The Office of Language Commissioner in Wales,Ireland and Canada.

Lead Research Organisation: Cardiff University
Department Name: Welsh

Abstract

This pioneering study of the implementation of official language policy in Wales, Ireland and Canada (2011-2014) is conceived as an evidence-based contribution to applied public policy within an emerging regional polity. The role of the Language Commissioners as regulators and as advocates of official languages is a central element in language policy within Ireland and Canada, where this element of public policy has seen a mainstreaming of language promotion with an increasing emphasis on implementation and regulation. The WAG government's intention is to establish an Office of Language Commissioner during 2011. Consequently this proposal seeks to analyse three elements of this strategic initiative in Wales. First, it will provide an authoritative interpretation of the initial discussions contained in documentary evidence which have influenced the remit and structure of the Office. Secondly it will undertake a critical analysis of the first years of operation of the Language Commissioner's Office. Thirdly by adopting a comparative perspective on language implementation procedures, developments in Ireland and Canada, will be used as a benchmark by which developments in Wales may be calibrated, which in turn should prove of value to the Irish Commissioner Office and the well-established Canadian Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, which having become institutionalised within the political system are seeking to re-engage with their target communities.Hitherto minority language policy has concentrated on promotional aspects of language planning with some success. The EU is now subject to increasingly regulatory mechanisms related to human rights and a broad equality agenda. Language Commissioners, as Agents of Parliament, have been a significant development in Canada in transforming language equality into a statutory field. Consequently it is anticipated that the results of this research enquiry will be of direct policy relevance to the governments of Scotland, Northern Ireland and Ireland and by extension several EU contexts such as Finland, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and the Baltic States. These jurisdictions face the issue of deciding how best to regulate and evaluate the increased use of bilingual services and working practices within the public sector and of honouring language rights among an increasingly diverse and multilingual population.The research team is comprised of two established language policy experts from the LPPRU at the School of Welsh who will mentor and develop the academic career of the named Postdoctoral Fellow who has considerable comparative research experience in the field of language policy governance.Williams will investigate the role of Language Commissioners in Canada, Wales and Ireland. Mac Giolla Chriost will focus on Ireland and Wales. Carlin will focus primarily on developments in Wales, but with a strong secondary engagement with the Irish case. Each of the scholars are fluent in Welsh, English and French and the latter two are fluent in Irish. The initial mode of research will be archive work, literature and document review in Welsh, English, Irish and French, while the bulk of the research will be field work and interviews with the Commissioners and their staff, an element of work-related placement for the PDF plus networking and interviewing civil servants, language officers, constitutional lawyers and politicians. The projected publications and network formation constitute a logical extension of the PIs research into minority language policy and influence on strategy through his membership of the Welsh Language Board (2000-2010) and current position as its strategic advisor, his co-authorship of the FIONTAR '20 Year Strategy for the Irish Language', commissioned by the Irish government in 2009, his co-direction of the EU's 'From Act to Action' project and current work with Linguamón, Barcelona and the Network for the Promotion of Linguistic Diversity.

Planned Impact

Impact Plan Communication and Engagement. The project is designed to have a national and international impact on the professional community as well as influencing the work of language officers and middle-managers in public administrations charged with delivering bilingual services. The research findings, strategic observations and recommendations will be communicated through the preparation of detailed evidence-based interpretations, the maintenance of a document archive on the Language Policy and Planning Research Unit website, the publishing of academic papers and books, addressing international/national conferences, professional and community-related events, the briefing of civil servants, briefing for Welsh public servants and hosting workshops and conferences both by the LPPRU and by other related centres in Cardiff, such as the Wales Governance Centre which the PI co-founded in February 1999. Collaboration. This work will have a significant impact on the operation of the Language Commissioners and we have secured the full cooperation of the WLB, the Canadian and Irish Commissioners. Williams has undertaken 350 hours of interviews with government officials, Commissioner staff, academics and voluntary organisations in the three jurisdictions, and established good working relationships with the Project Partners. During face to face interviews between October 2009 and January 26th 2011, Williams discussed the ethical, practical and procedural methods of selecting material from their archives, recording the nature of the complaints investigated in an anonymous manner and using the resultant data in published works. Both the WLB and the Irish Commissioner have welcomed the possibility of the PDF gaining work placement experience in the compliance investigation unit. While the PI and CI will deal with the meso-level impact of the project, the PDF's interpretations should feed into the detailed improvement of the operations of these agencies.This collaboration is based on the PIs extensive track record of advising government in Wales and Ireland; on his role as strategist for the WLB (2000-2010), now as consultant; advising UK and WAG governments on issues such as bilingual education policy, community development, Wales in Europe; on the successful adoption of recommendations made in, "The Bilingual Character of the National Assembly of Wales" May 1999-2001 (ESRC Award Number R000222936). This work was given the highest rating possible by the ESRC assessors and led to a marked improvement in the structure and bilingual operation of the National Assembly for Wales. He has also been involved in collaboration with Irish voluntary and governmental initiatives, most recently in co-authoring the draft of the Irish state's '20 Year Language Strategy' which was launched in December 2010.Exploitation and Application. Collaborative agreements exist with the Project Partners who have been fully appraised of the project's remit, who will be undertaking what type of research, for how long and with what sort of constraints on confidentiality and final reporting of the material and documents gathered. Detailed discussions have been held on issues such as access to government documents, case study notes, the electronic processing of complaints and investigations. Language Commissioners are interested in how their performance is interpreted by other agencies and citizens and this relationship will form an integral part of the work. Both the PI and CI have unrivalled experience in engaging with Irish and Welsh language agencies, invaluable in mentoring the PDF to develop appropriate skills and liaise with officialdom, while securing vital opportunities to engage publicly.
 
