Exclusion amid Inclusion: Power-Sharing and Non-Dominant Minorities

Lead Research Organisation: Queen's University of Belfast
Department Name: Sch of Hist, Anthrop, Philos & Politics

Abstract

In 2009 the European Court of Human Rights ruled 14-3 that Bosnia-Herzegovina's election rules for its tripartite presidency, which allow only Bosniaks, Bosnian Croats, and Bosnian Serbs to stand for election, were discriminatory against other minority groups, namely the Roma and Jewish communities. This is because Bosnia's constitutional framework, alongside the presidential arrangement, is designed to accommodate and include the three constituent peoples but not members who prefer not to identify in terms of three ethnic groups. While this was thought necessary to end the 1992-5 war (Weller and Wolff 2005), it has forestalled the consolidation of democracy and has marginalised individuals and groups who do not identify with the three dominant communities. As Jakob Finci, the leader of Bosnia's Jewish community who took the case to the ECHR, noted in response to the ruling, Bosnia's institutional rules are "a problem of injustice that divides Bosnian people into first and second class citizens" (Balkanist 2015).
Power-sharing, which entails the representation and participation of major societal (ethnic) actors in the process of governing, has been adopted in places as diverse as Burundi, Lebanon, Kosovo, Macedonia, Northern Ireland, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Iraq and has facilitated a war-to-peace transition in some of the world's most deeply divided places. However, while power-sharing is often heralded as a democratic and inclusive approach to managing ethnic difference, it faces a significant trade-off. For power-sharing to create stability and pacify the divided groups, it must marginalise those actors who were not directly involved in conflict, who we refer to as non-dominant groups. As part of this project, we identify three kinds of non-dominant groups who were neglected in the original design of power-sharing institutions and remain on the sidelines of postconflict politics: non-ethnic minorities, re-aligned minorities, and micro-minorities.
We refer to this institutional bias in favour of large groups as the "exclusion amid inclusion" (EAI) dilemma. We seek to answer the following research question: How can power-sharing arrangements best be implemented to account for the EAI problem? This research project is designed to confront the EAI dilemma and offer feasible and viable recommendations for its resolution.
We seek to answer the following research question: How can power-sharing arrangements best be implemented to account for the EAI problem? We answer this question through a threefold methodological approach. We shall conduct 1) a macro-political analysis of power-sharing institutions to assess their ability to redress the EAI dilemma, 2) four comparative case studies (Northern Ireland, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Lebanon and Macedonia) investigating the relationship between the inclusion of dominant groups and the exclusion of non-dominant groups, employing a "structured, focused" method of comparison (George and Bennett 2005), and 3) semi-structured interviews with politicians from parties that participate in power-sharing and from parties that struggle for legislative representation, community activists from the three kinds of non-dominant groups identified, and representatives of international organisations engaged in democracy promotion and conflict resolution.
Overall, we assess the experiences of states engaged in power-sharing in order to develop a series of policy proposals for modifying the institutional framework to accommodate identity groups that have either been marginalised under the initial institutional design, or who have emerged during the period of peace. This is of timely relevance: our conceptual framework can be extended to societies beyond our comparative cases where peace is marred by episodic violence, frozen conflict, and/or active violent conflict between the dominant groups, but also affecting the non-dominant groups.

