Modulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation by specific biomaterial surfaces

Lead Research Organisation: Swansea University
Department Name: Institute of Life Science Medical School

Abstract

Medicine?s tremendous progress in recent decades is closely linked to the ever increasing use of biomaterial implants, that is, artificial devices which are implanted into patients? tissues, such as some types of catheters (or large ?drips?) in blood vessels, artificial joints and heart valves, cardiac pacemakers, artificial intraocular lenses, and shunts in the brain. Infection is a major complication of the use of such devices causing major suffering and mortality for the affected patients, and significant costs for the health care system and society in general. Once the devices become infected it is very difficult to eradicate the infection, and often the devices must be removed again, and further procedures undertaken to replace them. In some cases replacement procedures, as well as the infection itself, carries very high risks to the patient. The organism causing these infections most frequently, namely, Staphylococcus epidermidis, has risen from rare obscurity as a pathogen to be one of the five major causes of health-care associated infection in line with MRSA, Clostridium difficile, and other antibiotic resistant organisms. Staphylococcus epidermidis has a particular propensity to adhere to, or colonise, biomaterial surfaces. Better understanding of the interaction of this bacterium with biomaterial surfaces, and the changes in the properties of the organisms during process is urgently needed. We have recently found that different biomaterials enhance expression of the mechanisms involved in bacterial colonisation in measurably different ways. We seek to better understand these processes, which may lead to the rational development and evaluation of biomaterials less prone to colonisation and infection. The reduction of the number of biomaterial-related infections through these new developments by only a few percent could prevent unnecessary incapacity and sufferings for thousands of patients, not to mention large cost savings.

Technical Summary

Critical to the pathogenesis of biomedical implant-associated infections, most frequently caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis, is the ability of the bacteria to adhere to the biomaterial surface and then form a biofilm, thereby evading the host?s immune system and antibiotics. Contact of S. epidermidis with biomaterial surfaces causes alterations of expression of adhesins and biofilm factors, but these changes are not well characterised, although they are critical in the establishment of infection. Preliminary results from electron micrographs and immunofluorescence analysis indicate that expression of intercellular adhesive properties differ significantly on attachment of S. epidermidis to different biomaterials like titanium or stainless steel. Therefore, we will study expression of factors functional in biofilm accumulation such as the intercellular polysaccharide adhesin (PIA), and proteinaceous intercellular adhesins Aap and Embp. Quantitative changes and alterations in their functional status on three different metal biomaterials will be studied. As additional surface exposed staphylococcal proteins may contribute significantly to the early colonisation phase we will characterise their expression in a systematic way using immunochemical as well as transcriptional analysis with microarray and qRT-PCR methods. The expression of adhesion factors on native and extracellular matrix protein-modified surfaces will be compared. The importance of the observed differences will be confirmed by studying expression patterns of a number of S. epidermidis strains from different forms of device-related infection. Translational applications of this new knowledge may ultimately channel into the rational development and evaluation of biomaterials less prone to colonisation and infection. This application specifically proposes to:

1. Identify and quantify the influence of biomaterial surfaces on adhesion and expression of S. epidermidis adhesins and intercellular adhesive mechanisms (Aims 1-4)
2: Compare S. epidermidis adhesion and expression of adhesins and intercellular adhesive mechanisms on ECM-modified and native biomaterial surfaces (Aim 5)
3: Determine if similar expression patterns are observed in a number of S. epidermidis strains from different forms of prosthetic device infection (Aim 6)

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description Biomarkers and Clinical Diagnosis
Amount £767,247 (GBP)
Organisation Academic Expertise for Business (A4B) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2013 
End 07/2015
 
Description EU FP7 AMETHYST
Amount £430,150 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Department Seventh Framework Programme (FP7)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start  
End 10/2012
 
Description Generating tools for the molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter coli by next generation genome
Amount £120,461 (GBP)
Organisation Food Standards Agency (FSA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2013 
End 06/2016
 
Description Medical device related anti-biofilm therapeutics
Amount £41,000 (GBP)
Funding ID R272/1112 
Organisation The Dunhill Medical Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2014
 
Description Molecular epidemiology of ESCAPE pathogens in Wales
Amount £240,000 (GBP)
Organisation Health and Care Research Wales 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description Society of General Microbiology Public Engagement Fund
Amount £295 (GBP)
Organisation Society of General Microbiology 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2011 
End 12/2011
 
