Establishment of an MRC Sequencing Hub at the GenePool, the Scottish next-generation genomics facility

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Sch of Biological Sciences

Abstract

The reading of the DNA code in our genomes and the genomes of other organisms has revolutionised what can be done by medical researchers. While the technology to read the DNA sequence of genes was invented over 40 years ago, until recently it has been too slow and too expensive to use in many research programmes. However, in the last five years a new generation of DNA sequence readers has been invented, and these machines, working at thousands or millions the pace of the older technology, promise to let researchers use DNA sequence in more and more precise, and more and more exciting, projects.
In Scotland, the GenePool is a DNA sequencing service based in the University of Edinburgh that lets researchers throughout the region generate DNA sequences from their experiments. The GenePool has already invested in two of the new generation of sequencing instruments, and read over one hundred thousand million bases of DNA sequence (100 Gigabases - about 30 human genomes-worth) last year.
In this proposal we request funding from the UK Medical Research Council to double our ability to deliver DNA sequence to medical and biomedical researchers throughout Scotland. We will purchase two more of the current crop of ?next generation? DNA sequencing instruments, and develop a highly efficient and cost-effective centre to produce DNA data for users. We will also in the medium term buy one of the third generation of DNA sequences - output from which is likely to dwarf the new sequencing machines just as they dwarfed the old methods. We will also invest in highly trained laboratory technologists and biocomputing scientists to help users identify the important genetic information in their data.

Technical Summary

DNA sequencing lies at the heart of modern biology. As technologies have improved, we have been able to ask deeper and more precise questions, and gather answers that were undreamed of only a decade ago. Scotland has a strong record and leading expertise in high throughput DNA sequencing. In particular the GenePool, based at the University of Edinburgh, has a twelve-year record of delivery of sequencing and sequence analysis services to academic and medical researchers primarily in Scotland but also across the UK and internationally.
Here we propose that the MRC should fund a carefully managed investment in people and technology to deliver state-of-the-art service to MRC-area science. The identified research needs imply that we need to double our capacity by the end of year 1, and must plan to achieve perhaps ten-fold current capacity by year 3.
Our existing base of staff and technology permits us to start delivering proven-quality service from day one of the inception of the service. We already have critical mass. From this base we will build in additional capacity and staff to process the planned increases in demand. We will also review the available emerging technologies and install a third generation sequencing platform, and thus ensure that the GenePool delivers cutting-edge sequencing and bioinformatics capability to the MRC community beyond the timeframe of the grant.
We will have a particular focus in also delivering reach-out and training in analysis to users, to ensure that the best use is made of the data generated, and thus to build next-generation bioinformatics capacity within user institutions.
The facility will be steered by a Scientific Advisory Group and day-to-day managed by a dedicated senior Manager aided by a Management Committee drawn from users. We will move the service to a fully user-charges-supported funding model within 3 years.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Title The genome of Caenorhabditis elegans 
Description The work is the complete genome of C. elegans printed in hardbound volumes, with each chromosome occupying two volumes, 12 volumes in all. The covers of the volumes tesselate to form a picture of the nematode, and the spinse align to make a picture of the nematode. The mitochondrial genome is supplied as an "erratum sheet". 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The work has been on long term loan and is permanently exhibited in the Summerhall Arts Complex, Edinburgh, as part of a permanent exhibition curated by ASCUS. 
 
