Production without medicalisation: a pilot intervention in global protein production

Lead Research Organisation: University of Exeter
Department Name: Geography

Abstract

Global stewardship of existing antibiotics within livestock systems is a key component of any attempt to manage the incidence and transmission of emergent and resistant bacteria, resistance conferring genes and mobile elements. Yet, global demand for animal derived protein is fuelling investment in and intensification of livestock systems with resulting increases in use of veterinary medicines. These systems have until now relied on medicinal and other inputs as infrastructure that permits increased stocking densities and livestock throughput, while reducing morbidity and mortality. In this sense, antibiotics have become a key component of livestock agriculture. Decoupling agriculture from the risks of generating greater antimicrobial resistance is a key challenge addressed in this project.

This project focuses on the growing and under-regulated aquaculture (fish and shell fish production) sector within Asia, which is intensifying to meet domestic demand for animal derived protein and worldwide export markets. We aim to to assess the growing use of antibiotics within this important sector of global food production, and experiment with farm based medicine stewardship strategies that promote sustainable and appropriate use. The project has implications for food security, food safety, human and environmental (aquatic) health as well as the livelihoods of millions of people.

The rapidly growing and intensifying global aquaculture industry (the so-called blue revolution) is known to be a major user of antimicrobials and a key gateway for antimicrobial resistance. Reducing or preventing the escalation of non-therapeutic and unnecessary uses of antibiotics requires social innovations that address path dependencies and the socio-economics of livestock production.

Detailed knowledge on the uses and socio-economic drivers of antimicrobial inputs in aquaculture is required in order to
1. Minimise the potential risks of aquaculture expansion for human and environmental health.
2. Develop strategies that allow for the prudent use of compounds, particularly where they increase risks of the emergence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance.

In this pump-priming project we seek to investigate variability in use of antibiotics and AMR-related inputs within aquaculture, and devise a strategy that encourages appropriate and alternative animal health treatments. We focus on the effective stewardship of antibiotics within the rapidly growing, poorly regulated and heterogeneous shrimp and prawn sectors in Bangladesh.

The project involves development of a partnership between UK and Bangladeshi expertise, and involves social scientists, biologists, aquaculture and rural development experts in order to understand the drivers of antibiotic uses and to cooperatively develop with farmers interventions for developing more appropriate treatments and disease abatement strategies. The project will survey shrimp and prawn farmers and hatcheries to develop clear understanding of the relationship between farm inputs, farm sizes and value chain characteristics. This information will be augmented with more detailed interview data with farmers, farm suppliers (those who sell antibiotics and other inputs), market intermediaries, depots and other key actors. The resulting knowledge on the disease as well as socio-economic pressures that farmers face will be used to develop a series of workshops in which farmers will work together to devise a social and technical specification for a farm-based intervention that allows for more sustainable and appropriate development of aquaculture. Once co-developed in the form of an in-principle design, the step-wise approach to design as well as the design itself will be used to seed further funding and impact across the fish and livestock sectors.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research?
Understanding the uses and drivers of antibiotics and other inputs into aquaculture, as well as seeking to generate interventions that can be adopted by farmers, will have impacts on the industry, on farmers and potentially will generate a usable and adaptable tool that can help to improve appropriate uses of pharmaceuticals.
Beneficiaries include:
1. Aquaculture farmers in Bangladesh
2. Broader animal livestock farmers

How will they benefit from this research?
In engaging with this research a range of farmers will co-generate the design for a socially applicable and technically suited intervention tool that will assist farmers in their disease management questions. This could be as simple as devising a question and answer service that relates to the use of pond treatments, or may develop a more interactive IT based tool that matches farmer information to treatment advice. The benefit for farmers will be to potentially reduce costs and to develop more sustainable and resilient aquaculture practices.

The lessons learned from this research will be of interest to a broader community of animal health experts who are interested in the regulation of pharmaceutical inputs in environments where regulation is difficult to enact. Absence of veterinary guidance, highly mediated relations with value chain actors and availability of often cheap medicines requires experimentation in developing farmer actions. The approach taken in this pump-priming project may have potential impacts across other agricultural production systems.

What will be done to ensure that they have the opportunity to benefit from this activity?
Within the life of this pump priming project we will only have the opportunity to ensure that any intervention has been designed cooperatively and carefully so that is technically and socially suited to the context of application. Further funding will be sought to develop the specification and generate field trials.
 