Description ESRC ES/J003093/1
Key Findings Report October 26 2015
What have you discovered or developed through the research funded on this grant? Please explain for a non-specialist audience.
The research team have analysed a range of data which allows them to interrogate the role, remit and function of Language Commissioners in Wales, Ireland and Canada, The project has sought to identify to what extent and how under specific circumstances the Language Commissioners play an active role in the regulation of aspects of language policy and the protection of language standards, schemes and rights. The research has developed a suite of thematic outputs which address issues such as the establishment of a Language Commissioner's Office, complaint handling mechanisms and investigations, the application of language schemes, language standards, the passage and implementation of language legislation, the independence and accountability of Language Commissioners.
The overarching aim of the research was to produce a number of scholarly outputs that will contribute to developing a better understanding of the characteristics of (i) a good regulatory environment, (ii) a high performing regulator, and (iii) regulatory practice best practice, along with (iv) the means of realizing effective regulatory outcomes in relation to offices of Language Commissioner in general and the offices of the Welsh Language Commissioner and the Irish Language Commissioner in particular. This, in turn, will inform how the legitimacy of the regulator may be reinforced, so as to secure the effective implementation of public policy while at the same time reinforcing the confidence and trust of both the bodies subject to regulation and also of citizens. In setting the office of Language Commissioner in context, that is in Ireland, Wales, the UK and internationally, the work draws upon a rich variety of source material arising from fieldwork conducted in a number of jurisdictions. The methodological approach that underpins the research comprises, in the first place, an authoritative review of the relevant research literature in the fields of language planning and policy, public administration, language law and linguistic rights, regulators and regulatory regimes, and, political science. The work is therefore multi-disciplinary in approach, engaging with the scholarly and professional literature in language policy and planning, socio-legal studies and the politics of language.
The research data underpinning this work includes a rich vein of material arising from fieldwork conducted in Canada, Ireland and Wales. This comprised a set of fieldnotes taken at a range of public events pertinent to the research questions along with a series of semi-structured interviews conducted with dozens of key actors from the pertinent legislatures, governments, regulatory offices, interest groups and civic society representatives in the various jurisdictions. This body of interviewees included ombudsmen, commissioners, regulators, politicians, civil servants, policy advisors, activists, and academic experts. The interviews were transcribed and analysed through using the computer-assisted qualitative data software programme NVivo 10 and its associated tools. In order to make full use of the particular architecture of the programme the data derived from the fieldwork was organised in a series of text-based and audio files and a deductive coding structure created from the research issues and questions at the core of the project as a whole was applied to them using an iterative approach. This coding structure was the foundation of the node and framework matrices through which the data was analysed. The coding exercises included the creation of hierarchical structures of nodes, grouping the codes into code families as co-occurring nodes, as well as creating inductive codes and auto-coding. The data was also explored though matrix coding, key-word and key-phrase text search queries; through creating word-clusters, trees and frequencies in context as well as through generating connection maps based upon group queries. The output of this work was a series of semantic networks and that enabled the capture of the key themes arising from these particular data, along with the relationships between them. Any material from the fieldwork interviews has been wholly anonymized.
The pertinent contemporary and archived professional, technical and grey literature in a number of languages in Wales, as well as Canada, Ireland and elsewhere, provided an alternative source of invaluable data. The linguistic coverage of source material for the purposes of this research includes, in particular, English, French, German, Irish, Spanish and Welsh. This literature included a substantial body of almost 100 governmental documents arising from a number of Freedom of Information applications in various jurisdictions. In addition to this literature, close attention was paid to the public discourse on the Commissioner and the language issues associated with the office in the broadcast and print news media. The careful analysis of this material has given rise to a number of important insights.
During the course of the project Mac Giolla Chríost wrote a series of detailed internal discussion papers and briefing on a range of key themes, and directed the development and writing of others by Carlin, and these have formed the basis of a several conference and research seminar presentations and other expert academic discussions under the Chatham House Rule leading to the development of two research monographs (under consideration with publishers). Mac Giolla Chríost, together with Carlin, consulted with certain experts based elsewhere in the UK and internationally, both professional and academic, in order to clarify, in an authoritative manner, some very particular aspects of the research. The robustness of the research results along with the interpretation of them has been triangulated with regards to the following 'types': data, investigator, theory and methodology.
The research findings from Wales are organized into a set of thematic concerns comprised as follows: independence, accountability and organizational form or structure; language rights and freedom; regulatory standards; promotion and complaint-handling; the Crown, Ministers of the Crown and Crown bodies; Welsh as an official language; and, the complexity of the Welsh language regulatory regime. The research results offer a range of insights to the scope and function of the office of the Commissioner of value to developing a better understanding of various important aspects of the scholarly field of language policy and planning. Some of the work will also be of substantial interest to academics working in the areas of administrative justice and of language law, domains united by the unfolding debate on the idea of linguistic justice. It is likely that some of the results will be of especial interest to policy-makers and practitioners as well as opinion-formers engaged in language issues.
A number of the research results from Wales have immediate relevance to public policy and, indeed, may appear to be rather striking to Welsh policy actors. These include, for example, the following conclusions:
I. the current organizational form, or corporate structure of the office of the Commissioner is not fit for purpose;
II. there are insufficient checks and balances on the operation of the office of the Commissioner;
III. Ministerial direction is appropriately framed in the Measure and has been appropriately applied;
IV. the current mechanics with regard setting the Commissioner's budget are appropriate;
V. there is a conflict of interest between the First Minister and the Welsh Language Tribunal;
VI. the legislative cycle in particular was informed by weak and partial evidence on a number of issues but in particular on the following matters: statutory declarations of official language status, freedom to use a language, the concept of 'active offer', and the independence and accountability of the office of Language Commissioner generally;
VII. distinctions between expert and activist evidence were often substantially blurred;
VIII. Common Law jurisdictions can, and indeed do, accommodate official languages;
IX. that the English language is declared an official language under the National Assembly for Wales (Official Languages) Act 2012 is certainly of doubtful vires as the Assembly has no legal competency with regard to English;
X. Welsh Language Standards, as per the Measure, can be said to create language rights;
XI. Welsh Language Standards are no less complex than are Welsh Language Schemes;
XII. that both the Commissioner and the Welsh Government are responsible for promoting the Welsh language creates duplication;
XIII. it is constitutionally unsound for the Commissioner, as a regulator, to be under a duty to critique Welsh Government policy;
XIV. the operation of complaint-handling function by the Commissioner is a marked improvement upon the historical performance of the Welsh Language Board;
XV. there are clear signs of regulatory activism by the Commissioner and also indications of regulatory capture of the Commissioner by language interest groups. This is manifest in the Commissioner campaigning for changes to Welsh Government legislation and in the manipulation of the complaint-handling process by the Commissioner in relation to specific cases regarding the freedom to use Welsh and the Welsh language services of high street banks;
XVI. the Commissioner mis-represented the legal implications of the result of Judicial Review she initiated against National Savings and Investments;
XVII. the relationship of the Crown, Ministers of the Crown and Crown bodies to the Welsh language regulatory regime is overly complex and ambiguous;
XVIII. there is no single model of commissioners in Wales with which the Commissioner can, or ought to, conform.
Overall, therefore, the evidence is sufficient to conclude that there is good reason to substantially revise aspects of the Welsh language regulatory regime in its totality, including via legislation. In the period 2016-2017 it was announced that the Governemt of Wales was minded to abolish the Welsh Language Commissioner for many of the reasons reported upon in the monograph by Mac Giolla Chriost (2016). Current thinking is that both the promotional and regulatory aspects of language policy should be brought in house within a newly configured Welsh Language Commission. Legislation to that effect is currently being prepared and will be presented to the National Assembly for Wales in the Autumn of 2018, and if passed, will be implemented in the period 2019-2010.
With regards the Irish Language Commissioner, the research results are organized into a set of thematic issues as follows: the separation of powers; personality and structure of incorporation; rights, schemes and standards; equality and the official status of Irish; the Gaeltacht; Irish as an official language; and a reflection upon the long drawn-out review of the Official Languages Act 2003. The research results offer a range of insights to the scope and function of the office of the Commissioner of value to developing a better understanding of various important aspects of the scholarly field of language policy and planning.
A number of the research results have immediate relevance to public policy. This includes, in the first place, the conclusion that the Commissioner is a regulator and therefore a key actor in facilitating the effective implementation of public policy under the Official Languages Act 2003 [henceforth 'the Act']. One of the implications of the office being a regulator is that it sits in the Executive branch of government. Regulators are understood to be a part of the family of the Government of the day and are, therefore, as the research literature shows, independent within the State but not independent of it. The evidence shows that the precise nature of the most appropriate form for the independence of the Commissioner in relation to the Government is widely misconceived, including under the Act. Indeed, leaving the Act itself to one side, the research shows that the policy document governing the relationship between the Commissioner and the Government very much appears not to be fit for purpose. The Commissioner, in line with other regulators, must be autonomous in the daily operation of the functions of the office but he also ought to be subject to appropriate guidance and direction on the part of the Minister, while avoiding inappropriate political interference. He ought also to be more directly accountable to the Minister, as well as to the Legislature (the Houses of the Oireachtas) along with the Minister. Being a regulator, it is clear from the research that there are insufficient checks and balances on the daily operation of the office. For example, the work of the Commissioner is not informed by the views of an Advisory Panel. Moreover, and contrary to the current manner of the incorporation of the office of the Commissioner, the evidence demonstrates that the norm for the corporate structure of regulatory offices is the corporation aggregate. Corporations sole, as with the office of the Commissioner, are shown by the research literature to be very dependent upon the personality of the incumbent. Regulatory risk is much better managed by corporations aggregate. The circumstances leading to the resignation of the first holder of the office of the Commissioner can be understood in these terms. There is, therefore, a strong case for re-modelling the corporate structure of the office.
The policy and legislative cycles leading up to the Act and also the Government's recent review of the Act made very limited use of expert, as opposed to activist, evidence. Indeed, distinctions between expert and activist evidence were often substantially blurred. As a result, deliberations at both these stages were informed by weak and partial evidence on a number of important issues. These include the following: international comparators for the office of the Commissioner, the separation of powers, the functional identity of the office of the Commissioner, the nature of the ombudsman role, the nature of the regulatory role, the strengths and weaknesses of Language Schemes, the relationship between duties and rights, and the legal and policy implications of the notion of equality.
During the course of the development of the Irish language regulatory regime there was a very poorly developed understanding of the notion of equality as applied to language. There was a dramatic shift during the legislative cycle with regard to how the notion of equality informed the Act. Pressure by interest groups, based upon the Constitutional status of the language, was significant in driving this shift. However, the research shows that the act of resiling from equality has had implications for the language beyond the Constitution, one of which has been to reinforce tokenism. Related to this is the manner in which rights are framed by the Act and, to some degree, interpreted by the Commissioner. The research shows that the Act realizes certain rights for Irish-speakers via the duties laid out as regulatory standards in Schemes. But, the research also shows that the Act circumscribes the rights of Irish-speakers in some important regards and that important elements to them have been deputed to the Commissioner alone. The vindication of rights and the ability to seek recourse to legal remedy are somewhat limited, although the research illustrates that the Commissioner is a very effective complaint-handling office.
The research found evidence to show that there was considerable institutional resistance to aspects of the Act as it was being developed and, it would appear, that much of that resistance remains. In particular, while the public rhetoric of the Government which was the architect of the Act claimed that it would create rights for Irish-speakers to conduct their business with the State in the national language other non-public official material shows otherwise. In short, the research demonstrates that the State was determined that only a 'quantum' of its services would be available through Irish. This disjuncture between Ministerial rhetoric and regulatory reality is also manifest in the regulatory style inherent to the Act and, therefore, the office of the Commissioner. Unlike more fully robust regulatory regimes there is no 'pyramid of enforcement' in the Irish context. Simply, the research shows that Irish language regulatory regime has limited traction; it has little bite. In addition, the research suggests that this resistance, along with the retreat from equality, has been felt most deeply in the Gaeltacht. Set in the broader context of the ongoing shift from Irish to English in the Gaeltacht, and drawing upon other authoritative research on that shift, this work shows how the failure to pay sufficient attention to the Gaeltacht as a feature of the Irish language regulatory regime is contributing to the language shift there towards English.
The research findings from Canada are organized into a set of thematic concerns as follows:-accountability and organizational form or structure; language rights and freedom; promotion and complaint-handling; comparisons and variance between the Federal and Provincial models of Language Commissioners; the Court Challenges Programme.
The Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages (OCOL) ensures compliance with the Official Languages Act, which was adopted in 1969 (revised in 1988) and which created OCOL. The role of the COL is set out in Part IX, sections 48 to 75 of the OLA The mission of OCOL is to promote English and French and protect the language rights of Canadians and it aims to support the development of the country's English and French speaking communities. The work of the Commissioner of Official Languages is varied and far reaching, it is designed to:-
i. "Increase awareness of language rights and the importance of bilingualism;
ii. Provide outreach to official language minority communities and to the public;
iii. Handle complaints and respond to requests for information on official languages;
iv. Conduct investigations to ensure that federal institutions comply with the Official Languages Act;
v. Intervene before the courts;
vi. Conduct research on official languages;
vii. Table a report every year to Parliament on our activities and on the state of official languages in Canada." (Source: OCOL 2015, see www.official languages.gc.ca)