Title Transmissions exhibition 
Description The Blaxter lab collaborated closely wth artists-in-residence (see http://www.ascus.org.uk/ciie-micro-residency-artists-announced/) in the Centre for immunity Infection and Evolution to inspire and be part of the final exhibition "Transmissions". Mark Blaxter appears in the film work produced by Anne Milne, and the work of the lab inspired Jo hodges and Robbie Coleman to produce a piece dedicated to the lab. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact 'Transmissions' was showcased to the general public within a group exhibition 'Parallel Perspectives' in Summerhall as part of the Edinburgh International Science Festival 2015 art programme, How The Light Gets In . This exhibition of work susequently travelled LifeSpace, Dundee, returning to Edinburgh to showcase at the Tent Gallery, Edinburgh College of Art. 
URL http://www.ascus.org.uk/ciie-micro-residency-2/
 
Description Consultant to BIS on next generation genomics in clinical practice
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description BBSRC Project Grant (Chirality)
Amount £136,607 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2008 
End 08/2011
 
Description BBSRC Project Grant (Kinesin)
Amount £213,994 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2010 
End 08/2013
 
Description BBSRC Project Grant (RAD Sequencing)
Amount £71,505 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2010 
End 11/2012
 
Description BBSRC Project Grant (Ruff)
Amount £176,281 (GBP)
Funding ID Bb/J018791/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2015
 
Description BBSRC Project Grant (Speciation)
Amount £124,952 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2010 
End 07/2014
 
Description BBSRC Tools and Resources (NextGeneration Transcriptomics)
Amount £151,158 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2011 
End 03/2013
 
Description BBSRC project grant (Striga)
Amount £43,647 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/J011703/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2015
 
Description BBSRC/DFID Project Grant (Ash Dieback)
Amount £162,746 (GBP)
Funding ID NORNEX 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2014 
End 04/2015
 
Description Daphne Jackson Trust Fellowship
Amount £80,457 (GBP)
Organisation University of Surrey 
Department Daphne Jackson Trust
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2011 
End 08/2014
 
Description EU EPIAF/Scoot
Amount £115,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 242131 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2010 
End 08/2014
 
Description European Commission FP6 (Filariasis)
Amount £120,500 (GBP)
Organisation Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2010 
End 08/2013
 
Description NERC Project Grant (RAD sequencing)
Amount £282,995 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/H019804/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2010 
End 11/2011
 
Description NERC Project grant (Genome evolution)
Amount £469,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/J011355/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2015
 
Description TSB (Atlantic salmon SNP chip)
Amount £323,669 (GBP)
Funding ID 100965 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2011 
End 07/2014
 
Description Wellcome Trust (RNASeq)
Amount £169,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2009 
End 08/2012
 
Title 2012 Installation of MiSeq platforms 
Description Following the successful installation and two Illumina HiSeq platforms in 2010, The GenePool installed two Illumina MiSeq instruments in 2012 to support small scale, quick turnaround projects. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The MiSeq installation has been an immediate success with many R&D projects completed in weeks rather than months, and an expanding user base taking advantage of the quick turnaround time, high quality data. 
URL http://genomics.ed.ac.uk
 
Title Compute Infrastructure 2011 
Description The vast increase in data production from the facility required a significant upgrade in our informatics capacity. To this end we have upgraded our network within the facility, installed a 72 Tbyte high-availability data store, brought online several high-end compute clusters, and developed routines for use of the University of Edinburgh's grid computing environment ECDF. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2009 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The improved compute infrastructure has allowed GenePool to keep abreast of increased data volumes, and offer more advanced bioinformatic support to collaborators. 
URL http://genomics.ed.ac.uk
 
Title HiSeq2500 
Description The HiSeq2500 is a key next generation sequencing platform that we have installed and offer to a wide range of research teams throughout the UK. While our roster of instruments is changed to suit requirements, we have had up to 5 HiSeq2500 instruments in the facility. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The HiSeq2500 has generated data that underpin more than 300 papers published to date. 
URL http://genomics.ed.ac.uk
 
Title HiSeq4000 
Description The HiSeq4000 is a key next generation sequencing platform that we have installed and offer to a wide range of research teams throughout the UK. While our roster of instruments is changed to suit requirements, we currently have one HiSeq4000 instrument in the facility. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The HiSeq4000 offers cheap, high quality sequence data for genome sequencing and resequencing, RNASeq and many other applications. 
URL http://genomics.ed.ac.uk
 