Description AMR is related to a number of drivers, including but not only antibiotic uses. In Aquaculture in LMICs there is a specific issue with engaging farmers with the AMR issue - particularly for those with limited access to biosecurity or disease management techniques. These are not the small farms with relatively little AMR risk, or the larger commercial farms where governance and accreditation can have beneficial effects on treatment uses. It is the missing middle farms - which make up the vast majority of farms and aggregated food production.

Within the economically important shrimp aquaculture sector (second only to finished textile goods in terms of Bangladesh's export earnings) there are efforts to reduce disease burden by making disease-free seed available to farms. Farmers have tended to manage their gher (flooded rice fields now used for aquaculture) through a process of continual adjustment, responding to monsoon rains and other seasonal variations, for example, by introducing more stock or species as temperature and salinity conditions vary. Partly in response to frequent disease and other threats, over the last few decades farmers have stocked gher with a variety of species and where possible used the it to grow paddy rice. The result of this polyculture was reasonably reliable productivity and regular income over an entire growing season, even if the method was far from being best practice in terms of biosecurity. The NGOs and hatcheries that were funded internationally to encourage farmers to utilise the disease free shrimp seed (or larvae) encouraged farmers to stock only once in a production period and avoid stocking with a variety of species in order to reduce disease incursion and animal stress. The result was a reduction in disease incidence, but a simultaneous increase in the consequences or stakes of any disease event. Diseases that were once tolerated and adjusted for with additional stock or other crops now constituted a threat not just of diminished livelihood, but outright loss. As the disease-free technology and attendant practices were adopted and as farmers relinquished their vernacular forms of insurance and adaptation to disease threats, their economic precarity, itself related to the salvage accumulation (Tsing 2015) process that best describes the farmers' partial incorporation into global value chains, tended to increase rather than decrease. Moreover, as antibiotic uses were described by farmers as attempts to rescue vulnerable stock and seen as a desperate measure to save livelihood, the result of adopting disease free seed was paradoxically associated with a tendency to increase rather than reduce reliance on antibiotics and other treatments (Hinchliffe, Butcher, and Rahman 2018).

An alternative strategy is to work with farmers who have managed to develop an agro-ecological and arguably more resilient approach to farming in the face of disease and other challenges. In this case, seeing the farmers' stocking and harvesting practices as potential assets on which to build, rather than as barriers to modern production, may offer more opportunities for doing things otherwise. Conversely, viewing incomplete economic and phyto-sanitary integration as the main problem can serve to extend the conditions of production that encourage greater reliance on antimicrobial treatments. In these cases, economic divergence rather than convergence may offer resources for rethinking AMR threats.

A series of outputs and follow on projects are now in process:

Follow ons include direct feed into to country case work in Bangladesh - The project provided a platform for early engagement by the newly established UK FAO Reference Centre for AMR in Bangladesh, with funding from the Fleming Fund and Defra. Following a "Memorandum of Understanding for an International Reference Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance run by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate, the Animal and Plant Health Agency, and the Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science," The Reference Centre workers attended the workshop in Dhaka in February 2019 and were able to meet the network of researchers and policy makers established by the ESRC project and were then able to initiate a series of follow on activities in Bangladesh. Three further visits have since taken place to provide capacity development support and training to four of the six animal health laboratories supported by the Fleming Fund country grant and, additionally, four government laboratories key for AMR surveillance.

In addition to 2 published outputs to date forthcoming submitted publications include:

Butcher, Hinchliffe, Rahman - Production at the Margins: The Challenges for Bangladeshi Aquaculture, accepted subject to revision at The International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food

Hinchliffe et al "Production without medicalisation" under review at Geographical Journal

Hinchliffe 'Viva la resistance' under reivew at Theory Culture and Society

Neaz A. Hasan, Mohammad Mahfujul Haque, Steve J. Hinchliffe, James Guilder, "A sequential assessment of WSD risk factors of shrimp farming in Bangladesh: looking for a sustainable farming system" Accepted with minor revisions at Aquaculture

Stentiford, G.D., Bateman, I.J. Hinchliffe, S., Bass, D. Sustainable aquaculture through a one health lens - submitted to Nature Sustainability
Exploitation Route We are developing work in hatcheries to reduce disease burdens and antibiotic uses through biosecurity training.
There are plans to develop a farm platform model in SW Bangladesh to demonstrate the economic benefits of collectivised nursery facilities in reducing mortality rates and improving farmer income, without using treatments.
Fleming funded work is developing, with the FAO, outreach programmes on antibiotic uses in the finfish sector (ongoing).
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare

URL https://blog.esrc.ac.uk/2018/11/12/preventing-antimicrobial-resistance-in-bangladeshi-aquaculture/
 
Description Development of guidelines for biosecurity in hatcheries in Bangladesh - generation of videos and information sheets at WorldFish
First Year Of Impact 2021
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Food and Agricultural Organisation, Bangladesh - started working with Dept of Fisheries to generate rapid rural appraisal tool and recommendations for behaviour change with respect to antimicrobial uses in aquaculture in Bangladesh
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Oversight and expert input to RAND Europe report on AMR and security
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.rand.org/pubs/perspectives/PE332.html?utm_source=WhatCountsEmail&utm_medium=NPA:2345:577...
 