Description TB genomics
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation St. David's Medical Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2012 
End 02/2014
 
Description Wales Office for Research and Development (WORD)
Amount £133,771 (GBP)
Organisation Health and Care Research Wales 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2010 
End 07/2011
 
Title Bacterial genotyping and phenotyping 
Description DNA sequencing and microbial phenotyping methods developed as part of this project are now widely used. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Swansea servers now host the large scale bacterial genome databases with thousands of genomes. These Mirror databases in Oxford and are a national resource for bacterial population genomics. Swansea servers now host the large scale bacterial genome databases with thousands of genomes. These Mirror databases in Oxford and are a national resource for bacterial population genomics 
URL http://zoo-talisker.zoo.ox.ac.uk/perl/bigsdb/bigsdb.pl?db=staphylococcus_sheppard
 
Title BIGSdb 
Description Hosted in Oxford University (Martin Maiden), BIGSdb is a widely used bacterial genome sequence database. Work from this project contributes to the ongoing development of this resource. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact BIGSdb is used by numerous research groups studied bacterial genomics and epidemiology. 
URL http://pubmlst.org/software/database/bigsdb/
 
Description European Staphylococcus collaborations 
Organisation AO Foundation
Country Switzerland 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Collaborator Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Impact x
Start Year 2012
 
Description European Staphylococcus collaborations 
Organisation Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board
Department Microbiology Services
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Collaborator Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Impact x
Start Year 2012
 
Description European Staphylococcus collaborations 
Organisation Cardiff and Vale University Health Board
Department Microbiology Services
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Collaborator Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Impact x
Start Year 2012
 
Description European Staphylococcus collaborations 
Organisation Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Department Institute of Farm Animal Genetics; Friedrich Loeffler Institut
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Collaborator Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Impact x
Start Year 2012
 
Description European Staphylococcus collaborations 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Faculty of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Collaborator Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Impact x
Start Year 2012
 
Description European Staphylococcus collaborations 
Organisation Rockefeller University
Department Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Collaborator Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Impact x
Start Year 2012
 
Description European Staphylococcus collaborations 
Organisation The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Collaborator Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Impact x
Start Year 2012
 
Description European Staphylococcus collaborations 
Organisation University of Bath
Department Department of Biology and Biochemistry
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Collaborator Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Impact x
Start Year 2012
 
Description European Staphylococcus collaborations 
Organisation University of Helsinki
Department Department of Mathematics and Statistics
Country Finland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Collaborator Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Impact x
Start Year 2012
 
Description European Staphylococcus collaborations 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Collaborator Contribution The research infrastructure developed in Swansea involves numerous project partners. This includes European Staphylococcus experts including: Prof Edward Feil; Prof Herminie de Lancastre; Prof Stephan Shwarts. The collaborative network also includes colleagues at: The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics; Harvard University (US); Imperial College London; University of Helsinki.
Impact x
Start Year 2012
 
Description Microbiology and Infection Translational Research Group 
Organisation Public Health Wales NHS Trust
Department Specialist Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Unit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Several members of the research group were co-applicants of a successful bid for a Microbiology and Infection Translational Research Group in Wales funded by WORD.
Collaborator Contribution Made mutually available strain collections and started collaborative research.
Impact Project manager has been appointed and set-up of translational research network is commencing.
Start Year 2010
 
Description PHW 
Organisation Public Health Wales NHS Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The collaboration provides the collection of bacterial isolates form the Singleton (Swansea) and Heath (Cardiff) hospitals, facilitated by an honorary clinical scientist position held by Sheppard. Analysis from this study is informing clinical microbiologists within the hospitals.
Collaborator Contribution Partners provide bacterial isolates.
Impact This collaboration has provided isolates for papers detailed in the publications section.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation Health and Care Research Wales
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation Public Health England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation Public Health Wales NHS Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation Singleton Hospital
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation Southmead Hospital
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description Public Health Pathogen Genomics 
Organisation University Hospital of Wales
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Sequencing and assembly of bacterial pathogen genomes.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples.
Impact x
Start Year 2013
 