Title HiSeqX 
Description The HiSeqX is a key next generation sequencing platform that we have installed and offer to a wide range of research teams throughout the UK. While our roster of instruments is changed to suit requirements, we currently have 6 HiSeqX instruments in the facility. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The HiSeqX allows the facility to sequence human and other genomes at very low per-base costs, promoting genetical and genomic research across the RC spectrum. 
URL http://genomics.ed.ac.uk
 
Title Installation of HiSeq2000 and associated robotics 2010 
Description The GenePool recieved delivery of an illumina HiSeq 2000in 2010. A second HiSeq 2000 was delivered in late 2010. Since then we have worked closely with Illumina UK to troubleshoot these instruments and move them from preproduction to production. The increased data production capacity of these instruments has required installation of robotic platforms for shearing, library preparatiion and presequencing amplification, and high-throughput QC/QA instrumentation. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The improved QC/QA procedures made possible by the improved instrumentation has ensured timely delivery of data at high resilience. The robotics platforms have allowed us to take on larger projects and to make best use of the huge data production capacities of the HiSeqs. The HiSeqs are in production, generating 40 Gbase/day. 
URL http://genomics.ed.ac.uk
 
Title Installation of NovaSeq6000 
Description Edinburgh genomics installed the Illumina NovaSeq600 sequencer to replace its ageing HiSeq instruments. The NovaSeq is Illumina's latest platform, and offers higher, scalable throughput at lower cost. The NovaSeq was installed and operational within 1 month of delivery and has been used to service a wide range of UKRI-funded projects. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The NovaSeq offers improved sequencing throughput at lower per base cost to users. 
URL http://www.genomics.ed.ac.uk
 
Title Installation of PromethION sequencer in Edinburgh genomics 
Description In early 2019, Edinburgh Genomics installed a PromethION sequencer, the latest long read sequencer from Oxford Nanopore. The sequencer has been tested on control and real world samples through an early adopter programme, and is now ready for open access use by the UK science community. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The PromethION install is in its early days, but has already engendered a lot of interest in the community. 
URL http://www.genomics.ed.ac.uk
 
Title Installation of a second HiSeq 2000 
Description Second instrument purchased to meet demand for Illumina sequencing technology 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The installation of a second instrument effectively doubled the GenePool's sequencing capacity, allowing us to expand our user base and reduce turnaround times for all users 
URL http://genomics.ed.ac.uk
 
Title Transcriptome assembly 
Description improved methodologies for assembly of transcriptome data from next generation sequencers 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact the paper describing this work is the highest accessed paper in BMC Genomics (by a two fold margin; the next most highly accessed paper is also from the GenePool). 
 
Description Edinburgh Genomics 
Organisation ARK-Genomics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We have formally merged the two genomics facilities in Edinburgh to form Edinburgh genomics. By judicious forward investment in technology and staff we are now the largest academic sequencing facility in the UK after the Sanger Institute.
Collaborator Contribution We joined the infrastructure and staff of the GenePool with that of ARK-Genomics, a BBSRC core funded facility in the Roslin Institute.
Impact Increased capacity; Improved service delivery
Start Year 2013
 
Description Edinburgh Genomics Consortium 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Coordination, promotion within the University, administrative support
Collaborator Contribution Coordination and promotion of genomics activities within the University of Edinburgh
Impact meetings and load sharing agreement
Start Year 2010
 
Description Heliconius genome consortium 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Department of Zoology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Offering genomic sequencing and reseaquencing technologies; close involvement in experimental design.
Collaborator Contribution Joining the consortium has allowed GenePool to develop custom targeted resequencing technologies, and associated bioinformatics skiils, and made us much more visible across this area of science
Impact The Heliconius melpomene genome has been assembled and annotated. A manuscript describing this work is submitted for publication. On the basis of the GenePool's involvement in this consortium we have coordinated a ladybird genome consortium with 6 partner laboratories, and currently have 2 genomes in sequencing.
Start Year 2010
 
