Role of LXR alpha phosphorylation in macrophage activation and atherogenesis

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Medicine

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a disease caused by the build up of fatty material (cholesterol) in blood vessels (arteries) causing them to narrow, which reduces the amount of blood and oxygen delivered to vital organs. Both cholesterol and inflammation play an important role in the initiation and progression of the disease. Activation of the receptor LXRa_decreases atherosclerosis in animal models and its ligands could potentially treat the disease in humans. Macrophages are specialized cells that eat and digest germs, are present in the arteries and are crucial for the progression of the disease. There are two types of macrophages, ?classically? activated and pro-inflammatory and the ?alternatively? activated and anti-inflammatory. Activation of LXRa by specific compounds (ligands) increases the production of certain genes. We have found that one of those genes, called arginase I, is characteristic of the alternative activation state of macrophages. In addition, we have seen that by introducing a specific mutation in the receptor we can also activate it resulting in even more elevated levels of arginase I. We hypothesize that activation of LXRa may also affect the production of other genes so that its activation induces is a switch from the classical to the alternative state of macrophages. This would change the inflammatory status of these cells and could ultimately affect the progression of atherosclerosis. We also believe that the specific mutation in LXRa would influence this activation switch. We have cell lines that express the unmodified LXRa receptor, and cells that express the mutated LXRa. Using these cells we aim to first determine what is the mechanism that explains the induction of arginase 1 in cells that have the mutated receptor. Next we will determine whether the cells with the mutated receptor are in a more alternative state and therefore if they are less inflammatory compared with cells having the unmodified receptor. Finally, to examine that effects in these cells can affect the whole body and the development of atherosclerosis we propose to generate a mouse model that will have the mutated receptor. Then we will investigate if the mutation has an effect on inflammation in these mice and whether it affects the progression of the atherosclerosis compared to mice that have the unmodified receptor in their cells. The proposed work will provide a deeper understanding on how we can regulate the LXRa receptor and could eventually lead to novel therapies for the treatment of atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases.

Technical Summary

LXRs (a and b) are ligand-activated transcription factors that behave like cholesterol content sensors. Activation of LXRs inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and macrophage LXR activity is required for this inhibition. LXRa activation also reduces inflammation and decreases progression of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Therefore LXRs are now considered promising drug development targets for the management of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Th1 cytokines induce a classical activation state while Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 induce an anti-inflammatory alternative activation program in macrophages. Interestingly, induction of Th2-cell responses affects the development of atherosclerosis. LXR activation inhibits classical macrophage activation. However, the impact of LXRa on the alternative activation status of macrophages and its physiological implications remains unexplored. We previously demonstrated that modulation of LXRa phosphorylation regulates LXRa actions. Our preliminary studies now show that LXRa activation in the macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line induces the expression and IL-4 induction of markers for the alternative (anti-inflammatory) activation, such as arginase I (ArgI). Reduction of LXRa phosphorylation markedly enhances these effects. Thus we hypothesize that changes in LXRa expression and phosphorylation may play a role in macrophage polarization towards the alternative anti-inflammatory state. In turn, this would affect macrophage inflammation and may have important physiological consequences in the development of atherosclerosis. In this proposal we will first aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ArgI by LXRa. We will characterize ArgI promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression as well as enzymatic activity upon changes in LXRa expression and phosphorylation. RAW-LXRa WT and S198A stable cell lines as well as primary macrophages will be employed. Next, the impact of LXRa expression and phosphorylation on macrophage activation status and inflammation will be investigated by measuring pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and markers for each state. Finally, the physiological relevance of LXRa phosphorylation will be investigated by generating mice homozygous for the phosphorylation site mutation. The influence of LXRa phosphorylation on the activation state of resident macrophages from these mice will be examined. Additionally, the impact of LXRa phosphorylation on atherogenesis will be also investigated by crossing these mutant mice with the apoE-deficient mouse atherosclerosis model. Intracellular lipid and macrophage content analysis of the lesions will be performed and the expression of macrophage inflammatory markers within the plaque will be examined. Successful completion of the present proposal will provide a better understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of LXRa transcriptional actions in response to its phosphorylation.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description 4month BHF Rotation Studentship
Amount £2,500 (GBP)
Organisation University College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 01/2014
 