Planned Impact

The postconflict divided societies we study in the project house some of the most intractable conflicts in the world. This necessitates fresh ideas and proposals about building stable state institutions and economies. Our underpinning research will benefit those making policy and those striving to bring greater understanding between different factions involved in resolving the EAI dilemma. Integral to the proposed research is the ambition to work closely with policymakers at the research, writing up and dissemination phases of the project and to contribute directly to the effectiveness of public policy. This will be done by communication of the findings of the project directly to senior policymakers in Northern Ireland, Macedonia, Bosnia, and Lebanon, as well as at EU level and several other current and prospective member states, including the UK. Our project will provide underpinning research to grapple with these challenges, built on close dialogue we will maintain with:
a) the local and European policymaking community, advising them on tools to reassess policies and behaviour in key areas of postconflict institution building. Involving both the political and regional elites representing sectors of society and culture, we envisage that the influence of our research will aid in minimising the impact of power-sharing institutions on exclusion of non-dominant groups.
b) civil society activists and political elites, developing reports and policy briefings that will be used to strengthen inter-communal dialogue and reflection. This will allow social and political elites to maintain expertise to deliver penetrating and comprehensive analyses of opportunities for inclusion of non-dominant groups into power-sharing political process beyond the period of funding envisaged for the project.
c) NGOs and groups representing micro-minorities, non-ethnic groups, and realigned minorities will be able to assess opportunities for individuals to improve sustainably their input into process of institutional and policy change in the four polities we study. This will create momentum for self-sustaining work in countries we will have studied, procure additional diverse benefits to policymakers in the target countries and to a broad set of regional and international actors involved in postconflict state institution building.
The fundamental lessons from our project will include identification of gaps in provisions by state and established political actors and societal needs and will offer the definitive basis for changing actual practice at the communal level. We will identify strategies for policymakers and constitutional designers that can balance the need for the representation and participation of both dominant and non-dominant groups and we will work closely with community activists highlighting strategies that can facilitate their demands for greater inclusion in power-sharing processes. The enhancement of presentation of our three excluded groups will prove useful to those working to overcome inter-communal divisions and perceptions of the systemic exclusion from public life. Representatives of the three groups we study in detail will be involved in informing and formulating policy development in our case study countries under the aegis of our project, which will provide a neutral platform for discussion of sensitive issues of political exclusion in divided societies. This research aims to support attempts at constitutional, political and policy reform in deeply divided societies, including but not restricted to, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Lebanon and Northern Ireland.

Publications

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Agarin T (2018) Others in Deeply Divided Societies: A Research Agenda in Nationalism and Ethnic Politics

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McCulloch A (2019) Power-sharing: A gender intervention in International Political Science Review

 
Description Helping People Help Themselves: The Role of Civil Society in Governance of Post-conflict Societies
Amount £34,744 (GBP)
Organisation Department for the Economy, Northern Ireland 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2019 
End 05/2020
 
Description International Political Studies Association - Conference Funding
Amount $7,500 (CAD)
Organisation International Political Science Association 
Sector Academic/University
Country Canada
Start 03/2017 
End 08/2017
 
Description International Political Studies Association - Conference Funding
Amount $6,000 (CAD)
Organisation International Political Science Association 
Sector Academic/University
Country Canada
Start 01/2019 
End 08/2019
 
Description International Researcher Mobility Scheme, Autonome Provinz Bozen
Amount € 50,666 (EUR)
Funding ID Decretto 334 
Organisation European Academy Bolzano EURAC 
Sector Academic/University
Country Italy
Start 09/2019 
End 12/2020
 
Description Queen's University Belfast, Faculty Research Initiative
Amount £968 (GBP)
Funding ID Queen's University Belfast, Faculty Research Initiative 
Organisation Queen's University Belfast 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 05/2018
 
Description Queen's University Belfast, Faculty Research Initiative
Amount £988 (GBP)
Funding ID Queen's University Belfast, Faculty Research Initiative 
Organisation Queen's University Belfast 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 05/2019
 
Description IPSA colloquium: Democratization and Constitutional Design in Divided Societies 
Organisation Brandon University
Department Department of Political Science
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Under the leadership of the members of research project, this conference brought together three IPSA research committees (14, 13 and 28) to examine the challenges of designing democratic institutions in divided societies. The conference provided an opportunity to examine the role of different factors (e.g., ethnicity, gender, class, political institutions, efficacy of multi-level governance, the intersection between peace and democratic stability) in fostering democratization in the context of regional and global integration. The conference reflected upon the constitutional design process in Cyprus as well as proposals that develop case studies or comparison of issues of democratization evident in any part of the world or those which engage a theoretical perspective on institutional and constitutional designs in ethnically, religiously, nationally and linguistically divided societies.
Collaborator Contribution The conference was convened at the University of Cyprus, Nicosia (host institution), at the time when the country was undergoing a complex and historic process of designing political institutions to bridge the gap between the island's divided communities. The conference brought together more than 130 participants, including around 50 early career scholars, from over 40 countries. Over three days in Nicosia, we ran 35 panels on a range of topics, including: Culture, Territory and Community in Diverse Societies; Comparative Perspective on Political Participation in Divided Societies; Gender, Power-Sharing and Peace Processes; The Cypriot Diaspora in a Comparative Perspective; From Paper to Peace? Examining the Role of Institutional Design in War-to-peace Transitions; Substate Nationalisms and Multilevel Governance. Highlights from the conference include the keynote address by John McGarry (Queen's University) on "What Explains the Performance of Power-Sharing Settlements?" and a roundtable discussion on "A Federal Cyprus? Comparative Perspectives on Reunification" organized by Neophytos Loizides (University of Kent).
Impact There is a range of individual publications in preparation as a result of this conference. PI and CoI lead on as guest editors of a special issue of the journal International Political Science Review (IPSR); PI, CoI and Murtagh (postdoc) all have their papers included as part of the project and will be recorded as project's outputs once published (provisionally late 2019).
Start Year 2017
 
