Energy and Forced Displacement: A Qualitative Approach to Light, Heat and Power in Refugee Camps

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Sch of Social and Political Science

Abstract

The application of humanitarian principles of protection and assistance in contexts of forced displacement have, historically, focused on the provision of shelter, food, water, and sanitation and health. Yet people forcibly displaced by conflict, humanitarian emergency, natural disasters and environmental change are also often left without access to modern energy services. Access to energy has often been a missing pillar in the humanitarian response to forced displacement.

In 2015 the UNHCR, the Department for International Development, and the Norwegian Refugee Council, alongside Chatham House, the Royal Institute for International Affairs, and international non-governmental organisations Practical Action and the Global Village Energy Partnership sought to address this gap by launching the Moving Energy Initiative. The Moving Energy Initiative aims to make sustainable energy provision a key part of responses to forced displacement and humanitarian emergency, by designing and piloting new approaches and models for sustainable energy provision among displaced populations.

As the Moving Energy Initiative lays the ground for future interventions it has identified the collection and analysis of qualitative data on energy use as an urgent research priority.

This project - through a 15 month collaboration with the Moving Energy Initiative, its implementation partner Practical Action, and research teams in Kenya and Burkina Faso - aims to improve access to sustainable energy for displaced people by bringing traditions of qualitative research in the arts and social sciences to bear on the way that the humanitarian community understands and responds to their needs for light, heat and power.

The research is driven by two questions: 1) What can approaches to qualitative research in social anthropology and design tell us about energy needs and demands in contexts of displacement? 2) What can qualitative data on the energy practices of displaced people tell us about the design of energy policies, products and services?

Led by specialists in social anthropology and design at the University of Edinburgh, the project will assemble two teams of energy researchers, provide training in ethnographic, human-centred research methods; and collect 50 situated case studies of everyday energy practices in the Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, and the Goudoubo camp, Burkina Faso.

Key outputs include 1) a review of qualitative methods in anthropology and design for research on energy practices; 2) a report on the lived experience of Energy in Dadaab and 3) Goudoubo, to be published in conjecture with Practical Action and the Moving Energy Initiative; 4) a qualitative methods toolkit, with example techniques, strategies and references for use by energy researchers and humanitarian organisations involved in future studies of energy practice in contexts of forced displacement; 5) a commissioned non-academic essay on 'design for displacement'; 6) a 'design for displacement' protocol (code of best practice, procedures and conventions) for use in the procurement and design of products for sustainable lighting, cooking and off grid energy systems; and 7), 8), 9) three academic research articles that contribute new empirical data and analytical perspectives on energy and displacement to scholarly debates across the arts and social sciences.

The project lays out a pathway to impact on humanitarian policy makers through its partnership with the Moving Energy Initiative and its international consortium; on humanitarian or 'pro-poor' designers in sub Saharan Africa through a programme of impact and knowledge exchange activities during Nairobi Design Week 2017; and on academic knowledge in refugee studies, migration studies, development studies, geography, and science/technology studies, fostering future research collaborations through a workshop and publications.

Planned Impact

The project sets out to increase the access of displaced people to affordable and sustainable energy by developing an ethnographic and human-centred approach to knowledge about energy demands in contexts of displacement, by informing future energy policy and practice in the humanitarian sector, and by establishing new principals for the design and procurement of energy products and services.

This project lays out a pathway to impact primarily through its partnership with the Moving Energy Initiative and its international consortium. The project was developed in close consultation with Chatham House, the Global Village Energy Partnership and Practical Action and their involvement, from the outset, significantly enhances the capacity of this project to improve the provision of sustainable energy for refugees and those forcibly displaced by conflict, humanitarian emergency and and environmental change in Kenya, Burkina Faso.

