Influenza Transmission Strategy Development Group

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: School of Life Sciences

Abstract

An influenza pandemic will occur when a new influenza virus strain develops the ability to spread easily from one person to another. Very few people will have any natural immunity to the virus and up to half of the population could become ill with pandemic influenza at some point.
Everyone will need to work together to reduce the spread of the virus. Although simple hygiene precautions such as hand washing will help, we do not currently know which hygiene measures are the most effective. Nor do we know enough about how influenza is spread to say for certain whether or not it will be worthwhile for members of the public to wear face masks and if so, in what circumstances.
We need to design new studies that will give us clear answers to these questions to help governments around the world make policy decisions based on firm evidence. We will assemble experts in influenza and infection control to look again at the existing evidence and decide upon the design of some newer studies that will answer the questions once and for all. These experts are scattered across the globe, and so we need funding to bring them together, face to face, in dedicated workshops where they can interact and design new studies.

Technical Summary

In the event of an influenza pandemic, authoritative advice on infection control will be necessary across a wide range of settings from healthcare to general household. The evidence base on influenza transmission is both limited and hotly debated, especially in relation to the possible effectiveness of respiratory protective equipment such as surgical face masks and higher grade respirators. New studies are required to addresss these issues, which currently obstruct the formulation of definitive practical guidance, and the setting of public and institutional policies for the use of face masks and respirators. We propose two expert workshops to debate and agree definitive methodologies for new studies, capable of addressing the outstanding issues in a highly pragmatic way.

Publications

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Killingley B (2013) Routes of influenza transmission. in Influenza and other respiratory viruses

 
Description Review of influenza transmission for Department of Health, England
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Review of influenza transmission for WHO
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description FOA IP11-001 [Virologic Evaluation of the Modes of Influenza Virus Transmission Among Humans]
Amount £6,914,078 (GBP)
Organisation Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 10/2011 
End 09/2014
 
Description R&D Grant, Department of Health, England
Amount £275,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2008 
End 06/2010
 
Description EMIT consortium 
Organisation Building Services Research and Information Association (BSRIA)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We lead this collaboration from Nottingham
Collaborator Contribution Work package 1 of EMIT consortiumWork package 2 of EMIT proposalEMIT co-applicantEMIT co-applicantsEMIT collaboratorEMIT co-applicantEMIT collaboratorcollaboratorEMIT collaborators/sub-contractorsEMIT collaborator/subcontractor
Impact Paper - Lancet Infect Dis Disciplines represented within EMIT: epidemiology, public health; bio-mathematical modelling; infection control; infectious diseases; virology; environmental epidemiology, aerobiology; infection control engineering
Start Year 2011
 
Description EMIT consortium 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Faculty of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead this collaboration from Nottingham
Collaborator Contribution Work package 1 of EMIT consortiumWork package 2 of EMIT proposalEMIT co-applicantEMIT co-applicantsEMIT collaboratorEMIT co-applicantEMIT collaboratorcollaboratorEMIT collaborators/sub-contractorsEMIT collaborator/subcontractor
Impact Paper - Lancet Infect Dis Disciplines represented within EMIT: epidemiology, public health; bio-mathematical modelling; infection control; infectious diseases; virology; environmental epidemiology, aerobiology; infection control engineering
Start Year 2011
 
Description EMIT consortium 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC Virology Unit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We lead this collaboration from Nottingham
Collaborator Contribution Work package 1 of EMIT consortiumWork package 2 of EMIT proposalEMIT co-applicantEMIT co-applicantsEMIT collaboratorEMIT co-applicantEMIT collaboratorcollaboratorEMIT collaborators/sub-contractorsEMIT collaborator/subcontractor
Impact Paper - Lancet Infect Dis Disciplines represented within EMIT: epidemiology, public health; bio-mathematical modelling; infection control; infectious diseases; virology; environmental epidemiology, aerobiology; infection control engineering
Start Year 2011
 
Description EMIT consortium 
Organisation Mount Sinai Hospital (Canada)
Country Canada 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution We lead this collaboration from Nottingham
Collaborator Contribution Work package 1 of EMIT consortiumWork package 2 of EMIT proposalEMIT co-applicantEMIT co-applicantsEMIT collaboratorEMIT co-applicantEMIT collaboratorcollaboratorEMIT collaborators/sub-contractorsEMIT collaborator/subcontractor
Impact Paper - Lancet Infect Dis Disciplines represented within EMIT: epidemiology, public health; bio-mathematical modelling; infection control; infectious diseases; virology; environmental epidemiology, aerobiology; infection control engineering
Start Year 2011
 