Amongst the research results are the following specific insights:-
i. The Trudeau vision of Canada's language regime is waning.
ii. The Commissioner of Official Language (COL) is defined as the active conscience of the Official Languages Act.
iii. Alongside other Agents of Parliament, the COL is independent from the Federal Government and sees itself as the guardian of core Canadian values.
iv. It has recently co-operated more fully with other Agents and is now co-located within the same government complex as Elections Canada and the Privacy and Information Commissioner, offering synergies and cost-effective back office services.
v. Since 2006 the Commissioner of Official Language's role has been less about interpreting the mandate and more about developing leadership to secure linguistic duality.
vi. OCOL performs both an Ombudsman and a promotional role in making the duties and rights of Canadian Language legislation better known both to the citizen and to public bodies.
vii. Advancing OCOL depends on how the business of government is changing. OCOL has had to adapt its remit in the light of successive governments' change in emphasis of the value of bilingualism as revealed in revised versions of the Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages.
viii. Given the recalcitrance of some senior managers in government departments the ability of OCOL to impose significant fines to secure enforcement is a live issue.
ix. The Court Challenges Program of Canada, established in 1978 to provide funding for official minority language cases based on sections 93 and 133 of the Constitution Act, 1867, was cancelled in September 2006 and is now reconfigured as the Language Rights Support Program (LRSP) administered by the University of Ottawa. The program is funded by a multi-year contribution of $1.5m from Canadian Heritage and provides a useful mechanism by which the current socio-legal issues surrounding official languages may be refracted.