Description BHF Project Grant
Amount £271,700 (GBP)
Funding ID PG/13/10/30000 
Organisation British Heart Foundation (BHF) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 09/2016
 
Description Grand Challenges PhD Studentship
Amount £69,000 (GBP)
Organisation University College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2013 
End 08/2016
 
Description How do Immune cells go wrong in patients with juvenile onset SLE
Amount £46,037 (GBP)
Funding ID M409-F1 
Organisation Rosetrees Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 08/2019
 
Description PhD studentship
Amount £117,534 (GBP)
Funding ID FS/18/84/33695 
Organisation British Heart Foundation (BHF) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 08/2021
 
Title Chromatin Immunoprecipitation in fatty liver 
Description Molecular biology methodology to identify transcription factor targets in a fat-rich tissue (liver) 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Its application was included in a publication Becares et al Cell Reports 2019 
 
Title Global LXRaS196 mice 
Description Modified mouse line in which a mutation in the phosphorylation site of the LXRa gene has been knocked in in all tissues and cells 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Two different labs, mine and a collaborator in the US, are characterising the metabolic disturbances and effects on the development of cardiovascular diseases 
 
Title LXRaS196A-Flp mice 
Description Modified mice line in which a mutation in the phosphorylation site of the LXRa gene will be conditionally knocked in once these mice are bred with tissue/cell type specific Cre recombinase expressing mice 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We have successfully bred this mice with a line of mice expressing Cre recombinase in monocytes/macrophages/neutrophils to generate a novel line of mice with a knocked in mutation in those cells . A collaborator has used this line to generate a novel tamoxifen-inducible line to further explore the effects of phosphorylation of this receptor in an inducible manner. 
 
Title LXRaS196A-Mac mice 
Description Modified mouse line in which a mutation in the phosphorylation site of the LXRa gene has been knocked in in monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We are in the process of characterizing these mice 
 
Title MacLXRaS196A-LDLRKO 
Description Modified mouse line in which a mutation in the phosphorylation site of the LXRa gene has been knocked in in monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils in the atherosclerotic background (LDL receptor knock out) 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact With these animals we are now investigating the effect of the phosphorylation of the receptor on the development of atherosclerosis. We are now characterising the atherosclerotic lesions of these mice to obtain preliminary data to obtain further funding. 
 
Title Mutated PU.1 transcription factor cDNA plasmids 
Description Plasmids encoding the PU.1 transcription factor cDNA in which published and potential phosphorylation sites have been mutated 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This plasmids have helped us characterize the regulation of PU.1 target gene expression and the relevance of PU.1 phosphorylation in these processes. 
 
Title Mutated arginase 1 promoter constructs 
Description A collection of murine arginase 1 promoter constructs that have been mutated at different transcription factor binding sites 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These constructs have helped us characterize the regulation of arginase 1 transcription in macrophages by different transcription factors 
 
Title Gene expression analysis liver chow diet 
Description Mouse liver transcriptome on chow diet comparing wild type and mutated transcription factor- GSE96650 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data and analysis are included in Becares et al, Cell Reports 2019 
 
Title Gene expression analysis-liver HFHC 
Description Mouse liver transcriptome on diet-caparison between wild type and mutated mice: GEO Submission (GSE95359) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data included in manuscript in Becares et al, Cell Report 2019 
 
Title Gene expression database-mutant-diet 
Description Gene expression database 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publication Gage et al, PNAS 2018 
 