Description EMIT consortium 
Organisation NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHSGGC)
Department Gartnaval West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution We lead this collaboration from Nottingham
Collaborator Contribution Work package 1 of EMIT consortiumWork package 2 of EMIT proposalEMIT co-applicantEMIT co-applicantsEMIT collaboratorEMIT co-applicantEMIT collaboratorcollaboratorEMIT collaborators/sub-contractorsEMIT collaborator/subcontractor
Impact Paper - Lancet Infect Dis Disciplines represented within EMIT: epidemiology, public health; bio-mathematical modelling; infection control; infectious diseases; virology; environmental epidemiology, aerobiology; infection control engineering
Start Year 2011
 
Description EMIT consortium 
Organisation Retroscreen Virology Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We lead this collaboration from Nottingham
Collaborator Contribution Work package 1 of EMIT consortiumWork package 2 of EMIT proposalEMIT co-applicantEMIT co-applicantsEMIT collaboratorEMIT co-applicantEMIT collaboratorcollaboratorEMIT collaborators/sub-contractorsEMIT collaborator/subcontractor
Impact Paper - Lancet Infect Dis Disciplines represented within EMIT: epidemiology, public health; bio-mathematical modelling; infection control; infectious diseases; virology; environmental epidemiology, aerobiology; infection control engineering
Start Year 2011
 
Description EMIT consortium 
Organisation University College London
Department Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead this collaboration from Nottingham
Collaborator Contribution Work package 1 of EMIT consortiumWork package 2 of EMIT proposalEMIT co-applicantEMIT co-applicantsEMIT collaboratorEMIT co-applicantEMIT collaboratorcollaboratorEMIT collaborators/sub-contractorsEMIT collaborator/subcontractor
Impact Paper - Lancet Infect Dis Disciplines represented within EMIT: epidemiology, public health; bio-mathematical modelling; infection control; infectious diseases; virology; environmental epidemiology, aerobiology; infection control engineering
Start Year 2011
 
Description EMIT consortium 
Organisation University of Leeds
Department Pathogen Control Engineering Institute Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead this collaboration from Nottingham
Collaborator Contribution Work package 1 of EMIT consortiumWork package 2 of EMIT proposalEMIT co-applicantEMIT co-applicantsEMIT collaboratorEMIT co-applicantEMIT collaboratorcollaboratorEMIT collaborators/sub-contractorsEMIT collaborator/subcontractor
Impact Paper - Lancet Infect Dis Disciplines represented within EMIT: epidemiology, public health; bio-mathematical modelling; infection control; infectious diseases; virology; environmental epidemiology, aerobiology; infection control engineering
Start Year 2011
 
Description EMIT consortium 
Organisation University of Maryland
Department Department of Environmental Epidemiology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead this collaboration from Nottingham
Collaborator Contribution Work package 1 of EMIT consortiumWork package 2 of EMIT proposalEMIT co-applicantEMIT co-applicantsEMIT collaboratorEMIT co-applicantEMIT collaboratorcollaboratorEMIT collaborators/sub-contractorsEMIT collaborator/subcontractor
Impact Paper - Lancet Infect Dis Disciplines represented within EMIT: epidemiology, public health; bio-mathematical modelling; infection control; infectious diseases; virology; environmental epidemiology, aerobiology; infection control engineering
Start Year 2011
 
Description EMIT consortium 
Organisation University of Sydney
Department Centre for Vaccine Studies
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead this collaboration from Nottingham
Collaborator Contribution Work package 1 of EMIT consortiumWork package 2 of EMIT proposalEMIT co-applicantEMIT co-applicantsEMIT collaboratorEMIT co-applicantEMIT collaboratorcollaboratorEMIT collaborators/sub-contractorsEMIT collaborator/subcontractor
Impact Paper - Lancet Infect Dis Disciplines represented within EMIT: epidemiology, public health; bio-mathematical modelling; infection control; infectious diseases; virology; environmental epidemiology, aerobiology; infection control engineering
Start Year 2011
 