Description IPSA colloquium: Democratization and Constitutional Design in Divided Societies 
Organisation International Political Science Association
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Under the leadership of the members of research project, this conference brought together three IPSA research committees (14, 13 and 28) to examine the challenges of designing democratic institutions in divided societies. The conference provided an opportunity to examine the role of different factors (e.g., ethnicity, gender, class, political institutions, efficacy of multi-level governance, the intersection between peace and democratic stability) in fostering democratization in the context of regional and global integration. The conference reflected upon the constitutional design process in Cyprus as well as proposals that develop case studies or comparison of issues of democratization evident in any part of the world or those which engage a theoretical perspective on institutional and constitutional designs in ethnically, religiously, nationally and linguistically divided societies.
Collaborator Contribution The conference was convened at the University of Cyprus, Nicosia (host institution), at the time when the country was undergoing a complex and historic process of designing political institutions to bridge the gap between the island's divided communities. The conference brought together more than 130 participants, including around 50 early career scholars, from over 40 countries. Over three days in Nicosia, we ran 35 panels on a range of topics, including: Culture, Territory and Community in Diverse Societies; Comparative Perspective on Political Participation in Divided Societies; Gender, Power-Sharing and Peace Processes; The Cypriot Diaspora in a Comparative Perspective; From Paper to Peace? Examining the Role of Institutional Design in War-to-peace Transitions; Substate Nationalisms and Multilevel Governance. Highlights from the conference include the keynote address by John McGarry (Queen's University) on "What Explains the Performance of Power-Sharing Settlements?" and a roundtable discussion on "A Federal Cyprus? Comparative Perspectives on Reunification" organized by Neophytos Loizides (University of Kent).
Impact There is a range of individual publications in preparation as a result of this conference. PI and CoI lead on as guest editors of a special issue of the journal International Political Science Review (IPSR); PI, CoI and Murtagh (postdoc) all have their papers included as part of the project and will be recorded as project's outputs once published (provisionally late 2019).
Start Year 2017
 
Description IPSA colloquium: Diversity and Democratic Governance 
Organisation International Political Science Association
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Under the leadership of the members of research project, this conference brought together five IPSA research committees (14, 13, 28, 44, 50) to examine the challenges of democratic governance in divided societies. This colloquium provides an opportunity to examine the role of different factors (e.g., ethnicity, gender, class, political institutions, efficacy of multi-level governance, the intersection between peace and democratic stability) in supporting democratic governance in the context of regional and global integration of deeply divided, postconflict societies that operate under consociational settings. The conference is to take place in Bosnia and will reflect upon contemporary challenges of governing postconflict society, and will assess proposals to develop case study and comparative approaches to delivering effective governance to people. PI, CoI and two current postdocs are leading the conference committee and set the agenda for debate at this five day event hosted by the University of Sarajevo.
Collaborator Contribution The colloquium brings together several research committees of IPSA which facilitate academic dissemination. It will be convened at the University of Sarajevo (host institution), at the time when the country was undergoing a complex process of revising the ossified political institutions to deliver better governance to all groups living in the country. Our local partners and host institution have greatly facilitated an opportunity for the project team to meet and discuss with local and national political elites the challenges these face in a open and frank manner and bring to their attention the challenges that limited accountability of governments can cause to postconflict societies' transition towards democracy. Over five days in Sarajevo, we will run over 50 panels on a range of topics, including: Culture, Territory and Community in Diverse Societies; Comparative Perspective on Political Participation in Divided Societies; Gender, Power-Sharing and Peace Processes; The Bosnia Diaspora in a Comparative Perspective; Role of Institutional Design in War-to-peace Transitions; Substate Nationalisms; Multilevel Governance. Highlights from the conference include the keynote address by Kanchan Chandra (New York University) and five roundtable discussions on contemporary challenges facing Bosnian as well as Western Balkan politics.
Impact There will be a range of individual publications that will follow the event, some of which are in preparation at this point in time. As a result of the past conference (2017, Cyprus), Pi and CoI have submitted a set of eight papers for a special issue of the journal International Political Science Review (IPSR, to be published in 2019) and will be aiming at the similar quality output as a result of this event.
Start Year 2019
 