Description The Oxford Centre for Human Genetics 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Genomics Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of analysis piplines and databases for investigating bacterial evolution, ecology and epidemiology.
Collaborator Contribution The partners carried out genome sequencing of bacterial isolates.
Impact The increasing availability of hundreds of whole bacterial genomes provides opportunities for enhanced understanding of bacterial epidemiology and the genes and alleles responsible for important phenotypes and how they evolved. Numerous isolates were sequenced from human infection, farm animals, and retail food, in association with this project and isolate records were archived in BIGSdb: http://zoo-talisker.zoo.ox.ac.uk/perl/bigsdb/bigsdb.pl?db=campy_maiden Building on this platform we developed a gene-by-gene whole genome MLST approach for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypes in diverse bacteria includig E.. coli, Staphylococcus and Campylobacter. Further developing these pipelines to include non-homologous sequence variation in genes that are differentially present in the population, we established a comparative genomics approach that simultaneously approximates core and accessory genome variation in pathogen populations. The number of accessory genes increases with the number of isolates but, as an example, for 7 published Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli genomes the reference pan-genome comprised 3,933 loci with 1,035 cores genes ubiquitous in the isolates and accounting for 59% of the genes in each isolate (average genome size of 1.68 Mb). A total of 21 genes were present only in C. coli and 27 only in C. jejuni, providing information about functional differences associated with species and novel epidemiological markers for population genomic analyses. Our GWAS pipelines developed for this project are now widely used and the GERM stochastic evolutionary model will be released in a manuscript currently in review.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute 
Organisation The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Sequecing at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Centre has contributed to this project.
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration has resulted in the development of piplines for analysis of bacterial genomes and research findings relating to pathogen ecology, epidemiology and evolution
Impact Several publications have been facilitated by this collaboration.
Start Year 2006
 
Description GwyddonLe @ Urdd Eisteddfod 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 15,000 children, young people and adults visited the exhibition over the week to see and exhibition on DNA

Aim is to get children and young people interested in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Interallied Confederation of Medical Reserve Officers, NATO 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact More than 100 medical reserve officers and active medical officers from many NATO partner countries attended a meeting at NATO Headquarters, Brussels, 11th February 2011. Experts from various academic and practical medical fields discussed the impact of antibiotic resistance on activities of medial reserve officers and active medical officers acitivities.

Raised awareness for problems of antimicrobial resistance in casualties of military conflicts and major catastrophes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description National Eisteddfod 2010, Ebbw Vale, Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact More than 50 peaople attended the Swansea University Stall at Eisteddfod leaving informed about our activities and research programs.

Future students became aware of Swansea University Science Degrees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description National Eisteddfod 2011, Wrexham, Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact More than 50 peaople attended the Swansea University Stall at Eisteddfod leaving informed about our activities and research programs.

Future students became aware of Swansea University Science Degrees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Poster presentation at ECCMID 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Poster Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Harris LG, Jeeves, R, Rohde H, Mack D, Sheppard, SK (2013). Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation on indwelling medical devices. ECCMID April 2013, Berlin, Germany.
Harris LG, Jeeves, R, Rohde H, Mack D, Sheppard, SK (2013). Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation on indwelling medical devices. Welsh Microbiology Association PanCeltic meeting, Cardiff, UK

Networking opportunity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presentation at StaphGBI 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Llinos G Harris gave a presentation on her current project at StaphGBI 2013, Dublin Ireland, 5-6 September.

Population genomics of Staphylococcus epidermidis
Llinos G.Harris1, Ben Pascoe1, Holger Rohde2, Dietrich Mack3, Stefan Schwarz4, Herminia de Lancastre5,6, Maria Miragaia4, Joana Rolo4, Rory Bowden6, Sam Sheppard1


Good response to presentation, with interest in collaborations with others in the field
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description School Hand Hygiene Demonstration 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Class of 25 year 6 pupils participated in hand hygiene demonstration including short talk on general microbiology and hygiene.

Raising awareness amongst pupils about science and microbiology in particular.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Talk at Staph GBI2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Jeeves R, Harris LG, Mack D. Prevalence of collagen binding factors in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Staph GBI, September 2011 Edinburgh, UK

Networking with peers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Urdd Eisteddfod (Youth Eisteddfod), Pembrokeshire, Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 15,000 children, young people and adults visited the exhibition over the week to see and exhibition on DNA

Aim is to get children and young people interested in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Urdd Eisteddfod (Youth Eisteddfod), Swansea, Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact More than 13000 visitors became exposed to basic microbiology and importance of hand hygiene in healthcare and beyond.

Children were made aware and became engaged in science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011