Description EMIT consortium 
Organisation Wake Forest University
Department Wake Forest School of Medicine
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead this collaboration from Nottingham
Collaborator Contribution Work package 1 of EMIT consortiumWork package 2 of EMIT proposalEMIT co-applicantEMIT co-applicantsEMIT collaboratorEMIT co-applicantEMIT collaboratorcollaboratorEMIT collaborators/sub-contractorsEMIT collaborator/subcontractor
Impact Paper - Lancet Infect Dis Disciplines represented within EMIT: epidemiology, public health; bio-mathematical modelling; infection control; infectious diseases; virology; environmental epidemiology, aerobiology; infection control engineering
Start Year 2011
 
Description Influenza Transmission Strategy Development Group (ITSDG) 
Organisation Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Department Influenza Division
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution My research team leads this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Statistical analysis and study designStudy designStudy designPractical support for conducting follow-on influenza challenge studiesStudy design and interpretationStudy design and interpretationProvision of equipment, laboratory analysis, study design and interpretation
Impact The collaboration enabled us to successful bid for follow-on funding to perform a proof-of-concept influenza challenges study to evaluate this model for deliberate transmission studies.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Influenza Transmission Strategy Development Group (ITSDG) 
Organisation Department of Health (DH)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution My research team leads this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Statistical analysis and study designStudy designStudy designPractical support for conducting follow-on influenza challenge studiesStudy design and interpretationStudy design and interpretationProvision of equipment, laboratory analysis, study design and interpretation
Impact The collaboration enabled us to successful bid for follow-on funding to perform a proof-of-concept influenza challenges study to evaluate this model for deliberate transmission studies.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Influenza Transmission Strategy Development Group (ITSDG) 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution My research team leads this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Statistical analysis and study designStudy designStudy designPractical support for conducting follow-on influenza challenge studiesStudy design and interpretationStudy design and interpretationProvision of equipment, laboratory analysis, study design and interpretation
Impact The collaboration enabled us to successful bid for follow-on funding to perform a proof-of-concept influenza challenges study to evaluate this model for deliberate transmission studies.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Influenza Transmission Strategy Development Group (ITSDG) 
Organisation Mount Sinai Hospital (USA)
Country United States 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution My research team leads this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Statistical analysis and study designStudy designStudy designPractical support for conducting follow-on influenza challenge studiesStudy design and interpretationStudy design and interpretationProvision of equipment, laboratory analysis, study design and interpretation
Impact The collaboration enabled us to successful bid for follow-on funding to perform a proof-of-concept influenza challenges study to evaluate this model for deliberate transmission studies.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Influenza Transmission Strategy Development Group (ITSDG) 
Organisation Retroscreen Virology Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution My research team leads this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Statistical analysis and study designStudy designStudy designPractical support for conducting follow-on influenza challenge studiesStudy design and interpretationStudy design and interpretationProvision of equipment, laboratory analysis, study design and interpretation
Impact The collaboration enabled us to successful bid for follow-on funding to perform a proof-of-concept influenza challenges study to evaluate this model for deliberate transmission studies.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Influenza Transmission Strategy Development Group (ITSDG) 
Organisation University College London
Department Research Department of Primary Care & Population Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My research team leads this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Statistical analysis and study designStudy designStudy designPractical support for conducting follow-on influenza challenge studiesStudy design and interpretationStudy design and interpretationProvision of equipment, laboratory analysis, study design and interpretation
Impact The collaboration enabled us to successful bid for follow-on funding to perform a proof-of-concept influenza challenges study to evaluate this model for deliberate transmission studies.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Influenza Transmission Strategy Development Group (ITSDG) 
Organisation University of Sydney
Department Centre for Vaccine Studies
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My research team leads this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Statistical analysis and study designStudy designStudy designPractical support for conducting follow-on influenza challenge studiesStudy design and interpretationStudy design and interpretationProvision of equipment, laboratory analysis, study design and interpretation
Impact The collaboration enabled us to successful bid for follow-on funding to perform a proof-of-concept influenza challenges study to evaluate this model for deliberate transmission studies.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Society of Biology Charter Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 30 pupils + 40 biologists from East Midlands attended a public lecture

Nil specific
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011