Description IPSA colloquium: Diversity and Democratic Governance 
Organisation University of Sarajevo
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Under the leadership of the members of research project, this conference brought together five IPSA research committees (14, 13, 28, 44, 50) to examine the challenges of democratic governance in divided societies. This colloquium provides an opportunity to examine the role of different factors (e.g., ethnicity, gender, class, political institutions, efficacy of multi-level governance, the intersection between peace and democratic stability) in supporting democratic governance in the context of regional and global integration of deeply divided, postconflict societies that operate under consociational settings. The conference is to take place in Bosnia and will reflect upon contemporary challenges of governing postconflict society, and will assess proposals to develop case study and comparative approaches to delivering effective governance to people. PI, CoI and two current postdocs are leading the conference committee and set the agenda for debate at this five day event hosted by the University of Sarajevo.
Collaborator Contribution The colloquium brings together several research committees of IPSA which facilitate academic dissemination. It will be convened at the University of Sarajevo (host institution), at the time when the country was undergoing a complex process of revising the ossified political institutions to deliver better governance to all groups living in the country. Our local partners and host institution have greatly facilitated an opportunity for the project team to meet and discuss with local and national political elites the challenges these face in a open and frank manner and bring to their attention the challenges that limited accountability of governments can cause to postconflict societies' transition towards democracy. Over five days in Sarajevo, we will run over 50 panels on a range of topics, including: Culture, Territory and Community in Diverse Societies; Comparative Perspective on Political Participation in Divided Societies; Gender, Power-Sharing and Peace Processes; The Bosnia Diaspora in a Comparative Perspective; Role of Institutional Design in War-to-peace Transitions; Substate Nationalisms; Multilevel Governance. Highlights from the conference include the keynote address by Kanchan Chandra (New York University) and five roundtable discussions on contemporary challenges facing Bosnian as well as Western Balkan politics.
Impact There will be a range of individual publications that will follow the event, some of which are in preparation at this point in time. As a result of the past conference (2017, Cyprus), Pi and CoI have submitted a set of eight papers for a special issue of the journal International Political Science Review (IPSR, to be published in 2019) and will be aiming at the similar quality output as a result of this event.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Workshop Exclusion amid Inclusion?: How Power Sharing Engages Non-Dominant Communities 
Organisation Brandon University
Department Department of Political Science
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This conference addressed this critical issue of the exclusion of non-dominant groups that are not explicitly represented in power-sharing agreements; of exclusion amid inclusion. It allowed for the first presentation of projects results. It brought together scholars concerned with this question from a range of perspectives, disciplines and fields, including but not limited to: democracy in divided societies, conflict resolution, democratization, post-conflict state building, political settlements, ethnic politics, gender, nationalism and national identity, migration and equality and diversity studies. A number of related topics was explored in this two day event, including the impact of power-sharing on non-aligned groups, such as non-ethnic political parties, civic social movements, migrant communities, women and LGBTQ groups.
Collaborator Contribution Keynote delivered by the CoI of the project; her travel was supported by her host institution (Brandon; contribution in kind)
Impact A range of single papers are now in preparation as a result of this event; the project team has edited a special section of "Nationalism and Ethnic Politics" journal, https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/fnep20/24/3 including three papers presented at the workshop and one specially written conceptual framework paper (PI, CoI, postdoc). The team had an opportunity to present the research project to a series of community organisations in N Ireland during the conference and engaged several of their representatives as participants of the roundtable at the event.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Workshop Exclusion amid Inclusion?: How Power Sharing Engages Non-Dominant Communities 
Organisation Queen's University Belfast
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This conference addressed this critical issue of the exclusion of non-dominant groups that are not explicitly represented in power-sharing agreements; of exclusion amid inclusion. It allowed for the first presentation of projects results. It brought together scholars concerned with this question from a range of perspectives, disciplines and fields, including but not limited to: democracy in divided societies, conflict resolution, democratization, post-conflict state building, political settlements, ethnic politics, gender, nationalism and national identity, migration and equality and diversity studies. A number of related topics was explored in this two day event, including the impact of power-sharing on non-aligned groups, such as non-ethnic political parties, civic social movements, migrant communities, women and LGBTQ groups.
Collaborator Contribution Keynote delivered by the CoI of the project; her travel was supported by her host institution (Brandon; contribution in kind)
Impact A range of single papers are now in preparation as a result of this event; the project team has edited a special section of "Nationalism and Ethnic Politics" journal, https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/fnep20/24/3 including three papers presented at the workshop and one specially written conceptual framework paper (PI, CoI, postdoc). The team had an opportunity to present the research project to a series of community organisations in N Ireland during the conference and engaged several of their representatives as participants of the roundtable at the event.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Workshop Political Representation in Divided Societies 
Organisation Brandon University
Department Department of Political Science
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Project Team (PI, CoI, two postdocs) hosted a second in series of project's workshops at the University of Kent, Brussels School of International Studies. We have invited contributors to examine participation and representation of groups whose concerns, issues and priorities are not taken up in the either the process of adopting new political institutions or in the implementation of those arrangements. While most studies of divided societies focus on relations between the groups that represent the dominant cleavage in society, we focussed on the impact of postconflict institutions on groups not explicitly accommodated in democratic political institutional setting. The team has organised the workshop and leading the two day event of around 25 participants, including representatives of Brussels based international organisations; drawing together relevant expertise and ideas from across the world of divided societies to inform data analysis and project development, this event provided a forum for the discussion of equality and inclusion in powersharing places to move forward the project's agenda.
Collaborator Contribution Projects CoI has travelled from Canada to participate in the workshop which also featured as a team meeting, some of the costs associated with travel were carried by the CoI's home institution, while others by the PI's host institution. Our host institutions, University of Kent, Brussels School of International Studies has equally provided in kind contribution facilitating catering and use of the premises. This allowed us to focus squarely on exchange of ideas and discuss avenues for developing the project agenda further. participation by representatives from international organisations based in Brussels additionally aided establishing new contacts in the countries studied on the project and reaching out to policymaking community ahead of results dissemination in Lebanon, Macedonia, and Bosnia (all in the second half of 2019)
Impact No formal outcomes have resulted from this partnership yet. Members of the project team are individually preparing their papers delivered for publication in academic journals in the course of 2019
Start Year 2018
 
