Eating behaviours: tracking through the lifecourse and impact on chronic disease.

Lead Research Organisation: Medical Research Council
Department Name: UNLISTED

Abstract

Many believe that our modern lifestyle, and eating small amounts more often, may be contributing to recent increases in obesity, along with skipping breakfast, and eating later in the evening and at night. We shall use the dietary records of individuals studied for long periods of time, and whose weight, blood pressure and other risk factors for disease have been measured to assess whether how and when food is eaten, and whether or not changing the pattern of eating relates to obesity and other health measures, so that appropriate healthy eating messages are given to the public.

Technical Summary

Nutrients, foods and dietary patterns are regularly investigated in relation to disease, but much less is known about eating behaviours like meal frequency, meal skipping, night eating, regularity of dietary intake, and distribution of energy, nutrients and foods through the day. The proposed study will investigate eating behaviours in two longitudinal cohorts: and the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), both with dietary data at several timepoints. Diet diaries for several days enable proposed behaviours to be assessed. Tracking of behaviours will be determined using conditional agreement analysis. Eating behaviours and their maintenance will be studied in relation to diet quality, and to body mass index and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, thus informing healthy eating advice.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Influencing advice about time of eating
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Title Method of assessing distribution of energy and nutrient intakes through the day 
Description Manipulation of dietary intake data to describe distribution through the day 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2009 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data are being analysed and papers are being generated. In total there will be about 5-6 papers from this project as a result of analysing dietary data this way. Also this technique has been passed on to Newcastle University for a different project with different health outcomes but using dietary data analysed in the same way. it is also being passed to St Georges for analysis of dietary data from the CHASE study on children of different ethnic backgrounds. 
 
Description Eating behaviours through the lifecourse 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution HNR is coordinating this project. It is carrying out the development work of defining the terms to be used and collating the literature around these. It is carrying out the initial analyses on the 1946 British Birth Cohort (National Survey of Health and Development) and then collaborating with Bristol to enable them to carry out the same work with the ALSPAC data. Both cohorts use a diet diary, which enables the times at which food is eaten to be subdivided and the distribution of energy and nutrients through the day to be related to body weight change and other health outcomes.
Collaborator Contribution The University of Bristol is collaborating through carrying out analysis using their longitudinal study - the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children ( ALSPAC). The project is intended to explore how food is eaten and whether this influences diet quality and health outcomes, rather than simply examining food and nutrient intakes, the traditonal approach. HNR will carry out analyses using the 1946 British Birth cohort, and then the analysis wil be repeated using ALSPAC by the Bristol team and results wil be compared and contrasted.
Impact The development work has been done and the definitions chosen were presented at the International Dietary Assessment and Physical Activity Methods conference in Washignton in June 2009. Changes in meal distribution over time in NSHD have been analysed and presented at Conference on Epidemiological Longitudinal Studies in Europe (CELSE) in Octogber 2010. Effects of breakfast consumption on body weight change in ALSPAC have been presented at CELSE and paper has been submitted. Effects on body weight change in NSHD were presented UK Society for Behavioural Medicine (UKSBM) in Dec 2010. Relationhsip of time of eating and relationship to hypertension were presented at the International Conference of Epidemiology in Edinburgh in August 2011. Relationship of time of eating to diabetes risk were presented at the Association for the Study of Obesity meeting in London in November 2011. First paper on trends in time of eating was accepted by EJCN in Nov 2011. University of Britsol held a workshop on European birth cohorts and the postdoc on this project was invited to present on her work under this collaboration. A paper was presented at a meeting of the European consortium of Lifecourse Studies in Paris in October 2012 on trends in energy and macronutrient intake in ALSPAC.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Time of eating and chronic disease outcomes 
Organisation University College London
Department MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The work of HNR in the NPRI grant is to carry out analysis of NSHD data -hence HNR is providing outcomes and outputs that include researchers at the MRC Unit for Lifelong Health adn Ageing (LHA) and contributing to their publication list.
Collaborator Contribution LHA has allowed us to use the dietary data from ages 36, 43 and 53 years in this research and provided other variables from their data store to enable us to investigate the relationships of diet to chronic disease outcomes. They have also provided the expertise in analysis and statistics and made a major contribution to the analysis and helped with the challenges that have occurred in analysing the data.
Impact The development work has been done and the definitions chosen were presented at the International Dietary Assessment and Physical Activity Methods conference in Washignton in June 2009. Changes in meal distribution over time in NSHD have been analysed and presented at Conference on Epidemiological Longitudinal Studies in Europe (CELSE) in October 2010. Effects of breakfast consumption on body weight change in ALSPAC have been presented at CELSE and paper has been submitted. Effects on body weight change in NSHD were presented UK Society for Behavioural Medicine (UKSBM) in Dec 2010. Relationhsip of time of eating and relationship to hypertension were presented at the International Conference of Epidemiology in Edinburgh in August 2011. Relationship of time of eating to diabetes risk were presented at the Association for the Study of Obesity meeting in London in November 2011. First paper on trends in time of eating was accepted by EJCN in Nov 2011. University of Bristol held a workshop on European birth cohorts and the postdoc on this project was invited to present on her work under this collaboration. Paperon time fo day and metabolic syndrome has been published in the International Journal of Obesity.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Timing of protein intake and physical capability in old age 
Organisation Newcastle University
Department Human Nutrition Research Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution HNR is contributing the methods for analysis of the dietary data and with the MRC Unit of Lifelong Health and Ageing, providing Newcastle University with dietary datafiles already modified to enable analysis by time of day. My contribution is the original idea for the research to be conducted by the PhD student in Newcastle.
Collaborator Contribution This research project is on a different health area but has gained from the NPRI funded research through the development of the techniques to analyse dietary data by time of day. The Newcastle project is essentially the PhD project of a Newcastle PhD student, thus not bringing funds to HNR but the original scientific ideas were those suggested by HNR personnel, and hence there is collaboration over supervision of the study and the results that will appear. The original work for both the funded NPRI grant and the Newcastle work is based on NSHD ( 1946 birth cohort) data; Newcastle will extend this to the Newcastle 85+ study.
Impact none to date - actual project only began in 2010, although collaboration over prospective PhD student was earlier.
Start Year 2009