Description Collaboration with AOB 
Organisation University College London
Department Division of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provide unpublished data on our studies in animal models of metabolic disease.
Collaborator Contribution He provides intellectual input and expertise on liver metabolic and fibrotic diseases.
Impact He was named co_PI in two applications for funding last year. He is involved in additional upcoming applications in 2017.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Caroline PM 
Organisation University College London
Department Division of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided and will provide tissue samples of animal models of atherosclerosis and provide expertise on animal models of atherosclerosis
Collaborator Contribution She will characterise atherosclerotic plaques in her model of interest
Impact I'm one of the co-Pis in her recently awarded project grant by the BHF (PG/16/87/32492 )
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Dr Annabel Fernandez Valledor 
Organisation University of Barcelona
Department Department of Cell Biology, Immunology and Neuroscience
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provide information on genes differentially regulated by an LXRa phospho-deficient mutant receptor in macrophages
Collaborator Contribution They provide macrophages from LXRa deficient mice to test that the expression of the genes identified is dependent on LXR
Impact They are co-authors in a manuscript that is being prepared for submission in the upcoming weeks.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with Dr Annabel Valledor-2 
Organisation Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB)
Department Department of Cellular Biology, Physiology and Immunology
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We share our results on the regulation of inflammatory pathways by LXR performed with some of her reagents.
Collaborator Contribution She shares her unpublished results on the modulation of interferon regulated pathways. We have used her experiments and technical conditions to test how a particular interferon regulated gene is affected by LXR activity. Additionally, she provides tissue material from LXR-deficient mice to directly investigate the contribution of LXR in the identified targeted pathways.
Impact This collaborator is coauthor in a publication in the journal Scientific Reports. We expect other manuscripts to be submitted in the near future.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with Dr Coziana Ciurtin 
Organisation University College London
Department Faculty of Medical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provide expertise in transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors in immune cells
Collaborator Contribution They provide expertise in age-related autoimmune diseases
Impact Lupus UK Research Project
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with Dr Krista Rombouts 
Organisation University College London
Department Division of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Share unpublished data, analysis of gene and protein expression on samples provided by the collaborator
Collaborator Contribution Share cell and tissue samples
Impact Data obtained has been incorporated in the publication Becares et al. Cell Reports 2019
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Dr Liz Jury 
Organisation University College London
Department Division of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provide expertise, reagents, protocols and intellectual support regarding the nuclear receptor LXR and the regulation of lipid metabolism in cardiometabolic diseases.
Collaborator Contribution She is an expert in Lymphocyte biology in Lupus and other autoimmune diseases. She provides cellular material to investigate the role of LXR in autoimmune diseases and intellectual support for this and other projects.
Impact Her group has an article in the Journal of Clinical Investigation in which our help is acknowledged. We shared rotation student that is part of a BHF 4 year studentship program with a project looking at the regulation of LXR target gene expression in human immune cells that now has been extended into a full PhD studentship. I am secondary supervisor of another PhD student (second year). An abstract of our shared work was presented in Dublin (May 2014) , at a Keystone meeting on Immunometabolism (February 2016), American College of Rheumatology (November 2016) and British Immunological Society (Dec2016). I was senior co-author of a recent publication in Science Immunology (Dec 2016) in which she is senior author and our shared PhD student is first co-shared author. We have submitted a project research grant to the BBSRC with the data obtained by this PhD student, an application for the Multiple Sclerosis Society project grant (Feb 2017) and Co-PI in an Arthritis Research UK outline application (Feb 2017). We are now putting together an application for a Collaborative Award by the Wellcome Trust (outline submission in April 2017)
Start Year 2011
 