In addition, the project lays out pathway to impact on Sub Saharan Africa's 'pro-poor' or 'humanitarian' design community through a series of 'design for displacement' events (seminars, discussions and a design hack) to be held in the iHub, Nairobi, as part of Nairobi Design Week 2017.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description ? Whilst the fields of humanitarian aid and development are paying increasing attention to 'modern' technologies that can transform energy access for refugees and internally displaced people, alternative forms of local innovation through which people meet their energy needs in contexts of forced displacement offer important lessons. These may offer the potential for more cost-effective and sustainable approaches.
? Globally, changes in energy provision and services in camps and informal settlements are occurring unevenly - with both 'top down' and 'bottom up' models. The misalignment of these models risks deepening disparities in levels of access to 'cleaner' energy technologies and services.
? Informal markets for the distribution, repair, and charging of energy technologies, devices and systems are a vital part of everyday life in Goudoubo and Kakuma refugee camps. Cash and barter exchanges for fuel, batteries, water coolers, and other energy objects are an important element of refugee and host community livelihoods - and therefore cohesion.
? Poorly thought-out and unregulated market-based approaches to energy risk disrupting existing and often precarious economic ecosystems in these camps. For example, they may displace existing livelihoods and fail to address the break down or deterioration of equipment.
? Current interventions in the field of humanitarian energy rarely take the opportunity to build on the energy access and resilience strategies that people employ before and after they become refugees or internally displaced people. Accounting for people's technical knowledge and existing practices in the design of energy technologies, systems and business models could facilitate more successful uptake.
? The huge need and desire for energy products and services is readily apparent in both camps. It is exemplified by the value that many refugee households attach to energy objects as being essential to their survival and well-being; and sometimes - particularly in the case of batteries and generators - as a status symbol.
? Approaches to humanitarian energy that brand the use of traditional fuels and technologies (such as firewood-burning open cookstoves) as "dirty" and "harmful" can cloud understanding of the important social and cultural factors that could foster greater uptake of cleaner energy services.
? Expanding the evidence base for humanitarian energy interventions and policies demands new methodological approaches.
Exploitation Route Outcomes from this report are currently informing the design of new solar powered lighting technologies, designed for use in contexts of displacement, and new energy access programmes aimed at displaced communities worldwide.
Sectors Energy

URL http://www.displacedenergy.com
 
Description This project lay out a pathway to impact primarily through its partnership with the Moving Energy Initiative and its international consortium. The project was developed in close consultation with Chatham House, the Global Village Energy Partnership and Practical Action. Findings from this research are in the process of being published and taken up by the partner organisations through publications with Practical Action and Chatham House, due to be published in April 2019. One key stakeholder from Chatham House told us: "this research will not only open many people's eyes to the reality of what humanitarian energy looks like 'on the ground', but also challenge the established orthodoxy in a number of important ways."
First Year Of Impact 2019
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Title Displaced Objects 
Description This dataset provides an image bank of energy related objects that were subject to investigation as part of the ESRC Energy and Forced Displacement Project 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact NA 
URL https://datashare.is.ed.ac.uk/handle/10283/2966
 
Title Energy and Forced Displacement - Burkina Faso Dataset 
Description This dataset contains day-by-day field notes exploring energy and displacement in Goudoubo Refugee Camp, Burkina Faso. Edinburgh DataShare is a digital repository of research data produced at the University of Edinburgh, hosted by Information Services. Edinburgh University researchers who have produced research data associated with an existing or forthcoming publication, or which has potential use for other researchers, are invited to upload their dataset for sharing and safekeeping. A persistent identifier and suggested citation will be provided. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact NA 
URL http://dx.doi.org/10.7488/ds/2442
 
Title Energy and Forced Displacement - Kenya Dataset 
Description This dataset contains 17 "stories" of energy and displacement in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya. Edinburgh DataShare is a digital repository of research data produced at the University of Edinburgh, hosted by Information Services. Edinburgh University researchers who have produced research data associated with an existing or forthcoming publication, or which has potential use for other researchers, are invited to upload their dataset for sharing and safekeeping. A persistent identifier and suggested citation will be provided. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact NA 
URL http://dx.doi.org/10.7488/ds/2441