Description MRC hub-spokes network 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC)
Department MRC Human Genetics Unit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Training and support for spokes bioinformaticians at collaborating institutions
Collaborator Contribution Training workshops, collaborative projects
Impact Training workshops, collaborative projects with GenePool
Start Year 2009
 
Description MRC hub-spokes network 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Department Institute of Medical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Training and support for spokes bioinformaticians at collaborating institutions
Collaborator Contribution Training workshops, collaborative projects
Impact Training workshops, collaborative projects with GenePool
Start Year 2009
 
Description MRC hub-spokes network 
Organisation University of Dundee
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Training and support for spokes bioinformaticians at collaborating institutions
Collaborator Contribution Training workshops, collaborative projects
Impact Training workshops, collaborative projects with GenePool
Start Year 2009
 
Description MRC hub-spokes network 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Training and support for spokes bioinformaticians at collaborating institutions
Collaborator Contribution Training workshops, collaborative projects
Impact Training workshops, collaborative projects with GenePool
Start Year 2009
 
Description MRC hub-spokes network 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Polyomics Facility
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Training and support for spokes bioinformaticians at collaborating institutions
Collaborator Contribution Training workshops, collaborative projects
Impact Training workshops, collaborative projects with GenePool
Start Year 2009
 
Description MRC/BBSRC Genome Centre Network 
Organisation Earlham Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Organisation of networking meetings and training workshops
Collaborator Contribution Organisation of networking meetings and training workshops
Impact Networking, exchange of best practices, development of collaborative projects and joint proposals, training workshops for facility staff
Start Year 2010
 
Description MRC/BBSRC Genome Centre Network 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Eastern Sequence and Informatics Hub (EASIH)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Organisation of networking meetings and training workshops
Collaborator Contribution Organisation of networking meetings and training workshops
Impact Networking, exchange of best practices, development of collaborative projects and joint proposals, training workshops for facility staff
Start Year 2010
 
Description MRC/BBSRC Genome Centre Network 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Department Liverpool Centre for Genomic Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Organisation of networking meetings and training workshops
Collaborator Contribution Organisation of networking meetings and training workshops
Impact Networking, exchange of best practices, development of collaborative projects and joint proposals, training workshops for facility staff
Start Year 2010
 
Description MRC/BBSRC Genome Centre Network 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Genomics Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Organisation of networking meetings and training workshops
Collaborator Contribution Organisation of networking meetings and training workshops
Impact Networking, exchange of best practices, development of collaborative projects and joint proposals, training workshops for facility staff
Start Year 2010
 
Description Marine Alliance for Science & Technology for Scotland 
Organisation National Oceanography Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Experimental support: assistance with understanding technology and experimental design; Delivery of sequencing service; Horizon scanning consultation to SAMS collaborators
Collaborator Contribution The MASTS collaboration is coordinating marine science in Scotland, and has recommended GenePool as its sequencing provider
Impact Several projects running in GenePool; participation in SAMS genomics workshop.
Start Year 2010
 
Description 2018 Edinburgh genomics Training Workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Edinburgh Genomics delivered a rich portfolio of training courses in 2018, ranging from a one day Interoduction to Linux (delivered three times) through to an intensive "spring school" in Bioinformatics for Genomics (one week). The courses were delivered in Edinburgh, and had from 12 to 50 participants. The participants came from across the UK HEI sector, including undergraduates, postgraduates and postdoctoral researchers, and also attracted overseas attendants (mainly from other European countries). The training strand is funded from student fees and from BBSRC and NERC dedicated sources. The training strand employs a full time Training Manager who both administers the scheme and develops and delivers courses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Blaxter group presentations and outreach 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Mark Blaxter and research team communication and outreach 2015