Of these, the following have implications for practice. As a consequence both of improvements in IT and Federal government policy many Federal bilingual services are now delivered on-line and while fully co-equal in terms of the quality of the 'Language of Service mandate', there is less of a bilingual footprint and a corresponding downgrading of several offices where there is a reduced human capacity to perform key functions in French. This has implications for OCOL in terms of regulating adherence to Part 1V of the Official Languages Act and in promoting the vitality of Official Minority Language Communities (OMLCs). Thus by illustration, the Canada Revenue Agency no longer has physical offices and this trend is being followed by other federal agencies which reduces both the presence of the Federal Government and employment opportunities for French speakers, especially in less populated areas where previously government directed employment growth served to bolster the linguistic landscape of remote communities. Thus while the service offered adheres to the requirements of the OLA the vitality of OMLCs is reduced somewhat.
The Commissioner has consistently argued that Senior Managers in Government Departments need to be pro-active in creating a workplace that is conducive to the use of English and French. Nationwide some 40% of positions in the federal public service require knowledge of both official languages. Between 2009-2015 the Commissioner has advocated working more closely with Ministers to strengthen the language skills of applicants seeking a career in the public sector. The Federal Government in the spring of 2015 announced that it would make it mandatory for prospective candidates to acquire appropriate language skills prior to being appointed. It argued that the University system should increase its provision of bilingual education, especially for those entering the public sector. It further argued that it had previously invested heavily in seeking to 'apprentice' public servants to the required standard, but so often this standard had not been met and as a consequence the working use of French in particular had suffered. Cynics have argued that this is essentially a cost-cutting exercise and as a consequence the degree of bilingualism in the public sector will be reduced.
Despite the continued commitment of the Federal Government to promoting linguistic duality as enshrined in the Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages, 2008-2013, renewed for 2013-2018 with the same budget, there are still countless indications that federal institutions see linguistic duality as a burden rather than a value. Actively offering service in the official language is not simply a matter of obligation, it is defined as a matter of respect both for individuals and communities. The OCOL has consistently sought ways to increase this sense of ownership of the other official Language, even if the citizen does not speak it. This is one of the prime challenges through which the COL seeks to develop his leadership role in persuading Canadians of the value of linguistic duality.
The Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages 2008-2013 expended $1.1 billion over five years supporting the vitality of official language communities and promoting English and French as second languages. Fourteen federal institutions implement the current and previous Roadmap with a prime emphasis on health, economy, immigration, education and justice. The successive Roadmaps offer both an insight into language policy and into the broader question of what value the government places on language as a marker of a political community. The successive Roadmaps have witnessed a shift in the government's thinking from one that emphasises a human rights based framework to one which emphasises the economic added value of language. Thus the 2013 plan specifically insists on measuring the impact of the money expended on the development of Official Language Minority Communities (OMLCs). The implication is that there will be more scrutiny on the role of OMLC and their contribution to the Canadian economy and OCOL has to adapt its strategy and working methods to reinterpret its mandate within this new language regime. The research literature suggests that a reduced emphasis on holistic language planning and a greater emphasis on economic development within OMLCs means that language is being increasingly operationalised as an area of government intervention rather than being seen as integral to Canadian identity.
The overall conclusion is that having been conceived in the late sixties and revised in the eighties the OLA and OCOL have proved remarkably adaptive to the demands of the present day. The internal processes of OCOL especially in relation to complaint handling and investigations are robust and effective. What is not so clear is how OCOL will respond to the three challenges of the impact of IT on the methods of delivering bilingual services, the increased utilitarian, commercial and economic emphasis which the Harper Conservative Government (up to October 19th 2015 when it was replaced by a Liberal Government under Trudeau) has placed on the role of Official Languages and the ongoing demographic and demo linguistic transformation of the Canadian population occasioned by large-scale immigration. More broadly speaking again, offices of language commissioner in Canada at federal, provincial and territorial levels might be said to work reasonably well with regards the following:-
I. entrenched constitutional rights afforded to the linguistic minority
II. statutory mechanisms (ombudsman and court remedy) to ensure the language rights of citizens are respected
III. education in the other official language
IV. the maturation of the Office of French Language Service Commissioner which in 2014 gained independence. Thus rather than being accountable to the Minister responsible for Francophone Affairs it answers directly to the Ontario Legislature which guarantees protection and independence for the FLS (as is the case for other Commissioners in Ontario).

However, other features continue to pose a challenge for the language regime and its system, thus the:

V. language of service has improved in all regions but there is room for further improvement;
VI. for language of work, progress is uneven within Federal institutions; the research literature demonstrates the asymmetry in the use of the two official languages in and by government and the predominance of English in many regions that are designated as bilingual for language-of-work purposes;
VII. there continues to be much room for improvement at the provincial, territorial and municipal levels especially in relation to both 'protective bilingualism' and 'participative bilingualism' and this requires sustained evidence on influencing behavioural change and an increased awareness of the need to demonstrate productive outcomes in favour of French language skills and use;
VIII. the continued high level of immigration, over 1 million every four years, has prompted OCOL to call for a greater effort to encourage both the migrants and the children of migrants to learn French and to thereby feel more Canadian as the two official languages play a central role in identity.
IX. in several communities this continued demographic pressure also threatens the stability of the minimum threshold criteria of 5 percent of the population whereby it may be served in French. The parameters of 'significant demand and 'where numbers warrant' which trigger Federal bilingual services raise problems. Even a minority community with a growing population can fall below the 5 percent threshold if the majority population grows faster.
X. In consequence OCOL is in the process of commissioning a series of studies to inform their future policy development on community vitality; second language acquisition; the French language outside Quebec; the language training needs for the public service.

Canada's experience in reconciling two cultures that once fought each other is useful in other parts of the world.
I. OCOL is very much involved in post-conflict reconstruction, especially in Sri Lanka.
II. Canada has served as a model for language policies in other countries, including Kosovo, Iraq and India.
III. Canada has been the driving force behind the International Association of Language Commissioners, providing leadership and institutional support for the expansion of the Association.
IV. Language policies must be based on respect and have clear mechanisms to ensure that rights of citizens are respected. The Federal and Provincial Language Commissioner's complaints system and investigatory practice provide such mechanisms and guarantees.
Aspects of the various findings have been disseminated through various means and some have been made available online. For example:
Public lecture [by invitation - published online] at National Eisteddfod 2015 - Cwmni Iaith Annual Lecture.
http://www.iaith.cymru/en/news/commissioner-or-commission
Contribution to radio programme on RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, Friday, May 24, 2013
http://rte.ie/rnag/cormac-ag-a-cuig/
Newspaper interview with The Irish Times, Wednesday, May 29, 2013
http://www.irishtimes.com/culture/treibh/enchanté-cén-t-ainm-atá-ort-1.1408928?page=1
Contribution to radio programme podcast, Thursday, May 29, 2014 http://radioprofuga.podomatic.com/entry/2014-05-29T11_47_11-07_00
Newspaper article in El Sol de Puebla, Thursday, May 29, 2014
http://www.oem.com.mx/elsoldepuebla/notas/n3408620.htm
Interview to Golwg 360 on-line
http://www.golwg360.com/newyddion/cymru/184470-angen-ail-ddiffinio-swydd-comisiynydd-y-gymraeg
Interview to BBC Cymru Fyw, 30 April 2015.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/cymrufyw/32481242
Interview to Golwg 360, 6 August 2015
http://golwg360.cymru/newyddion/cymru/195689-iaith-angen-corff-o-bobol-nid-comisiynydd-unigol
Exploitation Route Those who have demonstrated a keen interest in our research include the Federal and Provincial Language Commissioners in Canada, the Office of Language Commissioner in Ireland and Wales, the International Association of Language Commissioners and selected government agencies in the case study contexts. In addition academic specialists in the fields of comparative law, public policy and administration, sociolinguistics and language planning have engaged with the research team and have collaborated on related projects.

Research has already had impact in three distinct areas, namely:-
1. First the creation of the International Association of Language Commissioners which brings together all the current language commissioners and those with equivalent standing in various jurisdictions to discuss common issues, share best practice and advise on post-conflict resolution in various contexts.
All three team researchers were present at the 2013 Dublin conference which formulated the remit and membership criteria of the IALC. Prof Colin Williams acted as Rapporteur and co-organiser of the conference together with Sean Ó Cuirreáin, An Coimisinéir Teanga and Peader Ó Flaharta, FIONTAR, DCU.
http://cosmopolitique.org/2013/05/25/international-conference-on-language-rights-dublin-may-24-2013/.
Co-organiser and participant at the Inaugural Conference of the International Association of Language Commissioner, Barcelona, March 21, 2014. Prof Colin Williams gave a plenary presentation and was asked to be the Research Advisor of the IALC and contribute to the development of successive annual conferences.
http://languagecommissioners.org/documents/PROGRAMME_DELEGATES_INTERNATIONAL_FINAL.pdf

Co-organiser and Rapporteur of the Second Annual Conference of the International Association of Language Commissioners, Ottawa, May 19-21, 2015. Prof Colin Williams acted as rapporteur for the conference and has prepared a Report which is currently being considered by the officers of the IALC. http://languagecommissioners.org/documents/Program_EN.pdf
Currently involved in the programme planning for the next international conference which is to be hosted by the Welsh Language Commissioner in Cardiff, Spring 2017.