Description Workshop Political Representation in Divided Societies 
Organisation Queen's University Belfast
Department School of Politics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Project Team (PI, CoI, two postdocs) hosted a second in series of project's workshops at the University of Kent, Brussels School of International Studies. We have invited contributors to examine participation and representation of groups whose concerns, issues and priorities are not taken up in the either the process of adopting new political institutions or in the implementation of those arrangements. While most studies of divided societies focus on relations between the groups that represent the dominant cleavage in society, we focussed on the impact of postconflict institutions on groups not explicitly accommodated in democratic political institutional setting. The team has organised the workshop and leading the two day event of around 25 participants, including representatives of Brussels based international organisations; drawing together relevant expertise and ideas from across the world of divided societies to inform data analysis and project development, this event provided a forum for the discussion of equality and inclusion in powersharing places to move forward the project's agenda.
Collaborator Contribution Projects CoI has travelled from Canada to participate in the workshop which also featured as a team meeting, some of the costs associated with travel were carried by the CoI's home institution, while others by the PI's host institution. Our host institutions, University of Kent, Brussels School of International Studies has equally provided in kind contribution facilitating catering and use of the premises. This allowed us to focus squarely on exchange of ideas and discuss avenues for developing the project agenda further. participation by representatives from international organisations based in Brussels additionally aided establishing new contacts in the countries studied on the project and reaching out to policymaking community ahead of results dissemination in Lebanon, Macedonia, and Bosnia (all in the second half of 2019)
Impact No formal outcomes have resulted from this partnership yet. Members of the project team are individually preparing their papers delivered for publication in academic journals in the course of 2019
Start Year 2018
 
Description Workshop Political Representation in Divided Societies 
Organisation University of Kent
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Project Team (PI, CoI, two postdocs) hosted a second in series of project's workshops at the University of Kent, Brussels School of International Studies. We have invited contributors to examine participation and representation of groups whose concerns, issues and priorities are not taken up in the either the process of adopting new political institutions or in the implementation of those arrangements. While most studies of divided societies focus on relations between the groups that represent the dominant cleavage in society, we focussed on the impact of postconflict institutions on groups not explicitly accommodated in democratic political institutional setting. The team has organised the workshop and leading the two day event of around 25 participants, including representatives of Brussels based international organisations; drawing together relevant expertise and ideas from across the world of divided societies to inform data analysis and project development, this event provided a forum for the discussion of equality and inclusion in powersharing places to move forward the project's agenda.
Collaborator Contribution Projects CoI has travelled from Canada to participate in the workshop which also featured as a team meeting, some of the costs associated with travel were carried by the CoI's home institution, while others by the PI's host institution. Our host institutions, University of Kent, Brussels School of International Studies has equally provided in kind contribution facilitating catering and use of the premises. This allowed us to focus squarely on exchange of ideas and discuss avenues for developing the project agenda further. participation by representatives from international organisations based in Brussels additionally aided establishing new contacts in the countries studied on the project and reaching out to policymaking community ahead of results dissemination in Lebanon, Macedonia, and Bosnia (all in the second half of 2019)
Impact No formal outcomes have resulted from this partnership yet. Members of the project team are individually preparing their papers delivered for publication in academic journals in the course of 2019
Start Year 2018
 