Globodera genomics and blobtools software
25/02/2015 JHI Postgraduate Student Competition 2015 James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, UK A tale of Two Peaks: Analysing Genomic Data from Potato Cyst Nematodes Talk
26/03/2015 JHI Cell and Molecular Sciences (CMS) seminar James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, UK Frustration and happiness : (De)-constructing parasite genomes Talk
16/06/2015 JHI Dundee effector consortium (DEC) meeting 2015 Birnam Arts and Conference Centre, Birnam, UK Variation within the Globodera pallida species complex: preliminary results Talk
03/09/2015 Molecular and Cellular Biology of Helminth Parasites IX Bratsera Hotel, Hydra, Greece Inter- and intra-specific analyses of the effector complement in potato cyst nematodes Poster
18/09/2015 UoE Postgraduate Poster Day University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Inter- and intra-specific analyses of the effector complement in potato cyst nematodes Poster
26/09/2015 Edinburgh University Doors Open Day University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN) - Nematode parasites of potatoes Poster
30/11/2015 NextGenBug University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Blobtools: Blobology 2.0 Talk
01/12/2015 UK pollinator genomics meeting Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, UK Bees and Blobs Talk

LepBase
06/03/2015 EMARES Cambridge, UK The Bicyclus Genome Project Talk
06/03/2015 EMARES Cambridge, UK An introduction to Lepbase Talk
17/06/2015 Arthropod Genomics Manhattan, Kansas, USA Lepbase - A multi genome database for the Lepidoptera Poster
24/07/2015 10th Heliconius Meeting Gamboa, Panama Lepbase - A multi genome database for the Lepidoptera (API demonstration) Workshop
24/07/2015 10th Heliconius Meeting Panama Lepbase - A multi genome database for the Lepidoptera Poster
26/07/2015 10th Heliconius Meeting Panama Lepbase Workshop Talk
04/09/2015 Edinburgh Bioinformatics Edinburgh, UK Lepbase - A multi genome database for the Lepidoptera Talk
26/09/2015 Open Doors Day "Make a butterfly" interactive exhibition
26/09/2015 Edinburgh University Doors Open Day Edinburgh, UK Lepbase Multiple Sequence Alignments game Poster+Game
28/10/2015 NextgenBUG Dundee, UK Lepbase - an Ensembl (and more) for the Lepidoptera Talk

Nematode genomics
24.06.2015 20th International C. elegans Meeting Los Angeles USA A new evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda: a case study of HOX cluster evolution Poster
24.06.2015 20th International C. elegans Meeting Los Angeles USA Caenorhabditis Genomes Project Workshop (organiser and chair) Talk
24.06.2015 20th International C. elegans Meeting Los Angeles USA Current status of the CGP in Edinburgh Talk

Meloidogyne genomics
10-14 August 2015 ESEB Lausanne-Switzerland Genomic consequences of hybridization and the loss of meiotic recombination in Root-knot nematodes poster
15-18 December 2015 PopGroup Edinburgh-UK Genomic consequences of hybridization and the loss of meiotic recombination in Root-knot nematodes talk
23 February 2016 NextGenBug Edinburgh-UK Genomics of Root-knot nematodes talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description EBI NGS hand-on data analysis course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 35 PIs, postdocs and PhD students attended the 2 day course organised by the EBI

New contacts were made
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Press releases and website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We have engaged actively with the University press office to promote press coverage of our research outcomes, particularly major publications (which have had coverage in national and international newspapers) and in blogs and other online media. We have also promoted major new initiatives such as additional core funding of the Edinburgh genomics facility.

Increased visibility of Edinburgh Genomics within the community; requests for comment by funders and government on matters pertaining to genomics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
 
Description SSERC/RCUK/WTCCB teachers' day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact GenePool participated in a day of talks on cutting edge science for school science teachers.

We were requested to participate in a second day of teacher outreach.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Scottish Genetic Research Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact 50 NHS professionals attended and discussed the use of next-generation sequencing in clinical research

New contacts were made with health professionals
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011