2. The second area of impact is the production of specialist briefing papers for Government departments which has informed their thinking and actions e.g. The Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Review of the Official Languages Act 2003, April 2014; specifically p.5; p.7 on 'Language Schemes' and 'The Gaeltacht'; pp.9-10 on 'Language Schemes.'
Official Languages (Amendment) Bill 2014, as per governmental briefing paper; specifically Head 7, Amendment to Section 14 of Principal Act and Head 8, Amendment to Section 15 of Principal Act.
3. The third area of impact is in relation to civil society and academic discourse. The research has informed the community-based / interest group discourse e.g. 'Comisinydd y Cydwybod' by Hynek Janoušek in Y Tafod Mai 2015 pp.14-15, together with the academic discourse - thus subsequent to team members 'contribution at Cardiff 2014 and presentation at Aberystwyth 2015, the proposed 'Welsh model' of commissioners (Williams & Sherlock, Aberystwyth) no longer includes the Welsh Language Commissioner. See - the Shooter report; also, Williams & Sherlock @ http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/media/departmental/interpol/iwp/Commissioners-and-OmbudsmenSeminar-Briefing.pdf cf Williams & Sherlock @ http://adminjustice2015.bangor.ac.uk/programme.php.en
The work has also had an impact upon Dyfodol i'r Iaith Manifesto, launched 30 September 2015.
Sectors Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL http://www.iaith.cymru/en/news/commissioner-or-commission
 
Description The project has had an influence in four contexts, International, Welsh, Irish and Canadian. The most significant impact is the establishment of the International Association of Language Commissioners at the initiative of the late Peadar Ó Flatharta, DCU, Colin H Williams, Cardiff University and Coimisinéir Teanga, Sean O Cuirreáin during a conference on Language Rights which they organised for language commissioners in Dublin, May 2013. http://www.coimisineir.ie/index.php?page=news?ws_id=118?=eng). Williams acts as IALC Conference Rapporteur and adviser on data gathering, evidence, strategy and sharing international best practice. http://languagecommissioners.org/welcome.php?lang=1) Four IALC meetings have been held :- 1. Barcelona, March 2014, hosted by the Catalan Sindic de Greuges; http://www.languagecommissioners.org/documents/PROGRAMME_DELEGATES_INTERNATIONAL_FINAL.pdf. http://www.languagecommissioners.org/documents/IALC-Barcelona-Conference-Report.pdf 2. Ottawa, May 20-21 2015 hosted by the Official Languages and Bilingualism Institute and Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages; http://languagecommissioners.org/documents/May_2015_IALC_Conference_report.pdf 3. NUIG, Galway 8-9 March 2016 hosted by An Coimisinéir Teanga. http://www.ireland.ie/events/international-association-language-commissioners-conference-2016 http://www.coimisineir.ie/downloads/Clar_na_Comhdhala.pdf) 4. The Millenium Center, Cardiff, UK hosted by the Welsh Language Commissioner, May 2017. Wales The research challenges current thinking through our assertion that the institutional architecture of the regulatory regime and organizational structure of the WLC are not fit for purpose. There is a conflict of interest between the First Minister and the Welsh Language Tribunal, and there are insufficient checks and balances on the operation of the WLC office. Our examination of the policy development and legislative cycles revealed that the scrutiny of evidence was insufficiently robust, it failed to identify partial evidence and explore some key issues. It is constitutionally unsound for the WLC, as a regulator, to be under a duty to critique Welsh Government policy as well as the overlap between the two with regards duties to promote Welsh. The evidence argues for a substantial revision of the Welsh language regulatory regime in its totality, including via legislation. Current plans are to incorporate the role and function of the Welsh Language Commissioner into a new Welsh Language Commission. A proposed legislative enactment is due to be debated by the National Assebly in the Autumn of 2018 and should it be passed it will change the promotional and regulatory landscape in a significant manner. Ireland The implications of the regulatory functions of the Language Commissioner are ill-understood by key actors in the Executive, the Legislature and indeed by the Language Commissioner. As a regulator, the Commissioner ought to be independent within the State, but not independent of it. There is a strong case for re-modelling the corporate structure of the office of the Language Commissioner to that of corporation aggregate. During the policy and legislative cycles which created the office of the Language Commissioner, and the Government's review of the 2003 Act, very limited use was made of expert evidence and distinctions between expert and activist evidence were often substantially blurred. These stages were informed by weak and partial evidence particularly on the strengths and weaknesses of Language Schemes. There is a failure to pay sufficient attention to the Gaeltacht as a feature of the Irish language regulatory regime, contributing to language shift towards English. Canada Canada's well-established OCOL has less room for improvement than Wales and Ireland. Our research recommends that OCOL should adopt a light-touch scrutiny of well-functioning Government departments so as to concentrate on more problematic non-compliance cases. OCOL should include detailed assessment of the linguistic profile of an organization in its Report Cards methodology. OCOL should introduce assessment of balance between the proportions of Anglophones and Francophones employed in Federal Services, their levels of satisfaction with language of work, and citizens' views on language of service. Systematic interviews conducted with key members of Official Languages Communities to see how they view progress in the provision of Official Language Services. Research on OCOL clients should be extended as the definition of who counts as a 'francophone' is being widened and would allow for the views of new immigrants and 'invisible' members of Canada's official language communities to be gauged. Dissemination of Results Confidential, governmental briefings to the Welsh Government/ Welsh Language Commissioner; governmental briefing paper on regulatory standards to the Irish Government/Irish Language Commissioner; research seminars on language schemes and standards to OCOL/ Canada Heritage. Broadcast and media dissemination. June 2014 - November 2016 presentations at universities in Ottawa, Vienna, Aberystwyth, Swansea, Bangor, Oxford, and Cork. Mac Giolla Chriost, D. 'The Welsh Language Commissioner in Context', University of Wales Press, 2016. Canadian working papers are being finalised. IALC chapter material submitted in March 2018.
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description 'New Perspectives and Challenges on Protecting Language Rights: Promoting Linguistic Pluralism' The IALC Conference Report 2015, The International Association of Language Commissioners/University of Ottawa, 2015.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The report has disseminated information on the challenges, best practices and future developments of the role of Language Commissioners world wide. It has been used to encourage potential new members of the International Association of Language Commissioners to both join the organisation and to adopt several of the by now common features of the regulatory regimes represented. One very positive feature was the adoption by the IALC of the principle suggested in the report of profiling the work of Language Commissioners so that potentual applicant states/territories could ascertain to what extet their exisitng language protection and regulation paractices were in conformity with the IALC guidelines.
 
Description Advice on Official Languages (Amendment) Bill 2014
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Informed Official Language (Amendment) Bill 2014 as per governmental briefing paper; specifically Head 7, Amendment to Section 14 of Principal Act and Head 8, Amedment to Section 15 of Principal Act.
URL http://www.ahg.gov.ie/en/Irish/ReviewoftheOfficialLanguagesAct2003/Review/Review.pdf
 
Description Decision by Welsh Government to prepare a Welsh Language Bill
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact The research has shown that the current Welsh language legal framework and regulatory regime is defective and requires reform via legislation. This pertains to the full range of public services in Wales and also some providers of services to the public in the private sector.
 