Description As protests continue, Lebanon's sectarian power-sharing stalemate must end 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Following a brief visit to one of the case study countries, the CI and postdoc have drafted an overview of main issues contested by the protesters in Lebanon. Some uptake in interest and further requests for contributions were received as a result. Dec 20 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://theconversation.com/as-protests-continue-lebanons-sectarian-power-sharing-stalemate-must-end...
 
Description Blogpost, Irish Politics Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Post by PI, jointly curated by the Political Studies Association of Ireland (PSAI) and Political Studies Association (PSA). In discussing the impact of Brexit the post focusses on its consequences for the future political unity of the country as a whole, focussing particularly on the role it plays while marginalising minority communities. As such it reflects the results of discussions with NGO stakeholders in Northern Ireland about their input into political process on the Island and British islands as a whole. Brexit's Ethnopolitical Dimension, March 7, 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://politicalreform.ie/2019/03/07/brexit-ethnopolitical-dimension/
 
Description Blogpost, PSA Insight 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Blogpost by the CoI, Allison McCulloch, focusses on the impact of perceptions of difference on opportunities to avail of consensus in political decision making in Northern Ireland powersharing, marking the anniversary of the Good Friday Agreement.The border is back, April 10 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.psa.ac.uk/psa/news/border-back
 
Description Blogpost, PSA Insight Blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Blogpost by PI discussing the impact of the Good Friday Agreement on minorities in Northern Ireland. Presents in easily accessibly manner key questions that underlay the project. What has been the effect of GFA on the province's minorities? April 10, 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.psa.ac.uk/psa/news/what-has-been-effect-gfa-province's-minorities
 
Description Blogpost, Qpol 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The PI and Postdoc have published this op-ed in the Queen's University Belfast blog series following the meetings with the stakeholders from NGOs in Northern Ireland - the discussion links directly to the project's anticipated outcomes suggesting that the key to stability of powersharing lies in inclusion of all segments of societies in political dialogue. Beyond Brexit: Potential Fallout for 'Others' in Northern Ireland's Power-Sharing Agreement, March 8, 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://qpol.qub.ac.uk/beyond-brexit-potential-fallout-for-others-in-ni-power-sharing-agreement/
 
Description Blogpost, The Conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blogpost by the postdoc (Drew Mikhael) reflecting on some of the findings from the fieldwork conducted in Lebanon for the project. It brings attention to the impact of political instability in the neighbourhood on domestic progress and consensus building in Lebanon's consociation. Syrian refugees remain trapped and marginalised by Lebanon's power-sharing politics, December 11, 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://theconversation.com/syrian-refugees-remain-trapped-and-marginalised-by-lebanons-power-sharing...
 
Description Blogpost: The Conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this blogpost project's postdoc Drew Mikhael reflects on his personal fieldwork in Africa over the summer period where he explored avenues to add local experiences in cases comparable to those already included on the project to the study of immigration in postconflict places managed by consociational arrangements. Burundi: crisis looms as 2020 elections open up old divisions, January 24, 2019 https://theconversation.com/burundi-crisis-looms-as-2020-elections-open-up-old-divisions-110049
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://theconversation.com/burundi-crisis-looms-as-2020-elections-open-up-old-divisions-110049
 
Description Delivering governance in divided societies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Conducted capacity building workshop with civil society organisation AMEBE in Burundi (12 November 2019) focusing on knowledge exchange. The workshop sought to develop knowledge about CSOs ability to address needs of local communities and the workshop was specifically designed to help with grant writing, human resource management and refining the contributions of organisations working in divided postconflcit societies and focussing on inclusion in political process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description European elections and what they could mean for Northern Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Drew Mikhael PDRA looks at what local elections and EU poll could mean for NI in relation to Brexit, this has sparked further interest in the work of the team across GB.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.belfastlive.co.uk/news/belfast-news/european-elections-what-could-mean-16317941
 