Description World Health Report on Cultural Contexts of Health and ABR
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/abstracts/antibiotic-resistance-using-a-cultural-contexts-of...
 
Description Cultures and Environments of Health
Amount £4,094,682 (GBP)
Funding ID 203109/Z/16/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 01/2022
 
Description Decolonizing Planetary Diets in Dakar and Dhaka: Pathways to the Co-Construction of healthy and sustainable diets
Amount £22,050 (GBP)
Organisation University of Exeter 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2020 
End 07/2020
 
Description Diagnostic innovation and livestock (DIAL): towards more effective and sustainable applications of antibiotics in livestock farming
Amount £1,399,619 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/P008194/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 06/2021
 
Description Improving hatchery biosecurity for a sustainable shrimp industry in Bangladesh
Amount £252,890 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2020 
End 01/2022
 
Title Bangladesh shrimp and prawn hatchery data 2017-2019 
Description Data in which hatchery owners, consultants and technicians working in the main shrimp and prawn hatcheries in Bangladesh discuss key elements of their production and their use of various disease management tools (including antibiotics). The interviews were carried out in 2017 with the majority of hatcheries and nurseries operating in Bangladesh. Sampling was based on purposive selection of hatcheries, selecting all those that were currently in production (n =26 hatcheries), achieving 50% coverage of production in the country. Owing to endemic diseases, very few prawn hatcheries were in operation. Nurseries in SW Bangladesh were included as a means to extend the data set to include these intermediary providers between hatchery and farm. Interviews were conducted in Bangla to a structured series of questions, and the field researcher then summarised responses to the survey questions in English. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact NA 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/853867/
 
Title Qualitative data on credit use in farmers, SW Bangladesh 
Description Summarised data in which shrimp and prawn farmers describe access to various forms of credit (in kind, micro-credit, NGO, banks) in SW Bangladesh. The interviews were carried out with a sub-sample from the main survey (see project survey data). In total 46 farmers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Sampling was based on purposive selection of previously surveyed farms in order to generate a variety of farm sizes and cropping patterns. Interviews were conducted in Bangladesh and the field researcher then summarised responses to the survey questions in English. There are no verbatim transcripts, simply summarised responses in the response grid. The App Number corresponds to the survey number in the main survey data so is possible to cross reference to farm and farmer characteristics. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact NA 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/853866/
 
Title Socio-economic and disease data, Aquaculture farms, SW Bangladesh 
Description Survey data from 326 shrimp and / or prawn farms in South West Bangladesh, with detailed farm and production characteristics, designed to elicit the drivers of antimicrobial and other farm input uses in aquaculture. The data was generated using a bespoke mobile phone app based field survey tool to generate key information on a range of farm variables including farm characteristics and practices; procurement of seed; water management; stocking practices and densities; inputs and treatments; disease incidence; harvest and economic performance. A key initial framing question for the survey and sampling strategy was the extent to which PL source (wild, untested hatchery, PCR tested, SPF) made a difference to production, disease burden, and profits. The survey was developed by the research team, translated into Bangla (Bengali) and piloted on 20 farms of varying characteristics. In the field, it was administered by the team with NGO assistance, using five infopedlars, an employment scheme that offered work experience opportunities to female students and young women in Bangladesh. ARBAN (Activity for Reformation of Basic Needs - a development NGO) and the research team trained the infopedlars in survey delivery and software application as well as farming and disease issues. Farms were randomly selected from a pre-existing census, with some sample refinement to allow for field logistics. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None as yet 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/853865/
 
Description ARBAN 
Organisation Association for Realisation of Basic Needs
Country Bangladesh 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Worked together to generate App based survey. Trained female surveyors in social science and rural appraisal methods We are extending this collaboration to include work with the Wellcome Centre at Exeter on cultural contexts of health in Bangladesh
Collaborator Contribution Technical and language expertise in country.
Impact DNA2 - bespoke app for surveys of fish farmers
Start Year 2017
 