Description Collaboration with Dr N Venteclef 
Organisation The Cordeliers Research Center (CRC)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Disclose unpublished results and datasets
Collaborator Contribution Disclose unpublished results and datasets
Impact No outputs yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Collaboration with Dr Xiaoyu Hu 
Organisation Tsinghua University China
Department Institute for Immunology
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have investigated the regulation of macrophage gene expression by IRF8, a transcription factor in which she is an expert. We have also now generated myeloid-specific IRF8-deficient mice that are being used by the collaborator on a project we have been co-awarded by the Academy of Medical Sciences (Newton advanced Fellowship).
Collaborator Contribution Her group initially provided cellular material from an IRF8-deficient mice model. They have now shared unpublished data on the role of modulators of IRF8 on intestinal macrophages in models of intestinal inflammation and have provided protocols to perform similar experiments in the UK using our animal models.
Impact Publication of a Circulation Research paper describing the regulation of Arginase 1 by IRF8. Publication of a Scientific reports paper using materials provided by the collaborator. Awarded a Newton Advanced Fellowship by the Academy of Medical Sciences for which I am the UK co-PI
Start Year 2011
 
Description Collaboration with Dr. Antonio Castrillo 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We initially provided protocols and antibodies for the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay from macrophage cells, also intellectual input and reagents for the design and generation of novel antibodies. We have now generated myeloid-specific IRF8 knockouts. We are using macrophages from these mice to explore the role of IRF8 on the regulation of LXR target genes identified by this collaborator.
Collaborator Contribution They provided samples from mice that are deficient in the receptor of our interest and intellectual input for the design and generation of novel antibodies. They are now designing new antibodies using LXR expression plasmids that we provided. They share unpublished data on binding sites for transcription factors in reposes to their respective ligands in macrophages.
Impact Coauthor in publication in the journal Scientific Reports. He is named collaborator in grant applications to the BBSRC and will be a PI in the team of collaborators gathered for a Wellcome Trust Collaborative Award application.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Collaboration with Dr. Joseph Boyle 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department National Heart & Lung Institute (NHLI)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We will assay whether some of the results obtained by Dr Boyle regarding gene regulation in a particular macrophages subtype are differentially affected in our mice models
Collaborator Contribution He gaves us information about reagents and protocols on how to activate the cells in a particular way
Impact No outputs yet.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with ET 
Organisation Karolinska Institute
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We shared protocols to use phosphorylation-specific antibodies and more recently have shared unpublished data on gene regulation in our phosphorylation knock in models.
Collaborator Contribution They have provided protocols to analyse transcription factor binding in liver which has helped us explain our data, namely, changes in gene expression we observed in our animal model. They have provided unpublished data to identify where transcription factors and transcriptional correpressor molecules are bound to liver genes in response to specific activators that we have used to conduct further experiments to understand the mechanistic basis of our obseravtions.
Impact ET and members of her team are co-authors in a manuscript Becares et al, Cell Reports 2019.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Hanne RL 
Organisation University of Oslo
Country Norway 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided plasma and tissue samples to have analysed as part of our research projects.
Collaborator Contribution She analysed samples.
Impact A first series of analyses were included in applications for funding . A second set of analyses were included in Becares et al. Cell Reports 2019.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with James T 
Organisation University of Leeds
Department Division of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution We provided DNA plasmids carrying wild type and mutated transcription factors that he is using in current over expression studies.
Collaborator Contribution He provided standards for the analysis of lipids in our samples by another collaborator. He provides expertise on oxysterol metabolism.
Impact Our samples have now been analysed using his standards. His contribution is acknowledged in a manuscript that will be soon submitted for publication.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Liz Jury 
Organisation University College London
Department Division of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provide expertise in gene regulation of lipid metabolism and analysis of transcriptomic (RNAseq) datasets
Collaborator Contribution They provide expertise in immune function and signalling in the context of autoimmune diseases
Impact BHF PhD Studentship, Multiple sclerosis society project grant, PhD studentship sponsored with UCB pharma, Rosetrees Trust Research Project, Lupus UK Research Project.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with Mark K 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provide expertise on macrophage gene regulation in the context of atherosclerosis and gene expression analysis in samples from his animal models.
Collaborator Contribution He provided samples from his animal models of disrupted insulin signalling.
Impact Diabetes UK Pilot award to a postdoctoral fellow in the lab . Co-PI in a BHF Project Grant awarded to the same fellow.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Mathew G 
Organisation University College London
Department Department of Chemistry
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We will provide lab space, equipment and materials for him to carry out his research. We will provide expertise in macrophage regulation of gene expression and atherosclerosis.
Collaborator Contribution He will develop a novel line of research looking at insulin signalling in macrophages. He will provide expertise in insulin signalling in animal models of disease.
Impact No outputs yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Prof Bart Staels 
Organisation Pasteur Institute, Lille
Country France 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We share unpublished data from our experimental models of atherosclerosis and inflammation disease
Collaborator Contribution They share unpublished data and expertise on disease experimental models
Impact For the past two years I have been the external examiner of one of his PhD students (yearly evaluations before PhD Viva that are compulsory in France).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Prof Garabedian 
Organisation NYU Langone Medical Center
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided novel experimental models with a mutation in the receptor of our interest. We share unpublished data, protocols and methodology. We will next analyse gene and protein expression in liver samples from one of their experiments.
Collaborator Contribution They share unpublished data, protocols and methodology and unique antibody reagents. They have sharer liver samples from one of their experimental protocols that will be analysed by us. They will stain tissue sections from our animal models to investigate the expression of one of our proteins of interest.
Impact This collaborator was a coauthor in a Circulation Research publication (2011). We were senior authors in a Molecular Cell Biology Publication in 2015. He and a member of his team are co-authors in a manuscript that will soon be submitted for publication. Other shared publications are expected in the coming years.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with Prof Rachel Chambers 
Organisation University College London
Department Centre for Inflammation and Tissue Repair
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We initially aimed to investigate the regulation of lung inflammation and fibrosis by the nuclear receptor LXRa in our mice models carrying a mutation in the LXRa receptor. We are now focusing our efforts on studies on liver fibrosis.
Collaborator Contribution They are specialists in inflammation and fibrosis and they assist with reagents, protocols, equipment for histology and intellectual support
Impact We have a PhD student in common
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Edward Fisher 
Organisation NYU Langone Medical Center
Department Division of Cardiology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provide insight on LXR regulated pathways and share unpublished data on our animal models. We have now also shared some of our animal models to develop complimentary studies.
Collaborator Contribution This collaborator contributed to one study by sharing with us experiments performed in his group and making data available to us to be used for publication. His group will now perform an additional set of experiments that will help characterise our animal models to finalise a study for publication. This collaborator is also providing important protocols for the completions of our studies.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in research presented in poster and oral format in national and international meetings and a publication in Circulation Research. Additional publications are to be expected from this collaboration.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Sidney Morris 
Organisation University of Pittsburgh
Department Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have provided protocols, give insight to transcriptional mechanisms mediated by LXR and made our results available to them before publication.
Collaborator Contribution This collaborator has provided unique reagents (plasmids and antibodies) as well as expert insight into a particular pathway which have been crucial for carrying out the research described in the proposal.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in research presented in poster and oral format in one national and 5 international meetings and a publication in Circulation Research.
Start Year 2009
 