Description Federalism, Democracy and Minority Rights: What about the Others? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The CI authored this contrubition to reflect on challenges of accommodating diverse populations at the blog invitation hoste by Canterbury Christ Church University (also translated into Burmese and French)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://50shadesoffederalism.com/diversity-management/federalism-democracy-inclusion-others/
 
Description Making political institutions more inclusive - Policymakers Roundtable June 6 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Two MLAs, a former Northern Ireland Justice Minister and a former Deputy Speaker of the Northern Ireland Assembly joined civil society representatives and Queen's researchers on 6 June 2019 for a roundtable discussion examining the ways in which power-sharing structures in post-conflict societies, in working to include the main protagonists, tend to exclude those not aligned to the main political blocs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.qub.ac.uk/public-engagement/News/Makingpoliticalinstitutionsmoreinclusive.html
 
Description Making power sharing democracy work February 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The team has brought key policymaking participants from the case study countries to this two day workshop/formal working group to discuss pathways for impact from the project results. We have identified the most engaged disseminators for individual countries from our poool of contact/interviewd, reaching out to several governmental offices across countries and inviting key third sector representatives to take the findings from the project forward in their home countries. 16 people from Lebanon, Burundi, Kosovo, Macedonia, Bosnia, Northern Ireland, South Tyrol and Belgium have participated in formal discussions to map out the avenues to translate acaedmic work into policychange across the board of cases, policy issues and contexts. The event took place in Montenegro to bring all participants onto neutral footing and ensure mutual understanding away from everyday concerns, alongside best practices of track 1.5 diplomacy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Minorities in Consociational Power-Sharing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact PI has contributed to the specialist blog series on issues of accommodating minorities in powersharing political systems, reflecting on the provisional outcomes of the project (July 2019)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://50shadesoffederalism.com/uncategorized/minorities-in-consociational-power-sharing/
 
Description Mostar. Real Icarus are jumping to the head (OZ in Polish) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact In 2018 civic resistance in Bosnia and Herzegovina has been one of the fulcra of minorities voicing discontent with their exclusion from politics in the country. Our postdoc reflects on the impact of these protest one year on and links this to reserach agenda of the project looking at the work conducted in Bosnia and framing this for the polish speaking readership. In New Eastern Europe's polish edition.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.new.org.pl/5911-nowa-europa-wschodnia-12019
 
Description NGO workshop Belfast Febr 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Discussion with several prominent representatives of the NGO community in N Ireland was used as a feeding forward mechanism to inform future meetings with policymakers. This meeting allowed the team (postdoc and PI) to deepen understanding of framing of findings to achieve more uptake. In general the audience did not challenge the project findings but underlined that additional role media can play to amplify and support understanding of issues at the heart of the project. A few of more helpful suggestions included recommendations to ensure that the project includes voices more readily taken into account and going beyond tokenistic inclusion. In terms of consociational mechanisms, funding apparatus, political inclusion and conversation horizontally and vertically and in the media the project received feedback that much of more aspirational change is being drowned out. The discussion has certainly helped shaping the impact agenda of the project in Northern Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Northern Ireland reforms 'ethnic veto' to help get its legislature back to work 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Following the brief visit to Lebanon, the country studied in the project, the CI and PDRA have published an opinion piece in the Coversation (Dec 20 2019) which was picked up by the Monkey Cage. The contributors were invited to write an op-ed to coalesce interest in the new agreement about the restoration of power in NI which is building on project's results (Jan 18 2020)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/01/18/northern-ireland-reforms-ethnic-veto-help-get-its...
 
Description Northern Ireland: Power-Sharing in Crisis 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Murtagh, postdoc has contributed to the specialist blog series on issues of accommodating minorities in powersharing political systems, reflecting on the provisional outcomes of the project (July 2018)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://50shadesoffederalism.com/case-studies/northern-ireland-power-sharing-in-crisis/
 
Description Northern Ireland: as marching season begins, a new political force is on the rise 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ahead of the July 13 celebrations the PI and Postdoc have contributed to the ongoing debate about the divisions in NI society, thematising particuarly the worrying increase in violence and outlining potential impact on longterm stability in the province.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://theconversation.com/northern-ireland-as-marching-season-begins-a-new-political-force-is-on-t...
 