Description Developing a research agenda for the International Association of Language Commissioners
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact The identification of priorities and the exchange of best practice within the jurisdictions of the members of the International Association of Language Commissioners. The extension of the reach of the IALC from a western liberal style regime of language rights/duties regulation to a more pro-active role in conflict resolution and sharing of best practice approaches with societies facing internal ethno-linguistic tensions such as Kosovo and Iran.
URL http://languagecommissioners.org
 
Description Review of the Official Languages Act 2003 (Republic of Ireland) by the Irish Government.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Subsequent to the influential work of 2014, the research results have in 2016 shaped the position of the Irish Government, the Irish Language Commissioner and the key Irish language special interest group as regards how to revise the Official Languages Act.
 
Description Whither Language Rights and Language Commissioners in the 'Mosaic of Mutual Influence?' The IALC Conference Report 2016, The International Association of Language Commissioners/National University of Ireland, Galway, 2016.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The IALC Conference Report 2016 provided an overview of the presentations made at the Annual Conference of the IALC held in NUIG Ireland, March 2016 for which Prof Williams acted as Rapporteur as he has for every international conference held under the auspices of IALC since its inception.The report contains evidence of best practice and the manner in which member states have tackled new issues such as the impact of new arrivals/immigrants on host communities represented in the membership, together with evidence of the evolution of the role of Language Commissioners and the varying responses of governments to the promotion and protection of language rights. The report also contains a set of Prof Williams's proposals for the future work of the IALC which all the Language Commissioners present have commended and subsequent to receiving the Final Report the IALC local organiser Rónán Ó Domhnaill, Irish Language Commissioner, commended the work as having a long-term impact "for the challenges you have outlined regarding the future role of the IALC are thought provoking, honest and realistic." Personal correpondence from Rónán Ó Domhnaill 10 June 2016.
 
Title Interview data base 
Description A series of transcribed interviews with key stakeholders in the three case study contexts. 69 interviews were conducted with Language Commissioners and their staff, other Ombudsmen, Commissioners and Regulators, senior politicians, legal experts and academic specialists. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None as yet, although in time these will form one of the primary sources for projected academic monographs, reports and thematic papers. 
 
Description International Conference of the International Association of Language Commissioners, Galway, March 7-9, 2016 
Organisation Government of Ireland
Department Office of the Irish Language Commissioner
Country Ireland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Advised on the content and themes of the International Conference of the International Association of Language Commissioners, Galway, March 7-9, 2016
Collaborator Contribution Provided material, the opportunities for interviews and networking.
Impact A Rapporteur's Report from the 2016 Conference will be available mid-Summer 2016.
Start Year 2012
 
Description International Conference of the International Association of Language Commissioners, Ottawa, May 22 2015 
Organisation Catalan Ombudsman
Department IALC Inaugural Conference
Country Spain 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The identification of key themes and issues to be discussed at the Ottawa, May 2015 conference; regular dialogue between May 2014 and May 2015 on the planning and progress of the Conference and its related activities which included follow-up meetings with Language Policy and Legal professionals in Canada.
Collaborator Contribution The IALC allows an unparalleled access to all the named Language Commissioners and its regular meetings, both in public and in private allows the ESRC researchers to identify common issues which are raised and to benefit from the 'behind the scenes' discussions as to the problems, mechanisms for evaluation and policy trajectory which IAL members share.
Impact Rapporteur's Report from the Dublin (2012) and Ottawa (2015) meeting. Research Agenda Setting Report from the Barcelona (2014) meeting.
Start Year 2012
 
Description International Conference on Language Commissioners and Language Rights, Barcelona, 19-20 March 2014 
Organisation Catalan Ombudsman
Department IALC Inaugural Conference
Country Spain 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Professor C H Williams was invited to prepare and present a Research Agenda for the IALC and to help prepare for the next conference in the series.
Collaborator Contribution The Síndic de Greuges hosted the conference and provided one of the significant themes on complaints handling while the IALC organised the bulk of the conference and invited the speakers.
Impact The outcome was to identify the hosts responsible for the next set of meetings which will be held in Ottawa in 2015 and Wales 2016. Professor Williams developed his research agenda in the light of the discussions and presented his revisions to the IALC in the late Spring of 2014. He then presented these revised themes and directions for future research at a meeting in OCOL, Ottawa in early June 2014 as part of his field-work and interview schedule for Canada.
Start Year 2013
 
Description International Conference on Language Rights, Dublin 23-24 May 2013 
Organisation The Office of An Coimisineir Teanga
Country Ireland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Professor C.H. Williams co-organised with the Sean O Cuirreain, the Irish Language Commissioner and Dr P.O Flatharta, Director of Fiontar, DCU the first international conference which brought together all nine Language Commissioners together with other speakers to discuss the role of Commissioners in protecting language rights. He also acted as rapporteur for the conference and helped form an Association of Language Commissioners which will develop the field.The papers delivered are available at.http://www.coimisineir.ie/index.php?page=news?ws_id=118?=english
Collaborator Contribution The Irish Language Commissioner hosted and co-organised this conference which led to the formation of an International Association of Language Commissioners. Dr P O Flatharta co-organised the conference.
Impact The outcome was the agreement to establish the International Association of Language Commissioners and to host an annual conference which happened in Barcelona, Catalonia in 2014 and will happen in Ottawa, Canada 2015 and in Wales 2016.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, Ottawa, May - June 2015 
Organisation Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Acted as Rapporteur for the International Conference of the International Association of Language Commissioners, Ottawa, May 22 2015. Advised the OCOL on best practice and issues faced by other Language Commissioners as a result of our investigations.
Collaborator Contribution The IALC allows an unparalleled access to all the named Language Commissioners and its regular meetings, both in public and in private allows the ESRC researchers to identify common issues which are raised and to benefit from the 'behind the scenes' discussions as to the problems, mechanisms for evaluation and policy trajectory which IAL members share.
Impact Rapporteur's Report with the IALC, OCOL. Advice given by OCOL on selected Working Papers drafted by ESRC team in relation to Canadian material gathered. Future collaboration discussed with OCOL and Treasury Board, Canada for research on Language Policy to be pursued now the ESRC grant has finished.
Start Year 2012
 
Description 'The Promotion and Protection of Linguistic Pluralism'. Rapporteur's address to the IALC conference on Protecting Language Rights, Ottawa 21 May 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Williams acted as co-organiser and Rapporteur to the International Association of Language Commissioners conference, hosted by the University of Ottawa and OCOL. This brought together most of the Language Commissioners (and their senior staff) together with representatives of many government departments in Canada, the UK and Ireland, Finland, Kosovo, India etc and academics/journalists to debate the current state of play of language rights and language promotion activities.

It was decided to host a smaller, successive event in Ireland for 2016 and a larger more comprehensive event in Wales in 2017 and Prof. Williams was asked to become an advisor on the thematic content and assist in the selection of panellists and speakers for these events.
He was also charged with writing a report on the IALC 2015 conference discussion to be placed on the website of both the University of Ottawa and OCOL by year end 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://olbi.uottawa.ca/
 
Description Newspaper article in El Sol de Puebla, Thursday, May 29, 2014 featuring interview with Patrick Carlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Report in Mexican statewide newspaper on Puebla May 24 keynote conference speech.