Description Bangladesh Agricultural university - PhD supervision 
Organisation Bangladesh Agricultural University
Country Bangladesh 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Assistance with capacity building in social sciences and PhD supervision
Collaborator Contribution Sharing of data on aquaculture and development of research links across social and economic sciences
Impact Forthcoming paper in Aquaculture entitiled "A sequential assessment of WSD risk factors of shrimp farming in Bangladesh: looking for a sustainable farming system" Neaz A. Hasan a, *, Mohammad Mahfujul Haque a, Steve J. Hinchliffe b, James Guilder c
Start Year 2019
 
Description Sustainable diets project 
Organisation Bangladesh Agricultural University
Country Bangladesh 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working with Agricultural Economics group at BAU on 'localising' the planetary diet. Prof Sadika Haque is leading a partnership with Exeter and Senegal to develop key tests of the of translatability of planetary diets into LMICs contexts. the work will use data from work on aquaculture in BD to contextualise the growth of protein rich diets. The work is subject to an AHRC GCRF bid.
Collaborator Contribution Leading Bangladesh team including Arban (partner in ESRC project)
Impact NA
Start Year 2019
 
Description University of Glasgow SNAP Project 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International Advisor on social science elements of project
Collaborator Contribution Project leads and advice to Tanzanian Government on AMR National Action Plan
Impact Multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2019
 
Description Worldfish, Bangladesh 
Organisation Worldfish
Country Malaysia 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Developed social science methods together, with relevance to socio-economic drivers of disease and resistance. Helped train researchers in interviewing technqiues
Collaborator Contribution Qualitative interviewing of farmers and hatchery technicians Workshop organisation and liaison with policy officers in Dept of Fisheries, livestock and FAO
Impact Key position paper on the AMR Problem - https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-018-0195-4, others in preparation Workshops on policy and final reports and recommendations Input into National Strategy for Fish Health Management and Fleming Fund related in country activities
Start Year 2017
 
Description DEFRA Sustainable Aquaculture through the 'One Health' lens 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Workshop in DEFRA London July 1st, linked to UK National Food Strategy and DEFRA's international and business strategy - with CEFAS colleagues using data and approaches from project to discuss future issues within an expanding aquaculture sector in terms of global food production and UK science's role in developing susainable practices
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Defra full day meeting: Sustainable aquaculture through the 'One Health' lens 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Brief. The Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture Futures (SAF), a collaboration between Cefas and the University of Exeter was launched in 2017 by the Defra Secretary of State Rt. Hon. Mr Michael Gove to facilitate wider collaborative opportunities in the aquaculture sector. Since then, SAF has established a strong presence within the UK and overseas via a range of programmes focussed on aquatic animal health, diagnostics, host-pathogen interaction, AMR, human health and the social sciences. Given projections for aquaculture (in all forms, across freshwater and marine systems) to double over the coming two decades, to supply 70% of all aquatic protein consumed, and that over 90% of this production will occur in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs), ensuring production systems are aligned with principles of sustainability is now urgent. The One Health movement, in which human, environment and organism health are considered in continuum provides a means by which future food systems may be assessed and, designed. In this workshop, we will hear how these principles are being developed for application across the Defra policy systems and further, how future aquatic food production based around aquaculture may be considered through the lens of One Health. The workshop will provide an opportunity to explore the potential to decouple aquatic food production from damage to freshwater and marine systems or, to inequity between human producer and consumer communities. It will provide a chance to consider the research, evidence and policy changes that may be needed to ensure UK leadership in this space, at home and overseas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description ESRC Blog on Preventing antimicrobial resistance in Bangladeshi aquaculture for World Antibiotics Awareness Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog for World Antibiotics Awareness Week 2018, building on twitter feed from participatory workshop activity in Bangladesh designed to elicit key drivers of AMR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://blog.esrc.ac.uk/2018/11/12/preventing-antimicrobial-resistance-in-bangladeshi-aquaculture/
 