Description Collaboration with Professor Adrian Hobbs 
Organisation Queen Mary University of London
Department William Harvey Research Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are investigating the effects of a specific set of ligands on lung inflammatory pathways in different animal models
Collaborator Contribution This collaborator previously contributed with data to a study published in Circulation Research. He is providing animal models in which to check the regulation of inflammatory pathways by LXR
Impact This collaboration was important for one of our studies and its publication in a peer-reviewed journal last summer. This collaborator was a co-applicant in a funding proposal to the BHF that was unsuccessful.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Collaboration with VD 
Organisation University College London
Department Mechanical Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided samples from atherosclerotic and metabolic disease mouse models. We have provided multi-omic data sets to be incorporated to a novel mathematical model of atherosclerosis.
Collaborator Contribution Her team developed a new software to analyse the accumulation of lipids in tissue.
Impact Vanessa and and her team member are co-authors in Becares et al., Cell Reports 2019. This is part of a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving engineering, biology and imaging. We have also been nominated by UCL for the Rosetrees Prize 2019 which promotes multi-disciplinary collaborations.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Dr Rachel Farrell 
Organisation NHS London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We provide expertise in the regulation of lipid metabolism in immune cells
Collaborator Contribution She provide expertise in MS and biological research samples for our resaerch
Impact Multiple Sclerosis Society Project Grant
Start Year 2018
 