Impact on intellectual development of Project in a comparative international context.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description 'A Transformative Regime,' Invited Lecture to UOC sociolinguistic unit, UOC Barcelona, March 17, 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An account of the transformation of the regulatory regimes as they affect Official Language in selected countries. i.e. Canada, Ireland and Wales
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 'Behind the Mask of Piety.' Colin Williams' invited address to the OCOL and Univ of Ottawa staff, 27 May, 2015, Ottawa. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This address to the Staff of the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, the Centre canadien d'études et de recherche en bilinguisme et aménagement linguistique (CCERBAL)/and the Institut des langues officielles et du bilinguisme (ILOB) prompted a great deal of discussion and has led to an exchange of documents, materials and ideas. It comprised a two hour presentation by Prof Williams on the relationship between the promotion and regulation of Official Languages in Canada, Ireland and Wales. This offered a critical overview of the lack of joined up thinking by selected government departments as they sought to implement official language strategies.The Canadian policy makers and regulators were particularly interested in the development and implementation of the suite of Welsh Language Standards currently entering Welsh public life. There is some scope for the adoption of a similar system in Canada.

Several of the participants were keen to develop further the lines of enquiry opened up and this has resulted in a return invitation to Ottawa in 2016 and to new sets of relationships especially with Canada Heritage and the Treasury Board of Canada which share responsibility for the promotional work on Official Languages.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'I ba le yr awn? Cyfeiriadau Newydd ym Maes Cynllunio Ieithydddol.' Darlith Goffa Henry Lewis, Prifysgol Abertawe, Mai 12 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A Memorial Lecture at Swansea University focussing on Language Policy and Planning in Wales.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 'Language Rights in International Comparative Perspective,' Plenary Address to the International Association of Language Commissioners, Galway, Ireland, March 7-9, 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A plenary address on the theme of Language Rights and Language Commissioners to the annual gathering of the International Association
of Language Commissioners at their meeting in Galway, Ireland, March, 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Address to the staff of the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, Ottawa, Canada. June 6th 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A formal address entitled 'Perspectives on Language Policy' which placed current legislative and language policy developments in Wales in a wider comparative perspective.

Additional information was requested on the ESRC project and the likely developments in Wales. Follow up Skype and phone calls from senior managers of the OCOL to help them develop their activities, help focus their priorities and plan for future 'international' exchange, activities and conferences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Brexit, English and the Language Policy of the European Union, March 10 2017 Cardiff University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This event was co-organised and co-hosted by the Bonotti - School of Law and Mac Giolla Chriost - School of Welsh, Cardiff University. It was sponsored by the ESRC, The IAA Brexit/Industrial Strategy (ISCF) and the Knowledge Exchange Fund. The opening remarks were presented by Prof D. Mac Giolla Chriost and the programme included presentations by Helder De Schutter (KU Leven), Matteo Bonotti, (Cardiff), Emyr Lewis (Blake Morgan), Robert Dunbar (Edinburgh), Mairead Nic Craith (Herriot Watt) and was concluded by a Roundtable in which members of the ESRC Language Commissioners Project team participated. The theme of the event was the role of English in the EU post-Brexit and the impact which Brexit might have on minority languages in the UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/events/view/esrc-knowledge-exchange-event-brexit-english-and-the-language...
 
Description Briefing Paper to Conradh na Gaeilge, Irish language special interest group October 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Briefing Paper by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost & Patrick Carlin to Conradh na Gaeilge, Irish language special interest group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Briefing Paper to Irish Government October 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Briefing paper by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost & Patrick Carlin to Irish Government
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Briefing Paper to Irish Language Commissioner October 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Briefing Paper by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost & Patrick Carlin to Irish Language Commissioner.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Briefing to Welsh Government November 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Briefing by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost to Welsh Government, initiated by the Welsh Government, on content of possible White Paper in preparation for possible Welsh Language Bill.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Briefing to Welsh Government officials December 2014 by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost & Patrick Carlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Detailed reports and accompanying presentation by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost & Patrick Carlin on headline research results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Briefing to Welsh Language Partnership Council, office of the First Minister, Welsh Government March 2015 by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Reported on headline research results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Briefing to office of the Welsh Language Commissioner March 2015 by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost & Patrick Carlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Briefing on headline research results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Comparing language commissioners: Language legislation, regulation, advocacy and governance in Canada, the Republic of Ireland and Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Carlin and Professor Mac Giolla Chríost presented an analysis of data relating to language regulation, and complaint-handling in particular, in the three case studies, using archival and contemporary data. The presentation elicited a range of useful feedback from the academic audience.

This was an opportunity to develop relationships and garner ideas from other researchers in the field of language rights and public policy, particularly those involed in analysing the current situation in Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference paper seven and workshop at Gobierno del Estado de Puebla, Mexico, conference on education and pluri-culturalism, Puebla 2014 by Patrick Carlin by invitation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Following Dr Carlin's presentation there was a specific roundtable, in which he played a leading role, on Welsh language revitalisation comprised of State and Federal policy makers as well as indigenous language revitalisation practitioners. Mac Giolla Chríost and Carlin were invited by the office of the Governor of the state of Estado de Puebla. Carlin attended. The event was specifically designed to inform the development of public policy.

In the process of drawing up the Puebla Declaration which arose from the conference, Dr Carlin, on behalf of the team, was invited to submit expert advice before final drafting and publication of the official declaration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.pueblaonline.com.mx/portal/index.php/estado/item/7096-rmv-inaugura-foro-encuentro-interna...
 
Description Conference presentation by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost at Calgary University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Reported on some research results. Generated further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://werklund.ucalgary.ca/lpp/
 
Description Conference presentation by invitation by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost at Bangor University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference presentation generated further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://adminjustice2015.bangor.ac.uk
 
Description Contribution to Radio Programme on RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, Friday, May 24, 2013 by Patrick Carlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio roundtable participation for National Irish Broadcaster RTÉ

No notable impacts apart from national platform discussion of ongoing Language Commissioner debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://rte.ie/rnag/cormac-ag-a-cuig/
 
Description Contribution to radio programme podcast, Thursday, May 29, 2014 by Patrick Carlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The radio participation occurred as a direct result of keynote speech at Puebla 29 May 2014 conference.

Interest raised in indigenous language revitalisation in Mexico (see connected newspaper engagement activity)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://radioprofuga.podomatic.com/entry/2014-05-29T11_47_11-07_00
 
Description Cwmni Iaith Annual Lecture at the National Eisteddfod by invitation by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Event initiated public discussion on the news media on tv, radio, print and online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.iaith.cymru/en/news/commissioner-or-commission
 
Description Iaith, Iechyd a Theori Gwleidyddol, Political Studies Association and WISERD Conference on Language Health and Political Theory, Cardiff University, May 16 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A Political Studies Associaiton and WISERD one day workshop on Language, Health and Political Theory which critiqued the role of the Office of Welsh Language Commissioner in its investigations into language equality and public service provision within the Health Service in Wales.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Implementing a Research Agenda for IALC, Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, Ottawa, Canada, June 3 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Williams briefed the senior managers and staff of the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages on ideas for a research agenda for the IALC.

Stimulated further developments and implementation of the IALC research programme and continued the on-going assistance Professor Williams is providing to the organisers of the next IALC conference to be held in Ottawa in May 2015 in which he shall act as rapporteur.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description International Conference of the Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol, Wales July 1st 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor C H Williams was invited to give the plenary opening address to the First International Conference of the Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol/The National Welsh College). His theme was 'Hyrwyddo a Diogelu Iaith' (The Promotion and Protection of Language).