Description Food systems and AMR Panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk and panel event as part of the Exeter AMR network on AMR within the food system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description One Health Keynote talk at Liverpool School of Tropical Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Keynote talk on the difficulties of squaring one health aims across human, animal and environment in relation to AMR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participatory modelling workshop, Khulna May 7-10th May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Over 90 participants attended four days of participatory workshops and modelling of disease and AMR risks in Khulna City, Bangladesh, May 2018. The workshops were organised by the project team. They brought together a range of spokespeople from Bangladesh's export aquaculture sector to identify sustainable solutions for managing animal disease without the use of antibiotics. Key highlights include:
? Bangladesh's aquaculture sector experiences a high disease burden with a risk of increased antibiotic use to manage and prevent diseases. All workshop attendees shared a common interest in finding solutions, from the farmers experiencing high crop mortalities and low production to the public health officials engaged in reducing the negative impact of antibiotic use upon human, animal and environmental health
? During the workshops, attendees participated in the design of a composite model, through which they identified and ranked flows of materials (including pathogens and antimicrobial compounds or their residues), potential disease and AMR stressors, and potential drivers or pressures for antibiotic use
? By identifying material flows and systems pressures participants were able to identify cost effective and achievable interventions based upon farming and commercial practicalities in Bangladesh
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Production without medicalisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk presented to DEFRA agency audience, CEFAS March 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Report for CGIAR on Dhaka Workshop on AMR and One Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact To summarise key issues for further work on AMR in Bangladesh and LIMCs - to build knowledge base for surveillance of antimicrobial uses and resistance in Bangladesh and Ghana under the Feming Fund/ FAO intiative.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://fish.cgiar.org/publications/production-without-medicalisation-workshop-amr-one-health-and-aq...
 
Description Seminar at Institut für Humangeographie, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt Steve Hinchliffe (Exeter) - The Next Pandemic is Bacterial: on Drug Resistance and Postcolonial Global Health - 20.01.21 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar - Institut für Humangeographie, Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt Steve Hinchliffe (Exeter) - The Next Pandemic is Bacterial: on Drug Resistance and Postcolonial Global Health - 20.01.21
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Talk and panel event at LSHTM on Antibiotics beyond humans: Ecologies, production, flows 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A talk on the role of social sciences in ABU and MAR in environment. Talk was formative in terms of resulting output from the AMIS team at LSHTM
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/newsevents/events/antibiotics-beyond-humans-ecologies-production-flows
 
Description Talk given in Paris at the Antibio-addicts Defining and Governing Antimicrobial Resistance in the Age of One Health conference June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Rising and changing food demands, population growth, urbanisation and rural development result in increased pressure on food producers. In aquaculture, the fastest growing protein producing sector worldwide, there are estimates that suggest a tripling of production in the next decades in order to service demand. Expanding or even consolidating production against a background of growing disease and environmental challenges presents numerous challenges. The trend is for professionalization and commercialisation of what Belton et al refer to as the 'missing middle', or the majority of small to medium scale farmers who produce most of the world's food. The risk is that consolidation of production will require more inputs, including allopathic and antimicrobial treatments. In this paper, we describe methods for understanding the multifactorial and disease challenges that face farmers in Bangladesh. The methods, which include ethnographic as well as multivariate modelling of farm systems, suggest the need for a form of situated 'best practice management'. The latter includes an appreciation of the risk management strategies that farmers use to live with disease and environmental challenges.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://ritme.hypotheses.org/7619
 
Description WORKSHOP ON AQUACULTURE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE - A ONE HEALTH CHALLENGE, Dhaka February 12-13th 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Workshop on AMR, One Health and Aquaculture - Dhaka, Bangladesh Gebruary 2019
A workshop designed to meet the following aims:
1. To share and develop greater understanding of the key practices, disease issues and drivers of resistance risks within Bangladesh and within Bangladeshi aquaculture.
2. To discuss the utilisation of this knowledge in any public/ farmer campaign aiming to raise AMR awareness
3. To identify data needs and approaches for future characterisation of AMR issues in Bangladeshi aquaculture
The outputs included a report and suggested recommendations for the Bandgladesh National Action Plan on AMR.

Delegates included Mr. ASM Rashedul Haque, Director General, Department of Fisheries, Government of Bangladesh, his deputies and several key members of the Bangladeshi policy community, over sixty delegates attended the two-day workshop.

Representing Bangladeshi and UK government, intra-government, non government, commercial, academic research and practitioner communities, people from the following organizations attended:
• Bangladesh Department of Fisheries (DoF)
• WorldFish Bangladesh
• The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)
• World Health Organisation (WHO)
• UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
• Centre for Fisheries and Aquaculture Sciences (CEFAS) UK
• Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) UK
• Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) UK
• Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute
• UK and Bangladeshi Universities
• Winrock International
• Bluegold Bangladesh
• Bangladesh Shrimp and Fish Foundation
• Bangladesh Frozen Foods Exporters Association
• Bangladesh Aqua Product Companies Association
• Feed organisations
• Fin fish and shell fish farmers, hatchery organsations and shopkeepers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://amr.cgiar.org/blog/one-health-perspective-antimicrobial-resistance-bangladeshs-aquaculture