Title Software for the measurement of liver lipid droplets 
Description This is doen in collaboration with members of the mechanical engineering department. The software allows a non-biased identification of round white lipid droplets on hematoxylin and Eosin stained liver sections. Software also allows quantification of number of lipid droplets and area and diameter distribution. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact This allows non-biased identification and quantification and has been used in two of the ongoing studies in my laboratory that has been published in Becares et al , Cell Reports 2019 
 
Description School visit (Henrietta Barnett School-London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 20 B12 students and their Science teacher attended a 30 min presentation plus a Q&A of 15 mins. A student approached me at the end and is interested in shadowing researchers in my group.

There will be a shadowing type of visit for two students of one week each next year during the school holidays. In this visit the students will be able to experience first hand what is like to do research in a lab and attend lab meetings and scientific seminars in our department.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2016
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/prospective-students/widening-participation/teachers/STEM-women-speakers
 
Description School visit Holloway Academy 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Workshop on CV writing and social media mentoring
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description School visit to Chelsea Independent College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Discussion about non-medical studies with biomedical relevance, admission to a university such as UCL, possibilities in biomedical research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/prospective-students/widening-participation/teachers/STEM-women-speakers
 
Description School visit to Clapton Girls Academy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Discussion about non-medical studies with biomedical relevance, admission to a university such as UCL, possibilities in biomedical research.
After the visit two students expressed their interest and visited my lab where they each shadowed a researcher in my group for one day exposing them to the ways we do research in the lab and scientific discussions between members of the lab. Both students were very grateful and deeply enjoyed the opportunity. Students also helped with their opinions of what scientists look like for a TEDex talk at UCL on gender stereotypes for scientists (May 2015).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/prospective-students/widening-participation/teachers/STEM-women-speakers
 
Description School visit to Heston Community School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Discussion about non-medical studies with biomedical relevance, admission to a university such as UCL, possibilities in biomedical research. The event was reported in the school newsletter. Students also helped with their opinions of what scientists look like for a TEDex talk at UCL on gender stereotypes for scientists (May 2015).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/prospective-students/widening-participation/teachers/STEM-women-speakers
 
Description School visit to Isabel the Catholic School (Madrid, Spain) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Discussion about careers in science, non-medical studies with biomedical relevance, University studies, possibilities in biomedical research. Aprox 250 pupils from 14-16 yrs old attended and presentations were followed by an animated debate with the students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description School visit to Lansdowne College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Discussion about non-medical studies with biomedical relevance, admission to a university such as UCL, possibilities in biomedical research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/prospective-students/widening-participation/teachers/STEM-women-speakers
 
Description School visit to Science Cafe at QK Academy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Discussion about non-medical studies with biomedical relevance, admission to a university such as UCL, possibilities in biomedical research. Two students (one undergraduate and one PhD student) came with me to share their work with students. This sparked a lot of discussion and some students expressed their interest to come shadow researchers in my group. This is the feedback I got from the organiser:
"We have had a few of these Science cafes already but this was by far the most engaging and relevant to the students.
I would also like to say a huge thank you to the students that you brought with you. It was very important for the students to speak to students who have and are currently going through the university system."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/prospective-students/widening-participation/teachers/STEM-women-speakers
 
Description School visit to St Georges Catholic school 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Discussion about non-medical studies with biomedical relevance, admission to a university such as UCL, possibilities in biomedical research

Not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/prospective-students/widening-participation/teachers/STEM-women-speakers