Description Op-ed, Washington Post 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The CoI and Postdoc on the project have published this op-ed in the highly visible Mokey Cage, Washington Post affiliated blog following the week of fieldwork research in Northern Ireland. This has a direct impact on perceptions of crisis and views on potential impact non-dominant groups in consociational systems might have - the finding that links directly to the project's anticipated outcomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/03/02/northern-ireland-is-in-crisis-because-o...
 
Description PSA Video blog 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact PI and postdoc have provided two pieces for the Political Studies Association UK Videoblogs on the Good Friday Agreement (Agarin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-1lp1fWWWcM and Murtagh https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9U95jT-a68E ) these centred on the aspects of the project findings and brought some of the conclusions from fieldwork to attention of researchers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description PSA: TOWARDS THE BREAK-UP OF THE UNION? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Hosted by the Political Studies Association at the British Academy on 24 Jan 2019, PI joined the public panel discussing how Brexit might impact the future of the Union of the United Kingdom in political, social and economic terms - and whether we may even see the end of the UK as we know it. The nations of the UK have returned very different votes, driven by different motivations - showing a profound level of division of opinions that, more two years after the referendum, still remain unaddressed Posing new and unexpected challenges to the Union, which could be further exacerbated by a No Deal exit, PI's contribution raised additional question on the impact on communities that have no voice in politics in part of the Union, e.g. immigrant and Commonwealth citizens in N Ireland and the role that political polarisation has had on accommodation of their rights in post Brexit consociation in Belfast.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.psa.ac.uk/resources/whats-happening%C2%A0brexit-towards-break-union
 
Description Power-Sharing Performance: Assessing a Mixed Track Record 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The CI on the project has been invited to the Lebanese American University, Beirut in November to speak to The Challenges of Power Sharing in Post-Uprisings Arab World in front of the policymaking and policyadvising audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Power-Sharing Performance: Assessing a Mixed Track Record (in Arabic translation) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact During the visit to Lebanon the CI has been invited to contribute to the blogseries of the Institute for Social Justice and Conflict Resolution, Lebanese American University outlining the issues with powersharing and identifying potential avenues for reform, these reflected particularly on the onlgoing debate/political contestation of institutional reform in Lebanon.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Roundtable Cyprus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact CoI participated in roundtable discussion on Cyprus Perspectives on Reunification at the side of IPSA Colloquium 2017 in Nicosia. The roundtable included several participants of peae talk held later in Geneva on island's reunification; many have commented on the importance of considering the voice and interests of non-dominant groups that the project assesses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The Rights of Others - Imagine Belfast 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The PI and postdoc contributed to a panel discussing the situation of with the human rights in Northern Ireland, during the Imagine Belfast science festival in Northern Ireland 27 March 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/imagine-the-uks-future-relationship-with-the-eu-tickets-53952152340
 
Description Veto Rights and Minority Protections in Consociational Settings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The CI was invited to speak about the findings from the project on "Veto Rights and Minority Protections in Consociational Settings" at the academic/practitioner workshop "Beyond Numbers: Comparing Mechanisms for Substantive Representation of Ethnic Minorities and Indigenous Peoples hosted by McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description When the state turns against its own citizens, resistance becomes duty? OZ 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact In 2018 civic resistance in Bosnia and Herzegovina has been one of the fulcra of minorities voicing discontent with their exclusion from politics in the country. Our postdoc reflects on the impact of these protest one year on and links this to reserach agenda of the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://neweasterneurope.eu/2019/08/26/when-the-state-turns-against-its-own-citizens-resistance-beco...
 
Description Why the DRC's latest power-sharing deal will struggle 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Postdoc has published this op-ed jointly with an external colleagues following the comparative research in postconflcit societies - the discussion links directly to the project's anticipated outcomes suggesting that the key to stability of postconflict societies lies in inclusion of all formerly conflciting parties in political dialogue. "Why the DRC's latest power-sharing deal will struggle - just like previous ones" March 26 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://theconversation.com/why-the-drcs-latest-power-sharing-deal-will-struggle-just-like-previous-...
 
Description With the Assembly back in business, look out for the Dáil elections 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The PI - jointly with an external colleague- has been invited to contribute to and reflect on the impact reinstatement of the NI assembly would have on the outstanding elections in R o Ireland. This contribution reflects on the work in the Province and feeds forward the research following fmro the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.psa.ac.uk/psa/news/assembly-back-business-look-out-d%C3%A1il-elections