing that they found the activity thought-provoking and that it may increase their efforts to protect the environment. 1 post-it note was from a visitor from the US.

We received 800 pounds funding for this activity from the public engagement unit at the University of Bath.

We continued this activity at the following digital Festival of Nature on 7th of June 2019. After accessing the Festival of Nature website, visitors were able to watch a Q&A we had recorded earlier asking about the project and the reasons for researchers to engage in such events, to ask researchers questions in a live chat, and take part in the survey from the previous year. The Q&A video was also posted on twitter: https://twitter.com/UniofBath/status/1136968129215680512?fbclid=IwAR0OfIXR3KDugB2C5sZ80hamjrCstG5X02n11vhY68pc7vChpB1a0UxOoSk. 3 visitors asked questions and there were no additional participants in the survey.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020
URL https://vimeo.com/275043678
 
Description Project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We continually update the website with research findings, backgrounds, questions and the newsletter, all informed by our research. The evidence (January 2020) shows that there have been 946 views of our website since 2018 by 210 visitors. For more information on the impact of the website, see the impact narrative report.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020
URL https://childsalience.wordpress.com/
 
Description Royal visit to our Child Salience lab 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On November 14, HRH Prince Edward Earl of Wessex visited the Child Salience lab and showed a lot of interest in the project. After introducing our project and showing some of the study materials, including child toys and other paraphernalia, we discussed the project at large. For instance, HRH Prince Edward asked whether effects of child salience could differ depending on whether people think about boys or girls. HRH Prince Edward was particularly interested in the ramifications of our project for promoting pro-social behaviour in societies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bath.ac.uk/announcements/hrh-the-earl-of-wessex-visits-department-of-psychology-and-miln...
 
Description Twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We have tweeted about the project idea itself, the project website, our newsletters, our activities (e.g., Festival of Nature), and about projects related to the Child Salience project. Please see the narrative impact report for details about how this has impacted twitter users.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020
URL https://twitter.com/Child_Salience
 
Description Website newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We have released seven newsletters about our project since August 2018 on our project website. Two individuals are currently following updates from this newsletter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020
URL https://childsalience.wordpress.com/monthly-newsletter/