The address stimulated a great deal of activity on social media, broadcast interviews.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.colegcymraeg.ac.uk/cy/newyddion/cynadleddau
 
Description International Conference on Cultural Rights and Democratization, University of the Basque Country, 23-24 November 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The conference was a joint collaboration between a number of universities in Spain and France with a particular focus on the condition of the Basque language in comparative context. Professor Williams was invited to give a plenary address on the situation in Wales. The title of the presentation was 'Legislative Devolution and the Enactment of the Official Status of Welsh in Wales.'

Membership of a new network of language rights specialists organised by the 'observatoire international des droits linguistiques' University of Moncton mainly from the field of Law and Human Rights, and subsequent publication of the conference proceedings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.euskalkultura.com/english/events/international
 
Description International Conference on Language Rights May 2013. Plenary Address 'A Research Agenda for the IALC'. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Contributed to the development of the programme of an international conference on Language Rights which brought together for the first time all nine Official Language Commissioner. Professor Williams acted as Rapporter and gave the closing plenary address.The conference was hosted by the Irish Language Commissioner and co-organised by Colin Williams of the ESRC Language Commissioners Team at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University and Peadar O Flatharta of Fiontar, Dublin City University.

At the conclusion of the conference an additional session was convened where the nine Language Commissioners/Regulators together with the Chair of the Conference, Par Stenback and Prof Williams as Rapporteur approved a prepared document outlining the establishment of the International Association of Language Commissioners whose purpose was to share best practice in the field, to prepare an annual conference and to encourage the exchange of staff from one jurisdiction to another.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.coimisineir.ie/downloads/InternationalConferenceonLanguageRights.pdf
 
Description International Seminar on Language Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Moncton, NB, Canada 9 October 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One of the first international events hosted by the newly created Observatoire international des droits linguistiques, University of Moncton, Canada which seeks to inform policy makers, regulators and the legal profession about the promotion and protection of language rights world-wide.

A network of collaborators in the field of language rights was established and Professor Williams was asked to become an Editorial Board Member of the newly established Revue de Droits Linguistiques/Language Law Review, published by the Observatoire international des droits linguistiques.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.droitslinguistiques.ca
 
Description Interview by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost with online news outlet Golwg360 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Reported on some research results. Generated further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.golwg360.com/newyddion/cymru/184470-angen-ail-ddiffinio-swydd-comisiynydd-y-gymraeg
 
Description Interview for BBC / S4C news, August 2015 by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Activity generated further public discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview for BBC Wales news April 2015 by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Generated further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview for BBC news online April 2015 by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Reported upon some of the research results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/cymrufyw/32481242
 
Description Interview for BBC radio August 2014 by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Reported upon some of the research results. Generated further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview with S4C news April 2015 by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Generated further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description La transformation du cadre legislatif relatif a la langue au Pays de Galles, Invited Address to La Monde de la francophonie international conference, Quebec City, 5 July 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation by Professor C H Williams raised awareness both of the current changes in Wales and of the likely impact which establishing a Language Commissioner would have on the ability to protect and regulate official language minorities.

Professor Williams was invited to join a network of Francophonie legal advisers, hosted by the Observatoire international des droits linguistiques, University of Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Linguistic Diversity and Justice Workshop, Cardiff University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Mac Giolla Chriost co-organised with Dr H. Williams, Philosophy, Cardiff University a workshop in March 2018 focussed on Linguistic Diversity and Justice which included participation by Prof Kymlicka, Queen's Univ, Canada; Dr Brook, Swansea University; Dr Higham, Swansea University and Dr Williams, Cardiff University..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Media interview Golwg August 2015 by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Activity was headline item and generated further public discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://golwg360.cymru/newyddion/cymru/195689-iaith-angen-corff-o-bobol-nid-comisiynydd-unigol
 
Description Media interview January 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Media interview by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost to the print and online magazine Golwg.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Newspaper interview with The Irish Times, Wednesday, May 29, 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact No empiric data on activity result.

Stakeholder and regulator personal feedback positive.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.irishtimes.com/culture/treibh/enchanté-cén-t-ainm-atá-ort-1.1408928?page=1
 
Description Plenary Address as Rapporteur to the International Association of Language Commissioners, Galway, Ireland, March 7-9 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Annual Conference of the International Association of Language Commissioners is designed to highlight the best practice and common issues which the representatives of various Offices of Language Commissioners have identified. Typically the conference attracts three types of speakers, Language Commissioners; Government Policy Makers; Academics and Journalists.
There is also a set of private closed meetings to which C H Williams is invited each year so as to help direct the strategic and research design aspects of the IALC's work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://coimisineir.ie
 
Description Presentation by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chriost to Commonwealth Parliamentary Association Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The presentation informed a discussion on official language status and access to democracy.

Invitations to address other Parliamentary organisations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.assemblywales.org/bimr2014.htm
 
Description Public lecture at National Eisteddfod by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Event led to public discussion on news media on tv, radio and online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/eisteddfod/events
 
Description Public lecture by invitation by Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost at Aberystwyth University April 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Reported on some research results. Presentation generated further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/news/archive/2015/04/title-165873-en.html
 
Description Rapporteur at colloquium on commissioners and ombudsmen and the infrastructure of Welsh governance by both Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost & Patrick Carlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The event, at which Professor Mac Giolla Chriost was rapporteur, was co-organised by the Institute for Welsh Politics, Aberystwyth and the National Assembly for Wales and as a result, the rapporteur's interpretation of the role of the office of Language Commissioner sparked significant discussion in the context of the function of the office of Ombudsman, Commissioner and Regulator more generally, highlighting the specifics of operating within a bilingual context in an increasingly devolving UK .

The research team have been invited to develop an intellectual dialogue with other academics and policy-makers on a possible 'Welsh model' of the office of Commissioner.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Recent developments in Welsh language legislation, Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages [OCOL], Canada 11 July 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation by Professor C H Williams informed the OCOL staff of the recent establishment of a Welsh Language Commisioner, its remit, role and the challenges which it would likely face over the medium term.

Professor Williams was invited to help OCOL as it prepared to facilitate a series of international conferences and meetings related to the work of the International Association of Language Commissioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Crucible of Ambition: Alternative Visions for Welsh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Prof C.H. Williams deivered an invited presentation to the Catalan Stuides Institute in Barcelona, March 15 2018 which interpreted the structural changes currently being proposed by the Governent of Wales in relation to the baance between language promotion and regulation and the future status and role of the Welsh Language Commissioner.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Mask of Piety and the Faltering Polity, Plenary Address to the Inaugural Conference on Celtic Studies, Bangor University, 21 July 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation by Professor C.H. Williams stimulated a wide ranging discussion, set in comparative international context, on the need for and the likely effectiveness of a Language Commissioner in Wales.

The talk lead to further requests for information and an invitation to speak at a conference hosted by the Welsh Government in Caernarfon 22 March 2013 devoted to Welsh language policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Welsh Language Commissioner:The first fruits of legislative devolution in Wales, presentation at the Sociolinguistic Symposium19, Frei University, Berlin 23 August 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation by Professor C.H. Williams was part of a session devoted to language legislation, rights and protection. Together with others there was a stimulating open discussion and it was agreed that further research co-operation would be undertaken on the theme with the University of Edinburgh (Profs MacLeod and Dunbar) and the University of Galway (Dr Walsh).

A series of seminars in Cardiff and Edinburgh devoted to language legislation over the period 2013-4.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012